Oasis-class cruise ship
The Oasis class is a class of Royal Caribbean International cruise ships. The first two ships in the class, Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas, were delivered in 2009 and 2010 by STX Europe Turku Shipyard, Finland. A third Oasis class vessel, Harmony of the Seas, was delivered in 2016 built by STX France, a fourth vessel, Symphony of the Seas, was completed in June 2017. Two additional unnamed ships are under construction and are expected to be delivered in 2021 and 2023 respectively; the first two ships in the class Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas are exceeded in size by the third ship Harmony of the Seas, while the Symphony of the Seas is the world's largest cruise ship. The fifth ship, due to be completed in Spring 2021, is planned to be larger than the Symphony of the Seas; as of early 2019, all ships of the class rank as the world's largest passenger ships. The Oasis-class ships surpassed the earlier Freedom-class ships as the world's largest and longest passenger ships. Oasis is 8.5 metres wider, with a gross tonnage of 225,282, is much larger.
Oasis-class vessels can carry over 5,400 passengers. Oasis-class ships feature a split structure, with the 5-deck high "Central Park" and "Boardwalk" outdoor areas running down the middle of the ship; these areas feature lush tropical gardens, upscale restaurants, a working carousel. The displacement—the actual mass—is estimated at 100,000 metric tons, equivalent to the displacement of a Nimitz-class aircraft carrier. To keep the ship stable without increasing the draft excessively, the designers created a wide hull. About 30 feet of the ship sits beneath a small percentage of the ship's overall height. Wide, shallow ships such as this tend to be "snappy", meaning that they can snap back upright after a wave has passed, which can be uncomfortable; this effect, however, is mitigated by the vessel's large size. The cruise ship's officers were pleased with the ship class' stability and performance during the transatlantic crossing, when the vessel, in order to allow finishing work to go on, slowed and changed course in the face of winds "almost up to hurricane force" and seas in excess of 40 feet.
The ship's power comes from six medium-speed, marine-diesel generating sets: three 16-cylinder Wärtsilä 16V46D common rail engines producing 18,860 kilowatts each and three similar 12-cylinder Wärtsilä 12V46D engines producing 13,860 kilowatts each. The fuel consumption of the main engines at full power is 1,377 US gallons of fuel oil per engine per hour for the 16-cylinder engines and 1,033 US gallons per engine per hour for the 12-cylinder engines; the total output of these prime movers, some 97,020 kilowatts, is converted to electricity, used in hotel power for operation of the lights, electronics, water treatment plant, all of the other systems used on the operation of the vessel, as well as propulsion. Propulsion is provided by ABB's brand of electric azimuth thrusters; these pods, suspended under the stern, contain electric motors driving 20-foot propellers. Because they are rotatable, no rudders are needed to steer the ship. Docking is assisted by four 5,500-kilowatt transverse bow thrusters.
The ship carries 18 lifeboats. Inflatable life rafts provide for additional passengers and crew. On 25 October 2012 Royal Caribbean confirmed that the company was engaged in negotiations to build a third Oasis-class ship and hoped to enter an agreement before the year's end; the ship, which the company expected to cost less on a per-berth basis than the two previous ships and to be more energy efficient, was named Harmony of the Seas and delivered in May 2016. On 27 December 2012, Royal Caribbean ordered the third Oasis-class ship from STX France, after failing to come to an agreement with the Government of Finland to build the ship at the STX Finland shipyard that built the first two ships; the steel-cutting for the ship began on 23 September 2013. The ship is larger than the preceding Oasis-class ships at an estimated 227,700 GT, 362.15 m in length, 66 m in maximum width, representing an increase of 2,418 GT and 2.15 m length. The ship has 2,744 passenger staterooms with a capacity of 6,360 passengers, an increase of 64 passengers over the previous ships in the class, as well as 1,197 crew cabins capable of berthing 2,100 crew.
The ship features a water slide. It cost about €1 billion and entered service in May 2016. In May 2014, Royal Caribbean exercised their option for a fourth Oasis-class ship to be delivered in 2018. In February 2015, Royal Caribbean announced. In May 2016, Royal Caribbean announced that they had signed an agreement for a fifth Oasis-class ship, to be delivered in the Spring of 2021. In March 2017, Royal Caribbean announced that the fourth Oasis-class ship would be named Symphony of the Seas. In February 2019, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. announced the order for the sixth ship of Oasis class, planned to become the largest in the world when she enters service. Oasis of the Seas Royal Caribbean
The International Maritime Organization number is a unique reference for ships, registered ship owners and management companies. IMO numbers were introduced to reduce maritime fraud, they consist of the three letters "IMO" followed by unique seven-digit numbers, assigned under the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. In 1987 the IMO adopted resolution A.600, aimed at the "enhancement of maritime safety and pollution prevention and the prevention of maritime fraud" by assigning to each ship a permanent identification number. The IMO number remains linked to the hull for its lifetime, regardless of changes of names, flags, or owners; the IMO adopted the existing unique 7-digit numbers applied to ships by Lloyd's Register since 1969, which were modified from 6-digit numbers introduced in 1963. SOLAS regulation XI/3, adopted in 1994 and came into force on 1 January 1996, made IMO numbers mandatory, it was applied to cargo vessels that are at least 300 gross tons and passenger vessels of at least 100 gt.
In the SOLAS Convention, "cargo ships" means "ships which are not passenger ships". The IMO scheme does not however apply to: Vessels engaged in fishing Ships without mechanical means of propulsion Pleasure yachts Ships engaged on special service Hopper barges Hydrofoils, air cushion vehicles Floating docks and structures classified in a similar manner Ships of war and troopships Wooden ships In December 2002, the Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Security adopted a number of measures aimed at enhancing security of ships and port facilities; this included a modification to SOLAS Regulation XI-1/3 to require ships' identification numbers to be permanently marked in a visible place either on the ship's hull or superstructure as well as internally and on the ship's certificates. Passenger ships should carry the marking on a horizontal surface visible from the air. In May 2005, IMO adopted a new SOLAS regulation XI-1/3-1 on the mandatory company and registered owner identification number scheme, with entry into force on 1 January 2009.
The regulation provides that every ship owner and management company shall have a unique identification number. Other amendments require these numbers to be added to the relevant certificates and documents in the International Safety Management Code and the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. Like the IMO ship identification number, the company identification number is a seven-digit number with the prefix IMO. For example, for the ship Atlantic Star, IMO 5304986 referred to the former ship manager Pullmantur Cruises Ship Management Ltd and IMO 5364264 to her former owner, Pullmantur Cruises Empress Ltd. IMO identification numbers for ships and registered owners are assigned by IHS Markit. For new vessels, the IMO number is assigned to a hull during construction upon keel laying. Many vessels which fall outside the mandatory requirements of SOLAS have numbers allocated by Lloyd's Register or IHS Markit in the same numerical series, including fishing vessels and commercial yachts.
An IMO number is made of the three letters "IMO" followed by a seven-digit number. This consists of a six-digit sequential unique number followed by a check digit; the integrity of an IMO number can be verified using its check digit. This is done by multiplying each of the first six digits by a factor of 2 to 7 corresponding to their position from right to left; the rightmost digit of this sum is the check digit. For example, for IMO 9074729: + + + + + = 139. Maritime Mobile Service Identity, used globally as a national alternate to the IMO number ENI number, a comparable system for European barges and other inland waterway vessels IMO Number Requests by IHS Maritime
Heat recovery steam generator
A heat recovery steam generator is an energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from a hot gas stream. It produces steam that can be used to drive a steam turbine. HRSGs consist of four major components: the economizer, evaporator and water preheater; the different components are put together to meet the operating requirements of the unit. See the attached illustration of a Modular HRSG General Arrangement. Modular HRSGs can be categorized by a number of ways such as direction of exhaust gases flow or number of pressure levels. Based on the flow of exhaust gases, HRSGs are categorized into horizontal types. In horizontal type HRSGs, exhaust gas flows horizontally over vertical tubes whereas in vertical type HRSGs, exhaust gas flow vertically over horizontal tubes. Based on pressure levels, HRSGs can be categorized into single multi pressure. Single pressure HRSGs have only one steam drum and steam is generated at single pressure level whereas multi pressure HRSGs employ two or three steam drums.
As such triple pressure HRSGs consist of three sections: an LP section, a reheat/IP section, an HP section. Each section has an evaporator section where water is converted to steam; this steam passes through superheaters to raise the temperature beyond the saturation point. Packaged HRSGs are designed to be shipped as a assembled unit from the factory, they can be used in waste turbine applications. The packaged HRSG can have a water-cooled furnace, which allows for higher supplemental firing and better overall efficiency; some HRSGs include duct firing. These additional burners provide additional energy to the HRSG, which produces more steam and hence increases the output of the steam turbine. Duct firing provides electrical output at lower capital cost, it is therefore utilized for peaking operations. HRSGs can have diverter valves to regulate the inlet flow into the HRSG; this allows the gas turbine to continue to operate when there is no steam demand or if the HRSG needs to be taken offline. Emissions controls may be located in the HRSG.
Some may contain a Selective Catalytic Reduction system to reduce nitrogen oxides and/or a catalyst to remove carbon monoxide. The inclusion of an SCR affects the layout of the HRSG. NOx catalyst performs best in temperatures between 650 °F and 750 °F; this means that the evaporator section of the HRSG will have to be split and the SCR placed in between the two sections. Some low temperature NOx catalysts have come to market that allows for the SCR to be placed between the Evaporator and Economizer sections. A specialized type of HRSG without boiler drums is the once-through steam generator. In this design, the inlet feedwater follows a continuous path without segmented sections for economizers and superheaters; this provides a high degree of flexibility as the sections are allowed to grow or contract based on the heat load being received from the gas turbine. The absence of drums allows for quick changes in steam production and fewer variables to control, is ideal for cycling and base load operation.
With proper material selection, an OTSG can be run dry, meaning the hot exhaust gases can pass over the tubes with no water flowing inside the tubes. This eliminates the need for a bypass stack and exhaust gas diverter system, required to operate a combustion turbine with a drum-type HRSG out of service. Heat recovery can be used extensively in energy projects. In the energy-rich Persian Gulf region, the steam from the HRSG is used for desalination plants. Universities are ideal candidates for HRSG applications, they can use a gas turbine to produce high reliability electricity for campus use. The HRSG can recover the heat from the gas turbine to produce steam/hot water for district heating or cooling. Large ocean vessels make use of heat recovery so that their oil-fired boilers can be shut down while underway. Exhaust heat recovery system BMW Turbosteamer Oxygenated treatment HRSG Users
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company. The newspaper has a centrist audience. Founded by Al Neuharth on September 15, 1982, it operates from Gannett's corporate headquarters on Jones Branch Drive, in McLean, Virginia, it is printed at five additional sites internationally. Its dynamic design influenced the style of local and national newspapers worldwide, through its use of concise reports, colorized images, informational graphics, inclusion of popular culture stories, among other distinct features. With a weekly circulation of 1,021,638 and an approximate daily reach of seven million readers as of 2016, USA Today shares the position of having the widest circulation of any newspaper in the United States with The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. USA Today is distributed in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, an international edition is distributed in Asia, Canada and the Pacific Islands.
The genesis of USA Today was on February 29, 1980, when a company task force known as "Project NN" met with Gannett Company chairman Al Neuharth in Cocoa Beach, Florida to develop a national newspaper. Early regional prototypes included East Bay Today, an Oakland, California-based publication published in the late 1970s to serve as the morning edition of the Oakland Tribune, an afternoon newspaper which Gannett owned at the time. On June 11, 1981, Gannett printed the first prototypes of the proposed publication; the two proposed design layouts were mailed to newsmakers and prominent leaders in journalism, for review and feedback. The Gannett Company's board of directors approved the launch of the national newspaper, titled USA Today, on December 5, 1981. At launch, Neuharth was appointed president and publisher of the newspaper, adding those responsibilities to his existing position as Gannett's chief executive officer. Gannett announced the launch of the paper on April 20, 1982. USA Today began publishing on September 15, 1982 in the Baltimore and Washington, D.
C. metropolitan areas for an newsstand price of 25¢. After selling out the first issue, Gannett expanded the national distribution of the paper, reaching an estimated circulation of 362,879 copies by the end of 1982, double the amount of sales that Gannett projected; the design uniquely incorporated color graphics and photographs. Only its front news section pages were rendered in four-color, while the remaining pages were printed in a spot color format; the paper's overall style and elevated use of graphics – developed by Neuharth, in collaboration with staff graphics designers George Rorick, Sam Ward, Suzy Parker, John Sherlock and Web Bryant – was derided by critics, who referred to it as "McPaper" or "television you can wrap fish in," because it opted to incorporate concise nuggets of information more akin to the style of television news, rather than in-depth stories like traditional newspapers, which many in the newspaper industry considered to be a dumbing down of the news. Although USA Today had been profitable for just ten years as of 1997, it changed the appearance and feel of newspapers around the world.
On July 2, 1984, the newspaper switched from predominantly black-and-white to full color photography and graphics in all four sections. The next week on July 10, USA Today launched an international edition intended for U. S. readers abroad, followed four months on October 8 with the rollout of the first transmission via satellite of its international version to Singapore. On April 8, 1985, the paper published its first special bonus section, a 12-page section called "Baseball'85," which previewed the 1985 Major League Baseball season. By the fourth quarter of 1985, USA Today had become the second largest newspaper in the United States, reaching a daily circulation of 1.4 million copies. Total daily readership of the paper by 1987 had reached 5.5 million, the largest of any daily newspaper in the U. S. On May 6, 1986, USA Today began production of its international edition in Switzerland. USA Today operated at a loss for most of its first four years of operation, accumulating a total deficit of $233 million after taxes, according to figures released by Gannett in July 1987.
On January 29, 1988, USA Today published the largest edition in its history, a 78-page weekend edition featuring a section previewing Super Bowl XXII. On April 15, USA Today launched a third international printing site, based in Hong Kong; the international edition set circulation and advertising records during August 1988, with coverage of the 1988 Summer Olympics, selling more than 60,000 copies and 100 pages of advertising. By July 1991, Simmons Market Research Bureau estimated that USA Today had a total daily readership of nearly 6.6 million, an all-time high and the largest readership of any daily newspaper in the United States. On September 1 of that year, USA Today launched a fourth printsite for its international edition in London for the United Kingdom and the British Isles; the international edition's schedule was changed as of April 1, 1994 Monday through Friday, rather than from Tuesday through Saturday, in order to accommodate business travelers.
DNV GL is an international accredited registrar and classification society headquartered in Høvik, Norway. The company has about 14,500 employees and 350 offices operating in more than 100 countries, provides services for several industries including maritime, renewable energy, oil & gas, food & beverage and healthcare, it was created in 2013 as a result of a merger between two leading organizations in the field - Det Norske Veritas and Germanischer Lloyd. DNV GL is the world's largest classification society, providing services for 13,175 vessels and mobile offshore units amounting to 265.4 mill gt, which represents a global market share of 21%. It is the largest technical consultancy and supervisory to the global renewable energy and oil & gas industry - 65% of the world's offshore pipelines are designed and installed to DNV GL's technical standards. Prior to the merger, both DNV and GL have independently acquired several companies in different sectors, such as Hélimax Energy, Garrad Hassan, Windtest and KEMA, which now contribute to DNV GL's expertise across several industries.
In addition to providing services such as technical assessment, risk management and software development, DNV GL invests in research. Remi Eriksen took over as Group President and CEO of DNV GL on August 1, 2015, succeeding Henrik O. Madsen. DNV GL's history dates back to 1864, when Det Norske Veritas was established in Norway to head technical inspection and evaluation of Norwegian merchant vessels. On the other hand, Germanischer Lloyd was founded in Hamburg around the same period in 1867 by a group of 600 ship owners, ship builders and insurers. DNV GL celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2014. On December 20, 2012, the two companies announced the merger, approved by competition authorities in South Korea, the US, the EU and China, thus allowing the merger contract between DNV and GL to be signed on September 12, 2013; the independent Det Norske Veritas Foundation owned 63.5% of DNV GL shares and Mayfair Vermögensverwaltung 36.5%.until December 2017, when Mayfair sold its shares to the Det Norske Veritas Foundation.
Together with Bureau Veritas and American Bureau of Shipping, DNV GL is one of the three major companies in the classification business with 300 offices in 100 different countries. But the company is a key player in strategic innovation and risk management for several other industries including renewable energy and gas, electric power generation and distribution, aviation, finance and beverage, healthcare and information technology; every year, DNV GL invests in R&D which amounts to 5% of its total revenue. Since 1864, DNV GL has always maintained a department dedicated to research that enhances and develops services and standards for various industries. Many of the innovations and findings by DNV have been used as a basis for international standards. At present, the main research programs include arctic operations, biological hazards, future energy solutions and information processes, maritime technology and transport systems, as well as multifunctional materials. DNV GL is organised into five business areas: DNV GL - Maritime: Classification, risk-management and technical advisory to the maritime industry on safety, enhanced performance, fuel efficiency, etc.
As a classification society, DNV GL sets standards for ships and offshore structures - known as Class Rules. They comprise safety and environmental requirements that vessels and other offshore mobile structures in international waters must comply with. DNV GL is authorized by 130 maritime administrations to perform certification or verification on their behalf. DNV GL - Oil & Gas: Technical advisor to the global oil and gas industry, services in technical and marine assurance and advisory, risk management and offshore classification. DNV GL works with upstream oil and gas companies to identify and control risk, improve safety and performance, assure reliability of a project's development and operation; the company develops industry standards and best practices through joint industry projects, bringing together a number of industry players to address specific technical challenges. As an example, about 65% of the world's offshore pipelines are designed and installed to DNV GL's technical standards.
DNV GL - Energy: Counselling and certification services to the global energy sector, including: renewable energy, energy efficiency, power production and distribution. DNV GL operates the world's largest high power and voltage test laboratory, working as an independent, accredited certifier of electricity transmission & distribution components. DNV GL is the leading independent advisor and certifier to the renewable industry, notably within wind energy, its services include wind turbine type certification, design consultancy, energy yield assessments, site assessments, solar plants and turbine design and solar forecasting, front-end engineering. In addition, DNV GL's energy arm has advisory services in energy efficiency, renewable integration, clean conventional power generation, renewable plant operations improvement services and distribution grids, energy storage and cyber security. DNV GL - Business Assurance: Certification, training/education services that support customer products and organizations over a wide spectrum of fields.
DNV GL is an accredited certification body. They certify the compliance of companies according to a third party standard, such as ISO 9001
Deadweight tonnage or tons deadweight is a measure of how much weight a ship can carry, not its weight, empty or in any degree of load. DWT is the sum of the weights of cargo, fresh water, ballast water, provisions and crew. DWT is used to specify a ship's maximum permissible deadweight, although it may denote the actual DWT of a ship not loaded to capacity. Deadweight tonnage is a measure of a vessel's weight carrying capacity, does not include the weight of the ship itself, it should not be confused with displacement, which includes the ship's own weight, nor other volume or capacity measures such as gross tonnage or net tonnage. Deadweight tonnage was expressed in long tons but is now given internationally in tonnes. In modern international shipping conventions such as the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, deadweight is explicitly defined as the difference in tonnes between the displacement of a ship in water of a specific gravity of 1.025 at the draft corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard and the light displacement of the ship.
Nassau is the capital and commercial centre of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. The city has an estimated population of 274,400 as of 2016, just over 70% of the population of the country. Lynden Pindling International Airport, the major airport for the Bahamas, is located about 16 kilometres west of Nassau city centre, has daily flights to major cities in Canada, the Caribbean, the United Kingdom and the United States; the city is located on the island of New Providence. Nassau is the site of the House of Assembly and various judicial departments and was considered to be a stronghold of pirates; the city was named in honour of William III of England, Prince of Orange-Nassau, deriving its name from Nassau, Germany. Nassau's modern growth began in the late eighteenth century, with the influx of thousands of American Loyalists and their slaves to the Bahamas following the American War of Independence. Many of them settled in Nassau and came to outnumber the original inhabitants; as the population of Nassau grew, so did its populated areas.
Today the city dominates its satellite, Paradise Island. However, until the post-Second World War era, the outer suburbs scarcely existed. Most of New Providence was uncultivated bush until Loyalists were resettled there following the American Revolutionary War. Slaves were imported as labour. After the British abolished the international slave trade in 1807, they resettled thousands of Africans liberated from slave ships by the Royal Navy on New Providence, along with other islands such as Grand Bahama, Exuma and Inagua. In addition, slaves freed from American ships, such as the Creole case in 1841, were allowed to settle there; the largest concentration of Africans lived in the "Over-the-Hill" suburbs of Grants Town and Bain Town to the south of the city of Nassau, while most of the inhabitants of European descent lived on the island's northern coastal ridges. Nassau was known as Charles Town. During the Raid on Charles Town the town was burned to the ground by the Spanish in 1684 during one of their frequent wars with the English.
It was rebuilt and renamed to Nassau in 1695 under Governor Nicholas Trott in honour of the Dutch Stadtholder and also King of England and Ireland, William III who belonged to a branch of the House of Nassau, from which the city takes its name. The name Nassau derives from the town of Nassau in Germany. Due to a lack of effective governors, Nassau fell on hard times. In 1703 Spanish and French allied forces occupied Nassau. From 1703 to 1718 there was no governor in the colony and by 1713, the sparsely settled Bahamas had become a pirate haven; the Governor of Bermuda stated that there were over 1,000 pirates in Nassau and that they outnumbered the mere hundred inhabitants of the town. They proclaimed Nassau a pirate republic, establishing themselves as "governors". Examples of pirates that used Nassau as their base are Charles Vane, Thomas Barrow, Benjamin Hornigold, Calico Jack Rackham, Anne Bonny, Mary Read, the infamous Edward Teach, better known as "Blackbeard". In 1718, the British sought to regain control of the islands and appointed Captain Woodes Rogers as Royal governor.
He clamped down on the pirates, reformed the civil administration, restored commerce. Rogers rebuilt the fort, using his own wealth to try to overcome problems. In 1720 the Spanish made an unsuccessful attempt to capture Nassau. During the wars in the Thirteen Colonies, Nassau experienced an economic boom. With funds from privateering, a new fort, street lights and over 2300 sumptuous houses were built and Nassau was extended. In addition to this, mosquito breeding swamps were filled. In 1776, the Battle of Nassau resulted in a brief occupation by American Continental Marines during the American War of Independence, where the Marines staged their first amphibious raid on Fort Montague after attempting to sneak up on Fort Nassau. In 1778 after an overnight invasion, American raiders led by Captain Rathburn, left with ships and military stores after stopping in Nassau for only two weeks. In 1782 Spain captured Nassau for the last time when Don Juan de Cagigal, governor-general of Cuba, attacked New Providence with 5000 men.
Andrew Deveaux, an American Loyalist who resettled on the island, set forth to recapture Nassau for the British Crown and with 220 men and 150 muskets to face a force of 600 trained soldiers. Lord Dunmore governed the colony from 1787 to 1796, he oversaw the construction of Fort Fincastle in Nassau. During the American Civil War, Nassau served as a port for blockade runners making their way to and from ports along the southern Atlantic Coast for continued trade with the Confederacy. In the 1920s and 1930s, Nassau profited from Prohibition in the United States. Located on New Providence Island, Nassau has an attractive harbour, a blend of old world and colonial architecture, a busy port; the tropical climate and natural environment of the Bahamas have made Nassau a tourist destination. Nassau developed directly behind the port area. New Providence provides 200 km² of flat and low-lying land intersected by low ridges. In the centre of the island there are several shallow lakes that are tidally connec