Harness racing is a form of horse racing in which the horses race at a specific gait. They pull a two-wheeled cart called a sulky, or spider, occupied by a driver. In Europe, less in Australia and New Zealand, races with jockeys riding directly on saddled trotters are conducted. In North America, harness races are restricted to Standardbred horses, although European racehorses may be French Trotters or Russian Trotters, or have mixed ancestry with lineages from multiple breeds. Orlov Trotters race separately in Russia; the light cold-blooded Coldblood trotters and Finnhorses race separately in Finland and Sweden. Standardbreds are so named because in the early years of the Standardbred stud book, only horses who could trot or pace a mile in a standard time of no more than 2 minutes, 30 seconds were admitted to the book; the horses have proportionally shorter legs than Thoroughbreds, longer bodies. Standardbreds have a more placid disposition, due to the admixture of non-Thoroughbred blood in the breed.
The founding sire of today's Standardbred horse was Messenger, a gray Thoroughbred brought to America in 1788 and purchased by Henry Astor, brother of John Jacob Astor. From Messenger came a great-grandson, Hambletonian 10, who gained a wide following for his racing prowess. However, it is his breed line; the lineage of all North American Standardbred race horses can be traced from four of Hambletonian 10 sons. As of January 1, 2019, Foiled Again is the richest Standardbred horse in the world. Foiled Again retired on January 1, 2019, but the 15-year-old gelding left an indelible mark in harness racing annals, he earned an all-time record US$7,635,588 in purse money. In one of his last races at Rosecroft Raceway, he beat 11 year old Real Flight.. I'm Themightyquinn is an Australasian champion Standardbred notable for being a three time Australian Harness Horse of the Year and three time winner of the Inter Dominion. I'm Themightyquinn won over AUD 4.5 million in its career. Races can be conducted in two differing gaits: trotting and pacing.
The difference is that a trotter moves its legs forward in diagonal pairs, whereas a pacer moves its legs laterally. In continental Europe, races are conducted among trotters, whereas in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States races are held for pacers. Pacing races constitute 80% to 90% of the harness races conducted in North America - while the clear majority of harness racing in Australia and New Zealand are now for pacers though the sport is colloquially still known as'the Trots.' Pacing horses are faster and less to break stride. One of the reasons pacers are less to break stride is that they wear hobbles; the belief that hobbles are used to create this gait is a common misunderstanding. The pace is a natural gait for many horses, hobbles are an aid in supporting the gait at top speed. Most harness races start from behind a motorized starting gate known as the mobile barrier; the horses commence pacing or trotting and line up behind a hinged gate mounted on a moving motor vehicle, which leads them to the starting line.
At the line, the wings of the gate are folded up and the vehicle accelerates away from the horses. Another kind of start is a standing start, where there are tapes or imaginary lines across the track behind which the horses either stand stationary or trot in circles in pairs in a specific pattern to hit the starting line as a group; this enables handicaps to be placed on horses with several tapes with 10 or 20 meters between tapes. Many European – and some Australian and New Zealand – races use a standing start, although this increases the chance of a'false start' where one or a number of horses commence'off-stride' and gallop; the race must be brought back to the starting line for a restart which can cause delays in programming and disrupts betting. The sulky is a two-wheeled cart equipped with bicycle wheels; the driver carries a light whip chiefly used to signal the horse by tapping and to make noise by striking the sulky shaft. There are strict rules as to how much the whip may be used. For exercising or training, the drivers use what is known as a "jog cart,", a sulky, heavier and bulkier than a racing unit.
The Prix d'Amérique is considered to be the number-one trotting race in the world. It is held annually at the gigantic Vincennes hippodrome in eastern Paris late in January; the purse for the race in 2016 is 1 million euros, with half of that to the winner. The horses are entered in the race based on life-time earnings, unless they have qualified by performing well in the preceding six qualifying races. Sweden is "the locomotive" of harness racing in Scandinavia, it is a professional all-year event at high latitudes during the winter. In Sweden there are 33 racing tracks, in Finland 43. For comparison there are only three thoroughbr
-Canadine known as -tetrahydroberberine and xanthopuccine, is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, of the protoberberine structural subgroup, is present in many plants from the Papaveraceae family, such as Corydalis yanhusuo and C. turtschaninovii. Metabolically, -canadine is derived from -reticuline, a pivotal intermediate in the biosynthesis of numerous BIA structural subgroups, through three enzymatic steps: 1) Berberine bridge enzyme to -scoulerine, it is an intermediate in the complex biosynthesis of noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, but of the phthalideisoquinoline structural subgroup.-Canadine, berberine and hydrastine are the major alkaloids present in goldenseal. A number of in vitro effects of -canadine have been reported, it inhibits muscle protein degradation. -Canadine blocks K channels in dopamine neurons. -Canadine has displayed antioxidant activity: though it lacked any demonstrable cytotoxic effect in three unique cell cultures, it was observed to possess antioxidant activity against free radical-induced oxidative injury.
This is a bibliography of literary and historical works about cricket. The list is sorted by author's name, it is highly selective. The 1984 edition of E. W. Padwick's A Bibliography of Cricket had more than 10,000 entries. David Rayvern AllenArlott on Cricket Cricket on the Air Early Books on Cricket HS AlthamMCC Cricket Coaching Book, 1st edition Hampshire County Cricket: The official history of Hampshire County Cricket Club A History of Cricket – various editions, most 1962, 1968 Lord's and the MCC The Heart of Cricket: A memoir of H. S. Altham John ArlottIndian Summer Gone to the Cricket How to Watch Cricket From Hambledon to Lords Concerning Cricket The Middle Ages of Cricket Gone with the Cricketers Cricket in the Counties Days at the Cricket Maurice Tate The Echoing Green Test Match Diary 1953 Australian Test Journal 1954-55 Alletson's Innings Cricket Journal Cricket Journal 2 Cricket Journal 3: Cricket on Trial Cricket Journal 4: The Australian Challenge Vintage Summer 1967 Cricket - The Great Ones: Eight First Class Batsmen Cricket - The Great Bowlers The Noblest Game: A Book of Fine Cricket Prints Cricket - The Great All-rounders Cricket - The Great Captains Fred - Portrait of a Fast Bowler The Ashes 1972 A Hundred Years of County Cricket An Eye for Cricket John Arlott's Book of Cricketers Jack Hobbs: Profile of the Master A Word from Arlott Arlott on Cricket John Arlott's 100 Greatest Batsmen The Essential John Arlott Basingstoke Boy: The Autobiography Geoff ArmstrongA Century of Summers: 100 years of Sheffield Shield cricket, Ironbark Press, 1992.
F S Ashley-CooperAt the Sign of the Wicket - a series in Cricket Magazine reproducing notices of known matches played 1742 to 1751 Sussex Cricket and Cricketers Curiosities of First-Class Cricket 1730-1901 The Hambledon Cricket Chronicle 1772-1796 Kent Cricket Matches 1719-1880 Association of Cricket Statisticians and HistoriansA Guide to Important Cricket Matches Played in the British Isles 1707-1863 A Guide to First-Class Cricket Matches Played in the British Isles A Guide to First-Class Cricket Matches Played in Australia A Guide to First-Class Cricket Matches Played in India A Guide to First-Class Cricket Matches Played in New Zealand A Guide to First-Class Cricket Matches Played in North and South America A Guide to First-Class Cricket Matches Played in Pakistan A Guide to Important Cricket Matches Played in South Africa A Guide to First-Class Cricket Matches Played in Sri Lanka A Guide to First-Class Cricket Matches Played in the West Indies The ACS International Cricket Yearbook The ACS Second Eleven Annual The Cricket Statistician, a quarterly Journal for members The ACS Famous Cricketers Series.
Philip BaileyWho's Who of Cricketers Trevor BaileyThe Greatest of My Time Anthony BarkerThe WACA: An Australian Cricket Success Story Ralph BarkerTen Great Innings Ten Great Bowlers England v Australia: A compendium of Test cricket between the countries 1877-1968 Cricketing Family Edrich Innings of a Lifetime, 1954-77 Purple Patches Brian BassanoSouth Africa in International Cricket 1888–1970 The West Indies in Australia 1930-31 A Springbok Down Under: South Africa on Tour, 1931-32 Vic's Boys: Australia in South Africa 1935-36 South African Cricket: Vol. 4, 1947–1960 South Africa versus England: 106 Years of Test Match Glory MCC in South Africa 1938-39 Aubrey Faulkner: His Record Innings by Innings Mann's Men: MCC in South Africa 1922-23 The Visit of Mr W. W. Read's 1891-92 English Cricket Team to South Africa Maiden Victory: The 1935 South African Tour of England Richie BenaudThe Way of Cricket A Tale of Two Tests Spin Me a Spinner The New Champions Willow Patterns Test Cricket World Series Cup Cricket 1981-82 The Hottest Summer The Ashes 1982-83 Benaud on Reflection The Appeal of Cricket Anything But My Spin on Cricket Over But Not Out Henry BentleyA Correct Account of all the Cricket Matches which have been played by the Mary-le-bone Club, all other principal matches, from the Year 1786 to 1822 inclusive Keith BoothAtherton's progress: From Kensington Oval to Kennington Oval Knowing the Score His Own Enemy The Father of Modern Sport: The Life and Times of Charles W. Alcock George Lohmann, Pioneer Professional Ernest Hayes - Brass in a Golden Age Rowland BowenCricket: A History of its Growth and Development throughout the World Derek BirleyA Social History of English Cricket The Willow Wand: Some Cricket Myths Explored Sir Don BradmanThe Art of Cricket.
Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 1-875892-54-0; the Story of My Cricketing Life with hints on Batting, Fielding in the Cricketer Annual Farewell to Cricket Mike