John D. Works
John Downey Works was a U. S. Senator representing California from 1911 to 1917, an Associate Justice of the California Supreme Court from October 2, 1888, to January 5, 1891. Works was born in Ohio County and attended public schools there. During the American Civil War, he served as a member of the 10th Regiment of the Indiana Cavalry. Once discharged, he read law and in 1868 was admitted to the Indiana bar. In November 1878, he was elected as a representative in the Indiana General Assembly, serving during the 1879 term. In June 1883, he published a book of practice and forms to match the revised code of Indiana. In 1883, Works' poor health forced a move to San Diego, where he became active in the Republican Party, rose in California politics. In September 1886, he ran on the Republican ticket, prior to the election was appointed by Governor Robert Waterman as a judge of the San Diego County Superior Court. In September 1887, he resigned to return to private practice, Governor Waterman appointed Edwin Parker to fill the vacant seat.
In 1888, Governor Waterman appointed Works as an Associate Justice of the California Supreme Court to fill a vacancy after the resignation of Elisha W. McKinstry. In August 1888, the Republican Party nominated Works and he was elected to the remaining portion of McKinstry's term ending January 5, 1891. In 1891, after stepping down from the bench, Works became president of the San Diego Sun company, returned to private practice with his son in the firm of Works & Works in San Diego. In January 1896, Works moved to California. On December 7, 1909, he was elected as a council member of the Los Angeles City Council, chosen as its president, but he resigned shortly after on March 22, 1910. In 1911, Works was elected to the U. S. Senate, where he served on the committee on Expenditures in the War Department and the Committee on Fisheries. In February 1917, he and other Progressive Senators, under the moniker "twelve willful men," blocked by filibuster legislation empowering President Woodrow Wilson to arm merchant vessels prior to the United States entering World War I.
After retiring from the Senate he wrote two books: Duty to Man: A Study of Social Conditions and How They May Be Improved and What's Wrong With the World? On June 6, 1928, he died in Los Angeles and his ashes were placed in Inglewood Park Cemetery. On November 7, 1868, he married Alice Banta, in Vevay and they had two sons, Thomas L. and Louis R. who became an attorney and practiced with his father, the presiding justice of the Court of Appeal, Second Division. He is said to have been a member of the Church of Scientist. Works, John D.. Man's Duty to Man: A Study of Social Conditions. New York: Neale Publishing Co. Online books by John D. Works. Library of the University of Pennsylvania. United States Congress. "John D. Works". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Guide to the John D. Works Papers at The Bancroft Library John D. Works. California Supreme Court Historical Society. John D. Works v. Superior Court, 130 Cal. 304, 62 P. 507. Past & Present Justices. California State Courts. Retrieved July 19, 2017
G. Vernon Bennett
Guy Vernon Bennett known as G. Vernon Bennett, was superintendent of schools in Pomona, California. A liberal, he was defeated for reelection after seventeen years in office in the wake of arrest on a morals charge, he was a Democrat. Bennett was born in Waverly, Iowa, on February 17, 1880, he had five siblings, Edward Allen Bennett of Los Angeles, Richard Bennett of Tacoma, Belle Campbell of Guelph, Zellia Campbell of Los Angeles and William M. Bennett. Bennett had at least one son, he was a Kiwanian. While a city councilman, Bennett 65, was taken into custody in Lincoln Park on October 2, 1950, by two police officers who "took a statement from him at the Highland Park Police Station." A complaint was issued by the city attorney's office "charging two morals counts." Bennett pleaded guilty to disturbing the peace," and a charge of lewd vagrancy was dismissed "in the interests of justice." He paid a fine of $100. Bennett, living in Pasadena, died July 31, 1968, at the age of 88. Bennett was working in Gridley, before taking up his position as superintendent of schools in Pomona in July 1914, replacing the retiring schools chief, W.
P. Murphy. Near the end of his first school year, he responded to a statement by University of California President Benjamin Ide Wheeler, who had declared vocational training to be "an attempt of aristocracy to keep children of the laborer in the working class so they couldn't better themselves." Bennett said: That sort of talk is bosh.... If teaching boys how to do interior decorating, lathe work and cabinet-making and teaching girls how to make hats and dresses and custard pies is an aristocratic attempt to tie a millstone around the neck of genius let us become more aristocratic. If we can keep the boys and girls off the street and reduce the number of street-corner loafers by teaching some useful trades in our schools I think it is our duty to do so. Bennett ordained an anti-slang week in April 1915 and ordered that anybody who used slang in Pomona schools be penalized. "I'd like to eliminate such phrases as'hand somebody a lemon,"cut it out,"the once-over,' and a lot of similar expressions," he said.
In 1919 he was appointed head of the local office of the Federal Board for Vocational Education, an agency that retrained returning U. S. servicement. In October 1920, Bennett and Nicholas Ricciardi, director of the vocational office in San Francisco, were attacked by the James B. Gresham Post No. 3, Veterans of Foreign Wars, among other things, "repressive measures." A statement charged Bennett with being "out of harmony with every man engaged in Federal board work in this city."Bennett, who held a doctorate of philosophy, was hired to be an associate professor of education at the University of Southern California, effective with the fall semester, 1926. 1934–35 Bennett attempted a run for the State Superintendent of Public Instruction in 1934, but lost. In February 1935, still a college professor and living at 3017-1/2 Hoover, he took out a nomination petition for the City Council seat in the 10th District, campaigning against the incumbent, E. Snapper Ingram. Bennett was supported by the End Poverty in California movement and opposed by the Los Angeles Times.
Other candidates in the 10th District primaries were a lecturer. Bennett received 5,974 votes to Ingram's 5,810, they faced each other in the finals. In that race, Bennett won by a vote of 8,794 to 8,064.1937 In 1937 Bennett ran as an incumbent against George McLain but without the support of EPIC. He won in the primary, 8,065 to 5,306.1938–39 He lost in another bid for state superintendent of public instruction in 1938. Bennett was known for supporting "liberal" measures in the city council and had the support of Mayor Fletcher Bowron and activist Clifford Clinton, he was the only council member to vote against an April 1939 resolution urging the Dies Committee on Un-American Activities to investigate Communist influence in Los Angeles "as soon as possible." That month he won in the primary election, 9,526 votes to 2,192 for Willard E. Badham, 1,620 for Solly F. Smith and 804 for Allan M. Rose.1941 In 1941, Bennett faced S. Frederic Smith and Mary A. Van Dame. Bennett won, 1,071 for Van Dame.
By that time, Bennett had joined the "anti-Bowron bloc," and when the city council was reorganized in July, he was elected president of the council by a vote of 9 to 6, replacing Robert L. Burns; as council president, he became acting mayor when Bowron was out of town.1942–43 Bennett was elected chairman of the Los Angeles County Democratic Central Committee in September 1942, unseating Claude L. Welch. In late 1941, political reformer Clifford E. Clinton had accused Bennett, with other councilmen, of having misused city automobiles, asking for a grand jury investigation; the issue resurfaced in 1943, an election year, when Council Member Parley P. Christensen accused Bennett of having used a city automobile for an "unauthorized and illegal" trip to Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1937 and on his return, "presenting the city with a bill for gasoline and oil." Bennett denied the charge. In the 1943 election, Bennett was endorsed by the Times, which said that "Although inclined when first elected toward ultra-liberal
Andrew Boyle Workman was a Los Angeles politician and businessman. He served as President of the Los Angeles City Council and, was acting Mayor on occasion, he was the first city councilman to represent District 4, under the new charter of 1925. He was a candidate for mayor in 1929. Boyle Workman was born in Los Angeles, the son of William H. Workman and Maria Elizabeth Boyle, he attended St. Vincent's College, which stood at Seventh Street and Broadway. From his home in Boyle Heights, he rode horseback to school. In 1884, he entered Santa Clara College for a time, but returned to St. Vincent's College and graduated in 1887. After leaving school, Boyle worked as a clerk for his father, Mayor of Los Angeles from December 14, 1886 to December 10, 1888; when his father left office, Boyle worked as a clerk in the Farmers & Merchants Bank, was local manager for the Home Mutual Fire Insurance Company. In 1891, he worked as a draftsman in the Los Angeles City Engineer's office. From 1900 to 1907, Workman was Assistant City Treasurer.
He was a member of the Public Service Commission from 1913 until 1917. Two years on July 7, 1919, he was elected to the City Council and was chosen president of that body. In 1925, he became the councilman elected to represent the newly formed District 4, which included Pico Heights and the Wilshire ward, where he lived. Workman served as City Council President, Councilman of District 4, until 1927, he was a member of the Finance Committee of the City Council. In 1929, he made a run for the Mayoral seat, he was actively involved in business, including ownership of the Monarch Brick Company, the fire insurance firm of Garland and Workman, the vice-presidency of the American Savings Bank. Workman and Martha Frances Widney were married on November 1895, in Los Angeles. Frances was the daughter of Judge Robert M. Mary Barnes; the Workmans had Eleanor Workman and Audree Workman. After he retired from official public life, Workman devoted much of his time to collecting data on the history of Los Angeles, a work that culminated in his book Boyle Workman's The City That Grew, a semi-autobiographical narrative, published in 1936.
Boyle Workman died at age 74 of a brain hemorrhage in Los Angeles. He is interred in Evergreen Cemetery. Boyle-Workman family List of Los Angeles municipal election returns Los Angeles City Council presidents
Government of Los Angeles
The Government of Los Angeles operates as a charter city under the Charter of the City of Los Angeles. The elected government is composed of the Los Angeles City Council with 15 city council districts and the Mayor of Los Angeles, which operate under a mayor–council government, as well as several other elective offices; the current mayor is Eric Garcetti, the current City Attorney is Mike Feuer and the current City Controller is Ron Galperin. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the Los Angeles Police Department, the Los Angeles Fire Department, the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, the Los Angeles Public Library, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; the government of the city of Los Angeles includes the following city officers: Mayor Members of the Council City Attorney City Clerk Controller Treasurer The members of the boards or commissions of the departments and the chief administrative officer of each department and office An Executive Director of the Board of Police Commissioners Other officers as prescribed by ordinance The Mayor of Los Angeles is the chief executive officer of the city.
The officeholder is elected for a four-year term, limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the California Constitution, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan; the 42nd and current Mayor is Eric Garcetti. The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of Los Angeles; the council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms and limited to three terms. The president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting after June 30 in odd-numbered years. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the president; the current president of the Los Angeles City Council is Herb Wesson, the president pro tempore is Mitchell Englander and the assistant president pro tempore is Nury Martinez. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution; the Los Angeles Police Department polices the city of Los Angeles.
It is governed by the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners and the Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department. The city maintains specialized police agencies; the Los Angeles General Services Police, which provided police coverage for Los Angeles city owned property and parks was absorbed into the LAPD in 2012. The Los Angeles Unified School District maintains it own separate police department, as do many other school districts and college campuses within the city; the Charter of the City of Los Angeles ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. The neighborhood councils are autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, elect their own officers. There are about 90 neighborhood councils; the Los Angeles City Attorney is an elected official whose job is legal counsel for the city and may prosecute misdemeanor criminal offenses within the city.
The Los Angeles City Clerk is in charge of record keeping for elections. The Los Angeles City Controller is the elected chief accounting officer of the city; the Los Angeles City Treasurer handles financial matters. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the: Los Angeles City Clerk Economic & Workforce Development Department Office of Finance Los Angeles Fire Department Los Angeles Housing + Community Investment Department Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles Port of Los Angeles Los Angeles Port Police Los Angeles Public Library Department of Recreation and Parks Los Angeles Department of Transportation Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Los Angeles Board of Water and Power Commissioners The most recent elections were in May 2013, with 13th district City Councilman Eric Garcetti defeating City Controller Wendy Greuel for Mayor; the voter turnout was about 19% of registered voters, one of the lowest turnouts on record, with Garcetti garnering about 54% of the votes.
The Charter of the City of Los Angeles is the founding document of Los Angeles. Pursuant to its Charter, all legislative power is vested in the Council and is exercised by ordinance subject to a veto by the Mayor. Pursuant to this power, the Council has caused to be promulgated the Administrative Code, consisting of administrative and procedural ordinances, the Municipal Code, consisting of codified regulatory and penal ordinances. Violations of the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes unless otherwise specified as an infraction and may be prosecuted by city authorities; the Los Angeles Superior Court, which covers the entire county, is not a County department but a division of the State's trial court system. The courthouses were county-owned buildings that were maintained at county expense, which created significant friction since the trial court judges, as officials of the stat
Los Angeles City Council
The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of the City of Los Angeles. The council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms; the president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting of the term. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the President; as of 2015, council members receive an annual salary of $184,610 per year, among the highest city council salary in the nation. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution. A current annual schedule of all Council meetings, broken down by committee, is available as a.pdf download from the Office of the City Clerk. Officers: President of the Council: Herb Wesson President Pro Tempore: Nury Martinez Assistant President Pro Tempore: Joe Buscaino Los Angeles was governed by a seven-member Common Council under general state law from 1850 to 1889, when a city charter was put into effect.
Under the first charter of the city, granted by the Legislature in 1889, the city was divided into nine wards, with a councilman elected from each one by plurality vote. The first election under that system was held on February 21, 1889, the last on December 4, 1906. Two-year terms for the City Council began and ended in December, except for the first term, which started in February 1889 and ended in December 1890; the term of office was lengthened to three years effective with the municipal election of December 4, 1906, the last year this ward system was in use. Between 1909 and 1925, the council was composed of nine members elected at large in a first-past-the-post voting system. Council membership in those years was as follows: City population in 1910: 319,200 Election: December 7, 1909 / Term: December 10, 1909, to December 13, 1911 Election: December 5, 1911 / Term: December 13, 1911, to July 1, 1913 Election: June 3, 1913 / Term: July 1913 to July 1915 Election: June 1, 1915 / Term: July 1915 to July 1917 Election: June 5, 1917 / Term: July 1917 to July 1919 City population in 1920: 576,700 Election: June 3, 1919 / Term: July 7, 1919, to July 5, 1921 Election: June 7, 1921 / Term: July 1921 to July 1923 Election: June 5, 1923 / Term: July 1923 to July 1925 Regular terms begin on July 1 of odd-numbered years until 2017 and on the second Monday in December of even-numbered years starting with 2020.
Los Angeles Common Council List of Los Angeles municipal election returns Chronological Record of Los Angeles City Officials: 1850—1938, Compiled under Direction of Municipal Reference Library City Hall, Los Angeles March 1938 Official website Map of Los Angeles City Council districts
Herb J. Wesson Jr. is an American politician, the President of the Los Angeles City Council. He is the council member representing the City of Los Angeles' 10th Council District. Wesson was Speaker of the California State Assembly. Wesson was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on November 11, 1951, he has one younger brother. He received his undergraduate degree in history from Lincoln University in 1999, where he was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. Before his term in the California State Assembly, Wesson was the chief of staff of former Los Angeles City Council Member Nate Holden and in the same position for former Los Angeles County Supervisor Yvonne Burke. After being termed out of the Assembly, he became a senior adviser and special assistant to Burke, he is a member of the Democratic Party. Wesson served in the California State Assembly, representing the 47th district from 1998 until 2004, he was unanimously elected Speaker of the California State Assembly in 2002 and served in the role until 2004.
He was the second African-American to be elected Speaker of the California Assembly. His legislative agenda focused on environmental protection and healthcare. On November 8, 2005, Wesson was elected with 80% of the vote to represent the 10th Council District in the Los Angeles City Council, in a special election to fill the vacancy created when Martin Ludlow resigned; the 10th Council District is located in central and South Los Angeles, includes the neighborhoods of Koreatown, Little Bangladesh, West Adams, Jefferson Park, Wilshire Center, South Robertson, Arlington Heights, Leimert Park, Faircrest Heights, Gramercy Park and parts of Baldwin Hills. Wesson won a full term in March 2007 with 99.7% of the vote. He was reelected in 2011 and again in 2015. On June 3, 2015 Wesson led the City Council to pass an ordinance that would raise L. A.'s minimum wage to $15 by 2020. In July 2015 he created a committee that would address how Los Angeles could be more business-friendly; some of the developments in the 10th Council District during Wesson's term have been Midtown Crossing, Kaiser Permanente Baldwin Hills/Crenshaw Medical Offices, District Square, Cumulus.
On October 20, 2016 Wesson announced the creation of embRACE L. A. a program to engage Angelenos in a conversation on race and diversity. He partnered with Councilmember Mitch O'Farrell to create the program. On April 25, 2017 Wesson invited over 20 members of the community to dinner at his home to discuss embRACE L. A. and race in Los Angeles. Wesson chaired the City Council's Ad Hoc Committee on the 2024 Summer Olympics. On January 25, 2017 he voted in favor of final approval of L. A.'s Host City Bid. Following the news that L. A. would bid on the 2028 Olympic and Paralympic Games and the City Council voted unanimously in favor of the new proposal. On September 13, 2017, Los Angeles was named as the host of the 2028 Olympic and Paralympic Games. On December 19, 2016, the City Council created a $10 million fund to provide legal assistance for Los Angeles residents facing deportation On January 20, 2017, Wesson was part of the City Council action that approved the hiring of an "immigrant advocate".
On April 20, 2017 Peter Schey was appointed to the position. In April 2017, Wesson welcomed a delegation of governors from Mexico to discuss the relationship between Los Angeles and Mexican states, he concluded the dialogue by making each member of the delegation an honorary citizen in the City of Los Angeles. Every year Wesson, in partnership with the City of Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks treats 150 children from disadvantaged communities to a camping trip at Hansen Dam; each summer Wesson hosts several screenings in the 10th Council District of various family-friendly flicks. Dubbed "Movies in the Park", the series provides a fun and safe environment for all ages. In addition to the movie screenings, Wesson provides all attendees with a meal, popcorn, candy and a raffle drawing; each year, the series sees thousands of attendees across the four film screenings. Wesson's Winter Wonderland includes a tobogganing course made from real snow, holiday themed arts and crafts, lunch and an appearance from Santa Claus.
Wesson gives toys to all attendees and raffles off larger prizes such as bicycles. In December 2015 Wesson gave computers to 350 families. Official Herb Wesson website
Joel Wachs is president of the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts in New York City. He was for thirty years a member of the Los Angeles, City Council, where he was known for his promotion of the arts, his support of gay causes, his advocacy of rent control and other liberal measures. Wachs was born on March 1, 1939, in Scranton, the son of Archie and Hannah Wachs, a teacher, his father was a Jewish immigrant from Poland who ran a butcher shop. The younger of two sons, Joel "suffered from hay fever so severe that at the height of the ragweed season, his parents sat him in the shop's cold storage room, in a fur coat, to help him breathe." They moved to Los Angeles when Wachs was ten years old, where his family became wealthy with a chain of inexpensive ladies' clothing stores. Joel grew up between 79th and 83rd streets and Vermont and Normandie Avenue, he attended Horace Mann Junior High School and Washington High School, followed by UCLA, where the "gregarious" Wachs was president of his freshman and junior classes, of the student body, from whence he graduated in 1961.
He earned a degree at Harvard Law School and a master's degree in taxation from New York University. When in Los Angeles, he lived in Studio City; the unmarried Wachs was a closeted gay man until he was preparing to run for mayor in 1999 at the age of sixty. He was asked by Bill Rosendahl, the gay moderator of a public affairs television show, "Are you a gay man?" Wachs responded: "I am and I'm proud of what I've done for the community, I'm very proud of the fact that what I've done for the community is what I've done for all communities."He had a boisterous personality. When he was newly elected to the Los Angeles City Council, he distributed a mock ordinance that would have taxed all male residents on the size of their genitals, he would exclaim "This is fun!" in the middle of a committee meeting. His colleagues described him as "a human guy, a lot of heart" and used adjectives that ranged from "very bright and intellectual" to "emotional" to "slightly hysterical." After completing his education and before beginning a public career, Wachs was an attorney with the Los Angeles firm of Gray, Binkley & Pfaelzer, which became Kadison, Woodard & Quinn, practiced law for five years.
He told a reporter in 1991: "I didn't love practicing tax law... the result of my efforts was finding ways to save rich people money. And I didn't find that satisfying." Wachs served on the Los Angeles City Council from July 1, 1971, to September 28, 2001, when his resignation took effect. His thirty years on the council were surpassed only by John Ferraro's thirty-five years, Ernani Bernardi's thirty-two years and Marvin Braude's thirty-one. See List of Los Angeles municipal election returns, 1971 and after In May 1971, Wachs, "a young political newcomer," "overwhelmed" veteran James B. Potter, Jr. in Los Angeles City Council District 2, which included portions of the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Fernando Valley. The vote was 14,898 for Potter, his victory was attributed in part to his opposing a multimillion-dollar development in the mountains just north of Beverly Hills. When he was seated, he became the City Council's youngest member at age thirty-three. In 1986, a redistricting move stripped him of more than 90% of his old district and put him into a new one that ran from his home in Studio City to Sunland-Tujunga in the far northeast San Fernando Valley.
He was reelected in the realigned, more conservative district despite the opposition of the Los Angeles Apartment Owners Association, which attacked him because of his fight for rent control. Wachs was reelected in every vote thereafter. After ten years on the City Council, two of them as president pro-tem, Wachs was and unexpectedly elected Los Angeles City Council president in July 1981 when outgoing President John Ferraro decided to drop out of the contest against Councilwoman Pat Russell and, with Councilwoman Peggy Stevenson as a partner, put up Wachs as a candidate instead. Wachs was elected to a two-year term in an 8-7 vote, with Wachs breaking a pledge to Russell to vote for her and casting a vote for himself instead, he described the turn of events as akin to a "Hollywood movie" and, inasmuch as Mayor Tom Bradley was soon to become a candidate for governor, he had plenty of opportunity to act as mayor when Bradley was out of town. He served for two years. "Wachs defied easy categorization on the council, emerging as a populist who railed against what he saw as insider dealing in City Hall and misuse of taxpayer funds.
He was a staunch advocate for the arts and for civil rights." He was known as a "moderate to liberal Republican" but reregistered as an independent before running for mayor in 1993. He backed efforts that resulted in public financing of city elections and creation of an ethics commission. Neighborhood councils. Wachs is sometimes cited as the originator of neighborhood councils in Los Angeles, he organized the first ones—in Studio City, Sherman Oaks, North Hollywood-Toluca Lake and the hill area south of Mulholland Drive in November 1971, choosing the first members himself from a range of backgrounds. He launched numerous studies of such councils in other cities and produced a booklet to help guide the new representative community groups in Los Angeles. Oil drilling. In 1971 he proposed a ban on oil drilling on the city's coastline one-half mile inland from the shore "for both esthetic and geographical safety reasons."Income tax. He was a supporter of levying a city income tax. Rent control, he was a decided advocate for rent control in an effort to keep housing affordable for the elderly and the po