West Hollywood, California
West Hollywood referred to as WeHo, is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Incorporated in 1984, it is home to the Sunset Strip; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, its population was 34,399, it is considered one of the most prominent gay villages in the United States. West Hollywood is bounded by the city of Beverly Hills on the west, on other sides by neighborhoods of the city of Los Angeles: Hollywood Hills on the north, Hollywood on the east, the Fairfax District on the southeast, Beverly Grove on the southwest; the city's irregular boundary is featured in its logo. West Hollywood benefits from a dense, compact urban form with small lots, mixed land use, a walkable street grid. According to Walkscore, a website that ranks cities based on walkability, West Hollywood is the most walkable city in California with a Walkscore of 89. Commercial corridors include the nightlife and dining focused on the Sunset Strip, along Santa Monica Boulevard, the Avenues of Art and Design along Robertson and Beverly Boulevard.
Residential neighborhoods in West Hollywood include the Norma Triangle, West Hollywood North, West Hollywood West, West Hollywood East, West Hollywood Heights, all of which are only a few blocks long or wide. Major intersecting streets provide amenities within walking distance of adjacent neighborhoods. West Hollywood has a Subtropical-semi-arid climate with year-round warm weather; the record high temperature of 111 °F was recorded September 26, 1963, while the record low of 24 °F was recorded on January 4, 1949. Snow is rare in West Hollywood, with the last accumulation occurring in 1949. Rainfall is sparse, falls during the winter months. Most historical writings about West Hollywood began in the late-18th century with European colonization when the Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho arrived offshore and claimed the inhabited region for Spain. Around 5,000 of the indigenous inhabitants from the Tongva Indian tribe canoed out to greet Juan Cabrillo; the Tongva tribe was a nation of hunter-gatherers known for their reverence of courage.
By 1771, these native people had been ravaged by diseases brought in by the Europeans from across wide oceans. The Spanish mission system changed the tribal name to "Gabrielinos", in reference to the Mission de San Gabriel. Early in 1770 Gaspar de Portola's Mexican expeditionary force stopped just south of the Santa Monica Mountains near what would become West Hollywood to draw pitch from tar pits to waterproof their belongings and to say mass; the Gabrielinos are believed to have burned the pitch for fuel. By 1780, what became the "Sunset Strip" was the major connecting road for El Pueblo de Los Angeles, all ranches westward to the Pacific Ocean; this land passed through the hands of various owners during the next one hundred years, it was called names such as "La Brea" and "Plummer" that are listed in historical records. Most of this area was part of the Rancho La Brea, it came to be owned by the Henry Hancock family. During the final decade years of the nineteenth century, the first large land development in what would become West Hollywood—the town of "Sherman"—was established by Moses Sherman and his partners of the Los Angeles Pacific Railroad, an interurban railroad line which became part of the Pacific Electric Railway system.
Sherman became the location of the railroad's main shops, railroad yards, "car barns". Many working-class employees of the railroad settled in this town, it was during this time that the city began to earn its reputation as a loosely regulated, liquor-friendly place for eccentric people wary of government interference. Despite several annexation attempts, the town elected not to become part of the City of Los Angeles. In a controversial decision, in 1925 Sherman adopted "West Hollywood", "...a moniker pioneered earlier in the decade by the West Hollywood Realty Board" as its informal name, though it remained under the governance of Los Angeles County. For many years, the area, now the city of West Hollywood was an unincorporated area in the midst of Los Angeles; because gambling was illegal in the city of Los Angeles, but still legal in Los Angeles County, the 1920s saw the proliferation of many casinos, night clubs, etc. along Sunset Boulevard. These businesses were immune from the sometimes heavy-handed law-enforcement of the L.
A. Police Department; some people connected with movie-making were attracted to this less-restricted area of the County, a number of architecturally distinctive apartment buildings and apartment hotels were built. Many interior designers, decorators and "to the trade" furnishing showrooms located in West Hollywood date back to the middle of the century; the area and its extravagant nightclubs fell out of favor. However, the Sunset Strip and its restaurants and nightclubs continued to be an attraction for out-of-town tourists. During the late 1960s, the Sunset Strip was transformed again during the hippie movement which brought a thriving music publishing industry coupled with "hippie" culture; some young people from all over the country flocked to West Hollywood. The most recent migration to West Hollywood came about after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, when thousands of Russian Jews immigrated to the city. A majority of the 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Jews settled in two major immigration waves, 1978–79 and 1988–92.
Other than New York, West Hollywood's Russian-speaking community is the most concentrated single Russian-speaking region in United States. In 1984, resid
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban Missile Crisis known as the October Crisis of 1962, the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union initiated by the American discovery of Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. The confrontation is considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war. In response to the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961 and the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles in Italy and Turkey, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed to Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles on the island to deter a future invasion. An agreement was reached during a secret meeting between Khrushchev and Fidel Castro in July 1962, construction of a number of missile launch facilities started that summer; the 1962 United States elections were under way, the White House had for months denied charges that it was ignoring dangerous Soviet missiles 90 miles from Florida. The missile preparations were confirmed when an Air Force U-2 spy plane produced clear photographic evidence of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic missile facilities.
The US established a naval blockade on October 22 to prevent further missiles from reaching Cuba. The US announced it would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba and demanded that the weapons in Cuba be dismantled and returned to the Soviet Union. After several days of tense negotiations, an agreement was reached between US President John F. Kennedy and Khrushchev. Publicly, the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, subject to United Nations verification, in exchange for a US public declaration and agreement to avoid invading Cuba again. Secretly, the United States agreed that it would dismantle all US-built Jupiter MRBMs, deployed in Turkey against the Soviet Union; when all offensive missiles and Ilyushin Il-28 light bombers had been withdrawn from Cuba, the blockade was formally ended on November 21, 1962. The negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union pointed out the necessity of a quick and direct communication line between Washington and Moscow.
As a result, the Moscow–Washington hotline was established. A series of agreements reduced US–Soviet tensions for several years until both parties began to build their nuclear arsenal further. With the end of World War II and the start of the Cold War, the United States had grown concerned about the expansion of communism. A Latin American country allying with the Soviet Union was regarded by the US as unacceptable, it would, for example, defy the Monroe Doctrine, a US policy limiting US involvement in European colonies and European affairs but holding that the Western Hemisphere was in the US sphere of influence. The Kennedy administration had been publicly embarrassed by the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion in May 1961, launched under President John F. Kennedy by CIA-trained forces of Cuban exiles. Afterward, former President Dwight Eisenhower told Kennedy that "the failure of the Bay of Pigs will embolden the Soviets to do something that they would otherwise not do." The half-hearted invasion left Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev and his advisers with the impression that Kennedy was indecisive and, as one Soviet adviser wrote, "too young, not prepared well for decision making in crisis situations... too intelligent and too weak".
US covert operations against Cuba continued in 1961 with the unsuccessful Operation Mongoose. In addition, Khrushchev's impression of Kennedy's weaknesses was confirmed by the President's response during the Berlin Crisis of 1961 to the building of the Berlin Wall. Speaking to Soviet officials in the aftermath of the crisis, Khrushchev asserted, "I know for certain that Kennedy doesn't have a strong background, nor speaking, does he have the courage to stand up to a serious challenge." He told his son Sergei that on Cuba, Kennedy "would make a fuss, make more of a fuss, agree". In January 1962, US Army General Edward Lansdale described plans to overthrow the Cuban government in a top-secret report, addressed to Kennedy and officials involved with Operation Mongoose. CIA agents or "pathfinders" from the Special Activities Division were to be infiltrated into Cuba to carry out sabotage and organization, including radio broadcasts. In February 1962, the US launched an embargo against Cuba, Lansdale presented a 26-page, top-secret timetable for implementation of the overthrow of the Cuban government, mandating guerrilla operations to begin in August and September.
"Open revolt and overthrow of the Communist regime" would occur in the first two weeks of October. When Kennedy ran for president in 1960, one of his key election issues was an alleged "missile gap" with the Soviets leading; the US at that time led the Soviets by a wide margin that would only increase. In 1961, the Soviets had only four intercontinental ballistic missiles. By October 1962, they may have had a few dozen, with some intelligence estimates as high as 75; the US, on the other hand, had 170 ICBMs and was building more. It had eight George Washington- and Ethan Allen-class ballistic missile submarines, with the capability to launch 16 Polaris missiles, each with a range of 2,500 nautical miles. Khrushchev increased the perception of a missile
President of the Los Angeles City Council
This is a list of presidents of the Los Angeles City Council. Not only does the officer preside over meetings of the council, but he or she makes assignments to City Council committees and handles parliamentary duties like ruling motions in or out of order; the president automatically become acting mayor. The president is elected at the first meeting of the new council term, beginning on July 1 of every odd-numbered year; this meeting is called to order by the City Clerk for the election of the president, after which a president pro tempore is chosen. Next to the mayor, the president and president pro tem of the council are considered the most powerful officials in municipal government; the president serves as mayor in the absence of the chief executive, the pro tem fills the top position in the absence of both. Two-year terms beginning on July 1 of the years shown below
Jonathan Club is a private social club with two California locations—one in Downtown Los Angeles and the other abutting the beach in Santa Monica. The club is ranked as one of the top clubs in the world by Platinum Clubs of America; the club has two founding dates set in stone at the entrance to its Downtown Los Angeles building — 1894 and 1895. The club bases its anniversaries on the June 1895 date. Membership in the club is by invitation. Since its founding, the Jonathan Club has been accused of anti-Semitism and discrimination. In 1965, the Jonathan Club was charged with "anti-Negro" and "anti-Jew" bias and a complaint was raised that the membership dues of Mayor Sam Yorty were being paid by city taxpayers to support such discrimination. Yorty told a news conference. In July 1969, "at least one Jew" in the Jonathan Club, though it hadn't "taken in any Jewish members for at least two decades," Neil C. Sandberg regional director of the American Jewish Committee, told Jack Smith of the Los Angeles Times.
As public pressure mounted, Warner Heineman, vice chairman of Union Bank, Jewish, was admitted to membership in the Jonathan Club in October 1977. Jonathan Club president Robert Brimberry said in February 1978 that "In recent years certain restrictions have been changing.... We are accepting and considering all applications on their merit, including those of minorities and women."In 1975, the Jonathan club did not admit women as members. Women guests were "limited to certain floors, dining rooms and entrances," though recent policy changes allowed women to, "use the main elevator and lobby" at the Jonathan Club. In 1977 the Jonathan Club "voted overwhelmingly" to admit women to membership, though for a period of time, the club was accused of changing only the letter of the policy but not anything in practice. Prominent members include: John D. Bicknell, founder of law firm that became Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher Herman Wolf Hellman, founder of Farmers & Merchants Bank. P. Giannini, founder of Bank of Italy Edgar Rice Burroughs and science fiction author Robert A. Millikan, experimental physicist.
C. Bloch, commander of 14th Naval District during Dec. 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor George Pepperdine, founded Western Auto Supply. S. Naval officer who perished aboard USS Arizona in 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. S. Supreme Court Buster Keaton, silent screen star Hal Roach, comedy writer and producer. Since 1927, the club has had a beach location in Santa Monica, in a building designed by architect Gene Verge, Sr.. Official website
Not to be confused with Harold A. Henry, Los Angeles City Council member 1945–66. Harold Harby was elected to the Los Angeles, City Council in 1939, but he had to leave office in 1942 when he was convicted of using a city car for a trip out of the state, he was reelected in 1943 and served until 1957. Harby was noted for casting a 1951 swing vote that killed a $100 million proposal to build a massive public-housing project in the city as well as for his opposition to modern art and music. Harby was born September 8, 1894, in Gjovik, the son of Mr. and Mrs. O. J. Harby, he attended high school in that country and came to the United States in 1910. He was married in 1917 to Emmalee Thompson of Montana, they had two sons, Harold D. and Thornton L. and in the late 1930s he was living at 2642 Halm Avenue in the Mid-City area. He moved to California in 1918 to work at West Coast shipyards and became associated with the oil business, working at various times for Shell Oil, Richfield Oil and Pacific Western Oil.
Harby died November 24, 1978, in Laguna Hills, after a lengthy illness. Memorial services were in Cypress. See List of Los Angeles municipal election returns, 1939–57 Harby was a materials and supply executive for Richfield in 1939 when he defeated incumbent Robert S. MacAlister in Los Angeles City Council District 11, which at that time included the West Adams and Venice areas, he was supported by political leader Clifford Clinton and served through 1957 — with one exception: The single break came in 1942, when he fell out with Clinton, who seized on an incident to oust him from office. Harby said he had been given permission to use the vehicle and the City Council voted to confirm the use as official business, but the matter was taken to Superior Court. The City Council appointed Dave Stannard to take his place in May 1942, but the next year, 1943, Harby was reelected by a vote of 6,392 for himself and 5,988 for Stannard. Harby kept winning elections—in 1949 he had no opponent—until 1957, when he was defeated by Karl L. Rundberg.
Harby switched his position from "yes" to "no" in December 1951 to block a City Council vote of 8 to 7 a proposed $100 million public-housing plan that had divided the city, with business and real-estate factions on one side and labor and progressive interests on the other. Harby explained his reason by saying: I find upon further investigation that much of this proposed housing... is not a slum clearance project and buildings will be built on heretofore unoccupied territory. When you remove the slum-clearance element from public housing, there is nothing much left but Socialism. Although he said his mail ran 10 to 1 in favor of his stand, he displayed a letter containing a death threat, his Halm Avenue home was "invaded" by protestors and picketed. Harby was known for his opposition to modern art and music, he objected to the City Art Department accepting a gift of a painting titled "Bird on the Moon," noting that "I never saw any birds on the moon. Is this picture as crazy as it sounds?" He said the whole idea was "nuts, much like most of the rest of this so-called modern art."He was the principal opponent to a statuary group by sculptor Bernard Rosenthal, designed for the new Police Building across Main Street from the City Hall.
He suggested that the "14-foot, 1000-pound brass-and-bronze statue be consigned to a smelter and its metal salvaged for a tablet memorializing policemen who have given their lives in service to the community." The statue in question represented "a father, young boy, mother and a babe in arms expressing the idea that the Police Department is dedicated to the protection of the family." After Harby's motion was referred to committee, members of the Council marched in a body to view the sculpture. Harby climbed atop a scaffold, pointed to the figure representing the babe in arms and asked, "This is a baby?" In a letter to the Los Angeles Times, Harby praised the artistry of singer Jeanette MacDonald and attacked modern music, which he called "gibberish" that "to me and millions of others is nothing but the echo of the drums of darkest Africa.... Meaningless and repulsive." He added: "savagery is no substitute for beauty." Mayor. He was appointed to a committee of five council members in May 1940 to call on Mayor Fletcher Bowron to complain about "persistent and erroneous" remarks the mayor made about the council in his radio addresses.
FDR painting. In October 1945, Harby and Rollin McNitt, chairman of the Democratic County Central Committee, physically interfered with the removal of a portrait of the late President Franklin D. Roosevelt from the space behind the City Council president's rostrum, as ordered by the council, it was removed and drapes hung in the empty space to provide better acoustics. Tokyo Rose. In December 1947, Harby authored a successful resolution in the Council asking Congress to "keep the female World War II Jap propagandist Tokyo Rose out of America." The resolution noted. Feud, he and Councilman Kenneth Hahn engaged in what was called a "feud" over various subjects, including their differences concerning the subject of continuing wartime rent control in Los Angeles, with Hahn favoring and Harby opposing. Harby called a suggestion by Hahn for a pay raise for city employees "political prostitution in its lowest form." Harby used the same term, calling Hahn a "political prostitute" in a raucous debate over the fate of a $110-million-dollar public housing proposal for the city.
At one point, Harby "reached over" and shoved Hahn back into
John Ferraro was the longest-serving Los Angeles City Council member in the history of the city—thirty-five years, from 1966 until his death in 2001—and the president of the council for fourteen of them. He had been an all-American football player at the University of Southern California. Ferraro was born May 24, 1924, in the working class suburb of Cudahy, just south of Los Angeles, "the youngest son of a family of eight children whose Italian immigrant parents ran a macaroni factory before going broke during the Depression." He attended Bell High School in Bell, where he graduated in 1942, he earned a bachelor of science degree in business administration from the University of Southern California after World War II. Ferraro enlisted in the U. S. Navy during World War II and was commissioned as an ensign in 1945, he served on a tanker with Warren Christopher the Secretary of State under Bill Clinton. "Christopher got Ferraro interested in politics during long, early morning discussions when they were stationed in the Bay Area."
His excellence on the football field at Bell High—he was a unanimous choice for the All-City team—led to his receiving a scholarship at USC, where he earned All-American honors in 1944 and 1947 and played as a tackle in three Rose Bowls. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1974; as an adult he stood 6 feet, 4¼ inches tall and weighed 245 pounds, earning him the nickname "Big John." Ferraro was an insurance broker with the John Ferraro Company, beginning in 1951, he invested shrewdly in stocks and real estate that made him a millionaire. He was married to Julie Marie Luckey, daughter of Democratic State Senator E. George Luckey, they had a son, Luckeygian, or Lucky, born about 1956; the Ferraros were divorced in 1972. His second wife was Bridget Margaret Hart known as exotic dancer and stripteaser Margie Hart in the 1940s—and as a legitimate actress who later made money through real-estate investments, they met at a reception in support of Democrat Pierre Salinger's unsuccessful U.
S. Senate campaign in 1964, they were married in 1982, she died in 2000. Ferraro underwent chemotherapy. Mayor Richard Riordan was at his side, along with family members, when he died at the age of 76 in Santa Monica on April 17, 2001. A crowd of nearly a thousand filled St. Brendan Catholic Church, Ferraro's parish, for a funeral mass conducted by Cardinal Roger Mahony. Family present included Ferraro's brother, sisters Mary and Rose and his son, Gianni Luckey, he entered government service in 1953, when Mayor Norris Poulson appointed him to the city Police Commission, where he served for thirteen years. During that period, he advocated more-stringent gun laws and backed African-American John Roseboro, former Los Angeles Dodgers star, to do community relations work for the Police Department after the 1965 Watts riots. See List of Los Angeles Municipal election returns, 1967 and after Supported by Mayor Sam Yorty and seen as a "product of the old guard of conservative if nominally Democratic politicians who used to dominate local politics," he was appointed in May 1966 from among thirteen applicants to represent Los Angeles City Council District 4 after the death of incumbent Harold A. Henry.
Because of his height, when he took office carpenters had to remove a drawer from his desk so that his legs could fit under it. During his term, which at thirty-five years was the longest in City Council history, the 4th District covered much of the Wilshire district and in general was bounded by Fountain Avenue, Wilshire Boulevard, Fairfax Avenue and Catalina Street and Central Los Angeles from Fairfax and Highland Avenues on the west, to Santa Monica Boulevard on the north, the Pasadena Freeway on the east and Olympic Boulevard on the south. In 1986 it was considered a contorted district that included the old areas as well as Atwater, Griffith Park, Forest Lawn Drive and parts of the central San Fernando Valley to Colfax Avenue and Victory Boulevard. In 1989 the district stretched from Hancock Park to Studio City. In 1974, Ferraro ran unsuccessfully against fellow Councilman Edmund D. Edelman for a seat on the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, in 1985, he made a futile run against Tom Bradley for mayor.
In 1999, he was fined $3,300 by the Los Angeles Ethics Commission for receiving campaign contributions in 1997 above a newly established limit. It and penalties levied against Councilmen Mike Hernandez and Mark Ridley-Thomas were the first to be made under a law effective in 1985. Ferraro's election as City Council president in 1977 to replace John Gibson allowed him to make committee appointments and set a general direction for the council. In that year he restructured the committee system to "reflect concerns about the environment and city finances." It advanced him to the second most powerful position in the city and made him acting mayor when Tom Bradley was out of town. Ferraro denied he used his committee appointing power "to reward allies and punish enemies," but he admitted to being practical: "Anybody who mistreats their friends to benefit their enemies is not practicing good politics," he said. "You don't get reelected to the presidency that way."In Ferraro's 1997 reshuffle of committee seats, the biggest loser was Nate Holden, "the frequent butt of Ferraro's jokes, ousted from all three of his committees and given far lower-profile assignments," Jodi Wilgoren reported in the Los Angeles Times.
It was said that Ferraro calmed disputes on the City Council "with humor and a firm hand" and that after his death it was "unlikely such a dominant figure will again emerge," because of newly imposed term limits at City Hall. Ferraro was noted for "spearhead
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum is an American outdoor sports stadium located in the Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, United States. Conceived as a hallmark of civic pride, the Coliseum was commissioned in 1921 as a memorial to L. A. veterans of World War I. Completed in 1923, it will be the first stadium to have hosted the Summer Olympics three times: 1932, 1984, 2028, it was declared a National Historic Landmark on July 27, 1984, the day before the opening ceremony of the 1984 Summer Olympics. The stadium serves as the home to the University of Southern California Trojans football team of the Pac-12 Conference, it is the temporary home of the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League. The Coliseum was home to the Rams from 1946 to 1979; the Coliseum is serving as their home stadium again until the completion of Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park in Inglewood. The facility had a permanent seating capacity of 93,607 for USC football and Rams games, making it the largest football stadium in the Pac-12 Conference and the NFL.
USC, which operates and manages the Coliseum, began a major renovation of the stadium in early 2018. During the renovation project the seating capacity will be 78,467 and will be 77,500 upon completion in 2019; the $270 million project is scheduled to be completed by the 2019 football season and is the first major upgrade of the stadium in twenty years. The project includes replacing the seating along with the addition of luxury boxes and club suites. Naming rights were granted to United Airlines but following some concerns expressed by veterans groups and the new president of the Coliseum Commission, the naming rights are in limbo. United Airlines did not approve of any change from United Airlines Memorial Coliseum and suggested that they were willing to step away from the deal; the stadium is located in Exposition Park, owned by the State of California, across the street from USC. The Coliseum is jointly owned by the State of California, Los Angeles County, City of Los Angeles and is managed and operated by the Auxiliary Services Department of the University of Southern California.
From 1959 to 2016, the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena was located adjacent to the Coliseum. Banc of California Stadium, a soccer-specific stadium and home of Major League Soccer's Los Angeles FC, was constructed on the former Sports Arena site and opened in April 2018; the stadium was the temporary home of the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball from 1958 to 1961 and was the host venue for games 3, 4, 5 of the 1959 World Series. It was the site of the First AFL-NFL World Championship Game called Super Bowl I, Super Bowl VII. Additionally, it has served as a home field for a number of other teams, including the Los Angeles Raiders of the NFL, UCLA Bruins football; the Coliseum is now the home of the USC Trojans football team and the temporary home of the Los Angeles Rams. Most of USC's regular home games the alternating games with rivals UCLA and Notre Dame, attract a capacity crowd; the current official capacity of the Coliseum is 78,467. USC's women lacrosse and soccer teams use the Coliseum for selected games involving major opponents and televised games.
USC rents the Coliseum to various events, including international soccer games, musical concerts and other large outdoor events. The Coliseum was commissioned in 1921 as a memorial to L. A. veterans of World War I. The official ground breaking ceremony took place on December 21, 1921 with construction being completed in just over 16 months, on May 1, 1923. Designed by John and Donald Parkinson, the original bowl's initial construction costs were $954,873; when the Coliseum opened in 1923, it was the largest stadium in Los Angeles with a capacity of 75,144. In 1930, with the Olympics due in two years, the stadium was extended upward to seventy-nine rows seats with two tiers of tunnels, expanding the seating capacity to 101,574; the now-signature Olympic torch was added. For a time it was known as Olympic Stadium; the Olympic cauldron torch which burned through both Games remains above the peristyle at the east end of the stadium as a reminder of this, as do the Olympic rings symbols over one of the main entrances.
The football field runs east to west with the press box on the south side of the stadium. The scoreboard and video screen that tower over the peristyle date back to 1983. Over the years new light towers have been placed along south rims; the large analog clock and thermometer over the office windows at either end of the peristyle were installed in 1955. In the mid-and late 1950s the press box was renovated and the "Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum" lettering and Olympic rings, lighted at night, were added to the eastern face of the peristyle tower. Between the double peristyle arches at the east end is the Coliseum's "Court of Honor"—plaques recognizing many of the memorable events and participants in Coliseum history, including a full list of 1932 and 1984 Olympic gold medalists.. For many years the Coliseum was capable of seating over 100,000 spectators. In 1964 the stadium underwent its first major renovation in over three decades. Most of the original pale green wood-and-metal bench seating was replaced by individual theater-type chairs of dark red and yellow.