Art Gallery of Ballarat
The Art Gallery of Ballarat is the oldest and largest regional art gallery in Australia. Established in 1884 as the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery by the citizens of Ballarat, both the building and part of its collection is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register and by the National Trust of Victoria; the gallery was the notable home of the original Eureka Flag and houses major collections covering the history of Australian art from the early colonial period to the present day. For the first five years of the gallery's life, the Association rented the large supper room of the Ballarat Academy of Music, now Her Majesty's Theatre, made available by Sir William Clarke, 1st Baronet; the Association worked to secure land on the site of the Government Camp and to raise funds for a permanent home for its collection. Much of the energy and the money came from James Oddie; the current building is the oldest purpose built art gallery building in Australia. Designed by Tappin and Dennehy in the Renaissance Revival architecture style as a bluestone brick and render facade and stone stairway, the foundation stone was laid by Sir William Clarke in 1887 to commemorate Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee.
The new building was opened by Alfred Deakin on Friday 13 June 1890. The gallery is a not-for-profit company limited by guarantee, of which the City of Ballarat is the sole shareholder, it is administered by a board of directors. Louise Tegart is the current Director; the gallery is supported by the Art Gallery of Ballarat Foundation, which raises funds and receives donations on behalf of the gallery and by the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery Association, an independent organisation which established the gallery in 1884 and gave it to the Ballaarat City Council in 1972. Membership of the Association is open to members of the public and brings with it a range of benefits, including discounts at the gallery shop and cafe and invitations to exhibition openings. A 2001 public appeal raised $2 million for expansion of the gallery; the $7 million extension by H. Troon and designed by Peddle Thorp was completed in 2001 to accommodate the expanding collection of contemporary works, temporary exhibits and gallery functions.
In addition, cast iron street gazebos based on the original were reinstated. Entry to the gallery is free, with entry fees applying only to selected special exhibitions. A $1.85 million exterior restoration project began in 2009 and was completed in 2010. The renovation resulted in the reversal of unsympathetic 1950s renovations, including paint being removed from the facade and reopening of the windows; the collection includes works from Fred Williams, Sidney Nolan, Clarice Beckett, Arthur Boyd, Rupert Bunny, William Dobell, Russell Drysdale, Rick Amor, Heinrich Bűrkel, Louis Buvelot, William Barak, Charles Conder, Thomas Flintoff, S T Gill John Glover, Joy Hester, Hans Heysen, Nora Heysen, Norman Lindsay, Howard Arkley, E. Phillips Fox, Robert Jacks, George Johnson, Frederick McCubbin, Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton, William Barak, George Bell, William Henry Bartlett, Charles Blackman, Merric Boyd, Michael Kmit, Arthur Boyd, John Brack, Charles Conder, Nicholas Chevalier, David Davies, Janet Dawson, Robert Hawker Dowling and Eugene von Guerard.
Note that other notable works are in the collection but the following examples are ones in the public domain and for which pictures are available. Art Gallery of Ballarat website Culture Victoria
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Geelong is a port city located on Corio Bay and the Barwon River, in the state of Victoria, Australia. Geelong is 75 kilometres south-west of Melbourne, it is the second largest Victorian city, with an estimated urban population of 192,393 as of June 2016. Geelong runs from the plains of Lara in the north to the rolling hills of Waurn Ponds to the south, with Corio Bay to the east and hills to the west. Geelong is the administrative centre for the City of Greater Geelong municipality, which covers urban and coastal areas surrounding the city, including the Bellarine Peninsula. Geelong City is known as the'Gateway City' due to its central location to surrounding Victorian regional centres like Ballarat in the north west, Great Ocean Road and Warrnambool in the southwest, Hamilton and Winchelsea to the west, the state capital of Melbourne in the north east. Geelong was named in 1827, with the name derived from the local Wathaurong Aboriginal name for the region, thought to mean "land" or "cliffs" or "tongue of land or peninsula".
The area was first surveyed in three weeks after Melbourne. The post office was open by June 1840; the first woolstore was erected in this period and it became the port for the wool industry of the Western District. During the gold rush, Geelong experienced a brief boom as the main port to the rich goldfields of the Ballarat district; the city diversified into manufacturing, during the 1860s, it became one of the largest manufacturing centres in Australia with its wool mills and paper mills. It was proclaimed a city in 1910, with industrial growth from this time until the 1960s establishing the city as a manufacturing centre for the state, the population grew to over 100,000 by the mid-1960s. During the city's early years, an inhabitant of Geelong was known as a Geelongite, or a Pivotonian, derived from the city's nickname of "The Pivot", referencing the city's role as a shipping and rail hub for the area. Population increases over the last decade were due to growth in service industries, as the manufacturing sector has declined.
Redevelopment of the inner city has occurred since the 1990s, as well as gentrification of inner suburbs, has a population growth rate higher than the national average. It is home to the Geelong Football Club, the second oldest club in the Australian Football League. Today, Geelong stands as an emerging health and advanced manufacturing hub; the city's economy is shifting and despite experiencing the drawbacks of losing much of its heavy manufacturing, it is seeing much growth in other sectors, positioning itself as one of the leading non-capital Australian cities. The area of Geelong and the Bellarine Peninsula was occupied by the Wathaurong Indigenous Australian tribe; the first nonindigenous person recorded as visiting the region was Lieutenant John Murray, who commanded the brig HMS Lady Nelson. After anchoring outside Port Phillip Heads, on 1 February 1802, he sent a small boat with six men to explore. Led by John Bowen, they explored the immediate area. On reporting favourable findings, Lady Nelson entered Port Phillip on 14 February, did not leave until 12 March.
During this time, Murray explored the Geelong area and, whilst on the far side of the bay, claimed the entire area for Britain. He named the bay Port King, after Philip Gidley King Governor of New South Wales. Governor King renamed the bay Port Phillip after the first governor of New South Wales, Arthur Phillip. Arriving not long after Murray was Matthew Flinders, who entered Port Phillip on 27 April 1802, he charted the entire bay, including the Geelong area, believing he was the first to sight the huge expanse of water, but in a rush to reach Sydney before winter set in, he left Port Phillip on 3 May. In January 1803, Surveyor-General Charles Grimes arrived at Port Phillip in the sloop Cumberland and mapped the area, including the future site of Geelong, but reported the area was unfavourable for settlement and returned to Sydney on 27 February. In October of the same year, HMS Calcutta led by Lieutenant Colonel David Collins arrived in the bay to establish the Sullivan Bay penal colony. Collins was dissatisfied with the area chosen, sent a small party led by First Lieutenant J.
H. Tuckey to investigate alternate sites; the party spent 22 October to 27 October on the north shore of Corio Bay, where the first Aboriginal death at the hands of a European in Victoria occurred. The next European visit to the area was by the explorers Hamilton William Hovell, they reached the northern edge of Corio Bay – the area of Port Phillip that Geelong now fronts – on 16 December 1824, it was at this time they reported that the Aboriginals called the area Corayo, the bay being called Djillong. Hume and Hovell had been contracted to travel overland from Sydney to Port Phillip, having achieved this, they stayed the night and began their return journey two days on 18 December; the convict William Buckley escaped from the Sullivan Bay settlement in 1803, lived among the Wathaurong people for 32 years on the Bellarine Peninsula. In 1835, John Batman used Indented Head as his base camp, leaving behind several employees whilst he returned to Tasmania for more supplies and his family. In this same year, Buckley surrendered to the party led by John Helder Wedge and was pardoned by Lieutenant-Governor Sir George Arthur, subsequently given the position of interpreter to the natives.
In March 1836, three squatters, David Fisher, James Strachan, George Russell arrived on Caledonia and set
RAAF Museum is the official museum of the Royal Australian Air Force, the second oldest air force in the world, located at RAAF Williams Point Cook, Australia. The museum displays aircraft of significance to the RAAF from its inception as the Australian Flying Corps to the present. At the direction of Air Marshal Sir George Jones, the RAAF Museum was formed in 1952 and fell under the administration of Headquarters Point Cook until 1988 when it became a separate unit of the RAAF, it is overseen by the force's Air Training Wing. Entry to the museum is free; the operating hours are Tuesday to Friday 10 am - Weekends and Public Holidays 10 am - 5 pm. The museum is closed on Mondays, Christmas Day, Good Friday. RAAF Williams is a working Military facility so adult visitors are required to produce photo identification and sign in to gain entry. Not all of the Museum's collection is permanently exhibited. Among those on display are: Some of the aircraft and missiles displayed in different exhibitions are: Bristol Boxkite Royal Aircraft Factory B.
E.2 Deperdussin 1910 monoplane Maurice Farman MF.11 Shorthorn Avro 504K de Havilland Tiger Moth de Havilland Vampire T Mk 35 CAC Winjeel Pacific Aerospace Corporation CT/4A Aermacchi MB-326H Supermarine Walrus Royal Aircraft Factory S. E.5 Douglas Boston de Havilland Vampire F.30 UH-1B Iroquois Bristol Bloodhound SAM CAC Boomerang Consolidated Catalina GAF Pika GAF Jindivik Hawker Demon Avro 643 Cadet de Havilland DH.84 Dragon Bell UH-1 Iroquois Cessna O-1 Bird Dog Sikorsky S-51 Dragonfly CAC Sabre Lockheed C-130A Hercules Lockheed C-130E Hercules Lockheed C-130H Hercules Hawker Siddeley HS 748 Bristol Freighter Lockheed P-3 Orion Bristol Bloodhound missile de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou McDonnell Douglas F-4E Phantom General Dynamics F-111G GAF Canberra Currently non-displayed aircraft include: Avro 707A WD280 CAC Wirraway Douglas C-47 Dakota A65-78 Gloster Meteor T.7 Gloster Meteor F.8 CAC Winjeel Lockheed Neptune North American Harvard Lockheed Ventura de Havilland Vampire T.35 General Dynamics F-111C The museum conducts an interactive flying display at 1pm every Sunday and Thursday for visitors.
Aircraft include the museum's own CA-18 Mustang, North American Harvard, CAC Winjeel, CT4A Trainer, DH Tiger Moth, Replica Royal Aircraft Factory R. E.8 and Replica Sopwith Pup. Visiting aircraft from other museums and operators participate in these displays, once the flying display is completed the pilots land and hold an interactive discussion with the spectators answering any questions they may have; the Roulettes perform at least twice annually replacing the normal Sunday interactive display, performance dates are shared via Social media. Aviation Heritage Museum RAAF Wagga Heritage Centre List of aerospace museums Official website
Southern Cross railway station
Southern Cross railway station is a major railway station in Docklands, Melbourne. It is on Spencer Street, between Collins and La Trobe Streets, at the western edge of the central business district; the Docklands Stadium sports arena is 500 metres north-west of the station. The station is owned and maintained by Infranexus, a subsidiary of IFM Investors, under a 30-year lease to 2036 from the Victorian State Government, under a public-private partnership; the station is the terminus of the state's regional railway network operated by V/Line, The Overland rail service to Adelaide, NSW TrainLink XPT services to Sydney. It is served by suburban rail services operated by Metro Trains, being one of five stations on the City Loop, a underground railway that encircles the Central Business District, it is the second busiest railway station in Melbourne's metropolitan network, with 17.091 million passenger movements recorded in 2013/14. This figure excludes V/Line passengers. Southern Cross has a coach terminal underneath the Spencer Outlet shopping complex.
Skybus Super Shuttle services to Melbourne Airport and since 2017 to Avalon Airport operate from there, as well as Firefly Express and Greyhound Australia interstate coach services, V/Line coach services to Mildura, Yarram and other parts of Victoria not served by rail. Opened as Spencer Street Station in 1859, five years after the other major Melbourne rail terminus at Flinders Street, the station was a dead-end terminus, running parallel to Spencer Street, composed of a single main platform with a dock platform at the north end, it was not until 1874. The two major city stations were not linked until 1879, when a single-track ground-level line was opened, it operated only at night, only for freight trains. In the 1880s, it was proposed that Spencer Street station be removed in order to facilitate the westward expansion of the city, but the plan was subsequently rejected. In 2025, Pakenham and Sunbury railway lines will cease to stop at Southern Cross Station as the Metro Tunnel Project opens.
The 1880s unrealised plans for the station. The first accepted design, drafted by Albert Charles Cook in 1883, was a fanciful Palladian palazzo design of two and three storeys, with central portico. From 1888 to 1894 the layout of the platforms was altered, with new country platforms being built on an angle to Spencer Street itself; the current coach terminal location was the site of a number of new platforms built for suburban services. In 1891, further plans were made for a significant new station complex, including three storey office complex and dominant clock tower reminiscent of the Sydney Central station, but the 1890s Depression put an end to such expensive schemes. In 1888 work started on the double track Flinders Street Viaduct linking the station to Flinders Street station; the line was only used by freight trains, with passenger train operations commencing in 1894. It was at this time that the first through platform was provided at the station, for suburban trains from Essendon and Williamstown.
The viaduct to Flinders Street was expanded to four tracks in 1915, in conjunction with the electrification works on the suburban network today's platforms 11 to 14 were opened between 1918 and 1924, along with a pedestrian subway providing access to them. In 1938 it was announced that construction of an improved station entrance and new car park had been approved, at a cost of £2,000, designed by architects Messrs Stephenson and Meldrum. Once again however, no construction took place.. In October 1960 work on a new Spencer Street station commenced, sparked by the construction of the interstate standard gauge line to Sydney. A station building was constructed which replaced the 1880s iron sheds, a new 413-metre platform number 1 was built; the passenger subway, constructed as part of the 1918 works was extended to include access to country platforms. In connection with the construction of the underground loop, platforms 9 and 10 were rebuilt as part of the suburban section of the station, a new double-track viaduct was constructed between Spencer Street and Flinders Street station, alongside the original one, bringing to six the number of tracks connecting the two stations.
At the same time, the four older tracks were resignalled for bi-directional operation. In 1962 a separate subway network was constructed to carry mail between the station and what was the Melbourne General Post Office and main postal sorting office, situated on the other side of Spencer Street; the mechanically interlocked signal box at the station opened in 1887, was decommissioned in June 2008. Built with 120 levers, it had 191 when it closed, making it the world's largest. Southern Cross was redeveloped by the Civic Nexus consortium, following an innovative design by Grimshaw Architects and Jackson Architecture which features an undulating roof. Construction began in October 2002 and was completed in late 2006, with the majority of the transport facilities finished in time for the 2006 Commonwealth Games; the central features of the design include a wave-shaped roof, a new entrance and concourse on Collins Street, a new coach interchange, a new food court, a bar/restaurant, separate retail outlets inside the station and a separate shopping complex between Bourke and La Trobe Streets.
This new shopping complex comprised a Direct Factory Outlets centre, a Virgin Megastore, along with food courts. This opened on 30 November 2006, although not all tenancies were occupied, stage 2 was opened in March 2007. In 2009 the DFO relocated to a new site
Melbourne Airport, colloquially known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne, the second busiest airport in Australia. It was opened in 1970 to replace the nearby Essendon Airport. Melbourne Airport is the main international airport of the four airports serving the Melbourne metropolitan area, the other international airport being Avalon Airport; the airport comprises four terminals: one international terminal, two domestic terminals and one budget domestic terminal. It is 23 kilometres from the city centre, adjacent to the suburb of Tullamarine; the airport has its own postcode -- Melbourne Airport, Victoria. In 2016-17 around 25 million domestic passengers and 10 million international passengers used the airport; the Melbourne–Sydney air route is the second most-travelled passenger air route in the world. The airport features direct flights to 33 domestic destinations and to destinations in the Pacific, Asia, North America and South America. Melbourne Airport is the number one arrival/departure point for the airports of four of Australia's eight other capital cities.
Melbourne serves as a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Australia, while Jetstar Airways and Tigerair Australia utilise the airport as home base. Domestically, Melbourne serves as headquarters for Australian airExpress and Toll Priority and handles more domestic freight than any other airport in the nation. Before the opening of Melbourne Airport, Melbourne's main airport was Essendon Airport, designated an international airport in 1950. In the mid-1950s, over 10,000 passengers were using Essendon Airport, its limitations were beginning to become apparent. Essendon's facilities were insufficient to meet the increasing demand for air travel. By the mid-1950s, an international overflow terminal was built in a new northern hangar; the airport could not be expanded. The search for a replacement for Essendon commenced in February 1958, when a panel was appointed to assess Melbourne's civil aviation needs. In 1959 the Commonwealth Government acquired 5,300 ha of grassland in then-rural Tullamarine. In May 1959 it was announced that a new airport would be built at Tullamarine, with Prime Minister Robert Menzies announcing on 27 November 1962 a five-year plan to provide Melbourne with a A$45 million "jetport" by 1967.
The first sod at Tullamarine was turned two years in November 1964. In line with the five-year plan, the runways at Essendon were expanded to handle larger aircraft, with Ansett Australia launching the Boeing 727 there in October 1964, the first jet aircraft used for domestic air travel in Australia. On 1 July 1970, Melbourne Airport was opened to international operations by Prime Minister John Gorton, ending Essendon's near two decade run as Melbourne's international airport. Essendon still was home to domestic flights for one year, until they were transferred to Melbourne Airport on 26 June 1971, with the first arrival of a Boeing 747 occurring that year. In the first year of operations, Melbourne handled six international airlines and 155,275 international passengers. Melbourne Airport was called'Melbourne International Airport', it is at a name derived from the indigenous name Tullamareena. Locally, the airport is referred to as Tullamarine or as Tulla to distinguish the airport from the other three Melbourne airports: Avalon and Moorabbin.
On opening, Melbourne Airport consisted of three connected terminals: International in the centre, with Ansett to the South and Trans Australia Airlines to the North. The design capacity of the airport was eight Boeing 707s at a rate of 500 passengers per hour, with minor expansion works completed in 1973 allowing Boeing 747s to serve the airport. By the late 1980s peak passenger flows at the airport had reached 900 per hour, causing major congestion. In late 1989, Federal Airports Corporation Inspector A. Rohead was put in charge of a bicentennial project to rename streets in Melbourne Airport to honour the original inhabitants, European pioneers and aviation history. Information on the first two categories was provided by Ian Hunter, Wurundjeri researcher, Ray Gibb, local historian; the project was completed but was shelved, with the only suggested name, Gowrie Park Drive, being allocated, named after the farm at the heart of the airport. During the 1920s, the farm had been used as a landing site for aircraft, which were parked at night during World War II in case Essendon Aerodrome was bombed.
In 1988, the Australian Government formed the Federal Airports Corporation, placing Melbourne Airport under the operational control of the new corporation along with 21 other airports around the nation. The FAC undertook a number of upgrades at the airport; the first major upgrades were carried out at the domestic terminals, with an expansion of the Ansett domestic terminal approved in 1989 and completed in 1991, adding a second pier for use by smaller regional airlines. Work on an upgrade of the international terminal commenced in 1991, with the'SkyPlaza' retail complex completed in late 1993 on a site flanking the main international departure gates; the rest of the work was completed in 1995, when the new three-level satellite concourse was opened at the end of the existing concourse. Diamond shaped and measuring 80 m on each side, the additional 10 aerobridges provided by the expansion doubled the international passenger handing capacity at Melbourne Airport. In April 1994, the Australian Government announced that all airports operated by FAC would be privatised in several phases.
Melbourne Airport was includ
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface. A distinguishing characteristic of mural painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture; some wall paintings are painted on large canvases, which are attached to the wall. Whether these works can be called "murals" is a subject of some controversy in the art world, but the technique has been in common use since the late 19th century. Murals of sorts date to Upper Paleolithic times such as the cave paintings in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave in Borneo, Chauvet Cave in Ardèche department of southern France. Many ancient murals have been found within ancient Egyptian tombs, the Minoan palaces, the Oxtotitlán cave and Juxtlahuaca in Mexico and in Pompeii. During the Middle Ages murals were executed on dry plaster; the huge collection of Kerala mural painting dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco. In Italy, circa 1300, the technique of painting of frescos on wet plaster was reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of mural painting.
In modern times, the term became more well-known with the Mexican muralism art movement. There are many different techniques; the best-known is fresco, which uses water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a rapid use of the resulting mixture over a large surface, in parts. The colors lighten; the marouflage method has been used for millennia. Murals today are painted in a variety of ways; the styles can vary from abstract to trompe-l'œil. Initiated by the works of mural artists like Graham Rust or Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe-l'oeil painting has experienced a renaissance in private and public buildings in Europe. Today, the beauty of a wall mural has become much more available with a technique whereby a painting or photographic image is transferred to poster paper or canvas, pasted to a wall surface to give the effect of either a hand-painted mural or realistic scene. In the history of mural several methods have been used: A fresco painting, from the Italian word affresco which derives from the adjective fresco, describes a method in which the paint is applied on plaster on walls or ceilings.
The buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, lime mortar or plaster. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster. After this the painting stays for a long time up to centuries in brilliant colors. Fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster; the pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. Mezzo-fresco is painted on nearly-dry plaster, was defined by the sixteenth-century author Ignazio Pozzo as "firm enough not to take a thumb-print" so that the pigment only penetrates into the plaster. By the end of the sixteenth century this had displaced the buon fresco method, was used by painters such as Gianbattista Tiepolo or Michelangelo; this technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of a secco work. In Greco-Roman times encaustic colors applied in a cold state were used. Tempera painting is one of the oldest known methods in mural painting. In tempera, the pigments are bound in an albuminous medium such as egg yolk or egg white diluted in water.
In 16th-century Europe, oil painting on canvas arose as an easier method for mural painting. The advantage was that the artwork could be completed in the artist's studio and transported to its destination and there attached to the wall or ceiling. Oil paint may be a less satisfactory medium for murals because of its lack of brilliance in colour; the pigments are yellowed by the binder or are more affected by atmospheric conditions. The canvas itself is more subject to rapid deterioration than a plaster ground. Different muralists tend to become experts in their preferred medium and application, whether that be oil paints, emulsion or acrylic paints applied by brush, roller or airbrush/aerosols. Clients will ask for a particular style and the artist may adjust to the appropriate technique. A consultation leads to a detailed design and layout of the proposed mural with a price quote that the client approves before the muralist starts on the work; the area to be painted can be gridded to match the design allowing the image to be scaled step by step.
In some cases the design is projected straight onto the wall and traced with pencil before painting begins. Some muralists will paint directly without any prior sketching, preferring the spontaneous technique. Once completed the mural can be given coats of varnish or protective acrylic glaze to protect the work from UV rays and surface damage. In modern, quick form of muralling, young enthusiasts use POP clay mixed with glue or bond to give desired models on a canvas board; the canvas is set aside to let the clay dry. Once dried, the canvas and the shape can be painted with your choice of colors and coated with varnish; as an alternative to a hand-painted or airbrushed mural, digitally printed murals can be applied to surfaces. Existing murals can be photographed and be reproduced