Guinness Foreign Extra Stout
Guinness Foreign Extra Stout is a stout produced by the Guinness Brewery, an Irish brewing company owned by Diageo, a drinks multinational. First brewed by Guinness in 1801, FES was designed for export, is more hopped than Guinness Draught and Extra Stout, has a higher alcohol content, which gives it a more bitter taste; the extra hops were intended as a natural preservative for the long journeys the beer would take by ship. FES is the Guinness variant, most found in Asia and the Caribbean, it accounts for half of Guinness sales worldwide. Over four million hectolitres of the beer were sold in Africa in 2011, where Diageo intend to grow the product into the continent's highest selling beer. Guinness Flavour Extract, a dehydrated, hopped wort extract made from barley malt and roasted barley, is used for overseas production of the stout; the syrup is shipped from Ireland, where it is added at the ratio of 1:49 to locally brewed pale beer. In most overseas markets, Guinness Flavour Extract is blended with locally brewed beer to produce FES.
FES was marketed in Nigeria. This was updated for 1999 -- 2006 with the Michael Power campaign; the beer is ranked on beer rating websites, while beer critics have varying opinions. Guinness West India Porter, the direct predecessor of Foreign Extra Stout, was first exported from the St. James's Gate Brewery in Dublin in 1801; the product was formulated for Irish immigrant workers in the Caribbean. The beer was only brewed between October and April, which reduced acidification, was matured in large wooden vats for up to two years, which gave the finished product greater stability. To survive the long journey overseas, taken by ship, it was brewed with extra hops and a higher alcohol content, which acted as natural preservatives for the beer. Exported in barrels, the product was bottled locally, which helped to reduce costs; the first recorded shipment of the beer to the United States was in 1817. In 1827, the first official shipment of Guinness on the African continent arrived in Sierra Leone; the beer was renamed Foreign Extra Stout from around 1849 onwards.
The first recorded exports to South East Asia began in the 1860s. FES accounted for around five per cent of all Guinness production at the turn of the twentieth century, with two thirds destined for Australia and the United States, where it was used as a medicinal product. Australia remained the single largest export market for the product until 1910, when it was eclipsed by the United States. Due to the expense of importation, FES was a premium product, retailing for double the price of domestic stouts. Total production had reached 105,000 hogsheads by 1912; the American trade was disrupted by the onset of World War I and discontinued with the introduction of Prohibition. The product was not popular when it returned in the 1930s, as drinkers now preferred the lighter and cheaper Guinness Extra Stout. Following discontinuation of export during World War II, FES did not return to the United States until 1956, but this was to prove unsuccessful, the beer was withdrawn shortly afterwards. Guinness export sales were to ethnic Anglo Saxons and Celts prior to 1920.
This changed from the 1920s onwards, among the first natives to develop a taste for the drink were the ethnic Chinese of the Malay Peninsula. A global Guinness salesman was appointed by the company in 1924, sales began to be pursued among native populations. In 1939, shortly after the outbreak of World War II, the British War Office purchased 500,000 half-pint bottles of FES for distribution to hospitals. In 1951, exports by 1964 had grown to 300,000 barrels. By 1959, sales in Ghana had grown large enough for Guinness to establish a joint venture in the country with the United Africa Company. By 1962, Nigeria had become the largest export market for Guinness, with around 100,000 barrels exported to the country every year; this led the company to build a brewery in Ikeja in western Nigeria to supply the demand. The brewery cost over £2 million, had a 150,000 barrel capacity, was 60 per cent owned by Guinness Nigeria, 25 per cent by the United Africa Company with the remaining shares held by local Nigerian interests.
Breweries followed in Malaysia and Ghana, whilst licences were granted to other companies to brew Guinness under contract in other African countries and the West Indies. A small proportion of Guinness production, it was this success in Africa but in Asia, that allowed FES to grow into a 4.5 million hectolitre brand. A new bottle design was debuted in Malaysia in 2005, rolled out worldwide. In 2013, FES received a packaging redesign in Africa and other selected markets, with a gold foil top and a new label; the Irish version of FES is brewed with pale malt, 25 per cent flaked barley and 10 per cent roasted barley, the latter being what gives the beer its dark hue. It uses the bitter Galena and Target hop varieties which have undergone an isomerized kettle extract process; the beer contains about a third more hops, nearly double the amount of roasted barley than Guinness Draught. The beer is force carbonated; the beer has 47 Bitterness Units. Guinness Flavour Extract, a dehydrated, hopped wort extract made from barley malt and roasted barley, is used for overseas production of the stout.
The syrup is shipped from Ireland, where it is added at the ratio of 1:49 to locally brewed pale beer. Each year, six million litres of GFE are made using 9,000 tonnes of barley. Guinness Flavour Extract was first created by scientists working
Captain Morgan is a brand of rum produced by alcohol conglomerate Diageo. It is named after the 17th-century Welsh privateer of the Caribbean, Sir Henry Morgan who died on 25 August 1688. Since 2017, the label has used the slogan "Live like the Captain." In 1944, the Seagram Company, based in Canada, started producing rum under the name Captain Morgan Rum Company. Seagram CEO Samuel Bronfman purchased. Among the buyers of raw rum from the Long Pond distillery was a Kingston pharmacy named Levy Brothers; the Levy family had been purchasing raw rum, adding medicinal herbs and spices and bottling it. Bronfman bought the rights to it. In the 1950s the governments of both the United States and its Puerto Rico commonwealth territory instituted a number of job creation programs in Puerto Rico. Taxes on rum entering the contiguous 48 states from Puerto Rico were made lower than those on rum coming from foreign countries. At this time both Seagram and the Bacardi family built large new plants near San Juan.
In 1985, Seagram sold its rum distillery and manufacturing facilities in Camuy and Arecibo—and doing business as Puerto Rican Destillers—to Destilería Serrallés, a Puerto Rican concern, producing the Don Q brand in Puerto Rico since 1865. As part of the contract Seagram licensed to Serralles the rights to produce and distribute the "Captain Morgan" brand in Puerto Rico and the rest of the Caribbean until 2012. In 2001, Seagram sold the "Captain Morgan" brand to Diageo. Diageo made an announcement on 24 June 2008, that it intends to build and operate a new rum distillery on St. Croix, Virgin Islands beginning in 2010 and to source from it beginning at the end of their current supply contract in 2012. In 1984, Captain Morgan Original Spiced Rum was introduced to the United States. Captain Morgan was, by volume, the second largest brand of spirits in the United States, the seventh largest worldwide in 2007. In 2007, 7.6 million 9-litre cases were sold. Most Captain Morgan rum is sold in the United States, Great Britain, South Africa, Global Travel.
In November 2009, the NFL banned a covert ad campaign put on by Diageo. It was understood that for each NFL player striking the "Captain Morgan" pose on camera during a regular season game, Diageo would donate $10,000 to the Gridiron Greats; the league made this announcement following such a celebration by Brent Celek of the Philadelphia Eagles. In 2010 two American territories, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands bickered over plans for the Captain Morgan to move operations to the Virgin Islands for tax reasons; the matter came to a head during a debate in the United States Congress over the USVI's attempt to use tax benefits to lure the company to that territory. In 2011, to bring it into line with the international version, Morgan's Spiced in the UK was rebranded as Captain Morgan's Spiced; this was accompanied by a large media campaign and parties hosted around the UK in clubs and bars to advertise the new rum. The "Captain Morgan" mascot was introduced along with "Morganettes".
The likeness of the Captain Morgan character was created by award-winning artist Don Maitz. Captain Morgan's Rum is distilled from sugar cane; the combination of the type of yeasts employed for fermentation, distillation method, aging conditions, blending determines the characteristic flavour of rum. Made with molasses, water and yeast, Captain Morgan Original Spiced rum is distilled in a continuous still. Once distilled, the clear spirit is aged in oak barrels for up to a year, adding a golden colour and character to the rum before the flavours and spices are added; the brand’s taste is achieved through a proprietary recipe, blended into the rum mixture at the final stages of production, making use of spices indigenous to the Caribbean Islands. Black – The original Captain Morgan rum, this is a full-bodied blend of pot and continuous still rums from Jamaica, Guyana & Barbados aged in oak, has a dark colour and distinctive rich taste. Available only in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia, South Africa, some other countries.
Packaged in a traditional Captain Morgan bottle with a black label highlighting the words "Jamaica Rum". 100 proof Black Spiced Rum – Crafted from Caribbean Blackstrap rum and select ingredients, including “rich clove spice and premium cassia bark... finished with double charred blackened oak for a premium, smooth taste”. Advertised as a bold alcohol that carries the taste of cinnamon and clove, followed by “hints of warm spice and vanilla for a smooth finish". Only available in the United States and Australia. Packaged in a distinct stout-bodied clear-glass bottle with a white label printed on both sides. 94.6 proof Dark Rum – A blend of Caribbean and Canadian Rum. 80 proof Deluxe Dark – A blend of dark Caribbean rums, aged in white oak barrels, only available in Canada. 80 proof Lime Bite – A silver lime-spiked spiced rum. 70 proof Limited Edition Spiced – Similar to Spiced Gold. 70 proof Long Island Iced Tea – A pre-mixed cocktail of rum, whiskey and triple-sec liqueur. Only available in the United States and Canada.
35 proof Original Spiced – Aged Caribbean rum, with spices and other natural flavours. 70 proof Original Spiced Gold – A blend of rum and other spirits. Mellow aged and enhanced with fruit flavours, a heavy touch of vanilla. 70 proof Parrot Bay – White rum offered in a variety of flavourings including coconut, key lime, orange, passion fruit and strawberry. This range appears to have been introduced to compete with the flavoured vodkas in mixed cocktails. 42 proof. Of
Ulster is a province in the north of the island of Ireland. It is made up of nine counties, six of which are in Northern Ireland and three of which are in the Republic of Ireland, it is the second largest and second most populous of Ireland's four provinces, with Belfast being its biggest city. Unlike the other provinces, Ulster has a high percentage of Protestants, making up half of its population. English is Ulster English the main dialect. A minority speak Irish, there are Gaeltacht in southern Londonderry, the Gaeltacht Quarter of Belfast and in Donegal, where 25% of the total Gaeltacht population of Ireland is located. Lough Neagh, in the east, is the largest lake in the British Isles, while Lough Erne in the west is one of its largest lake networks; the main mountain ranges are the Mournes, Sperrins and Derryveagh Mountains. Ulster lay at the heart of the Gaelic world made up of Gaelic Ireland and the Isle of Man. According to tradition, in ancient Ireland it was one of the fifths ruled by a rí ruirech, or "king of over-kings".
It is named after the overkingdom of Ulaid, in the east of the province, in turn named after the Ulaid folk. The other overkingdoms in Ulster were Ailech. After the Norman invasion of Ireland in the 12th century, eastern Ulster was conquered by the Anglo-Normans and became the Earldom of Ulster. By the late 14th century the Earldom had collapsed and the O'Neill dynasty had come to dominate most of Ulster, claiming the title King of Ulster. Ulster became the most Gaelic and independent of Ireland's provinces, its rulers were defeated in the Nine Years' War. King James I colonized Ulster with English-speaking Protestant settlers from Britain, in the Plantation of Ulster; this led to the founding of many of Ulster's towns. The inflow of Protestant settlers and migrants led to bouts of sectarian violence with Catholics, notably during the 1641 rebellion and the Armagh disturbances. Along with the rest of Ireland, Ulster became part of the United Kingdom in 1801. In the early 20th century, moves towards Irish self-rule were opposed by many Ulster Protestants, sparking the Home Rule Crisis.
This, the subsequent Irish War of Independence, led to the partition of Ireland. Six Ulster counties became Northern Ireland, a self-governing territory within the United Kingdom, while the rest of Ireland became the Irish Free State, now the Republic of Ireland. Ulster has no official function for local government purposes in either country. However, for the purposes of ISO 3166-2, Ulster is used to refer to the three counties of Cavan and Monaghan only, which are given country sub-division code "IE-U"; the name is used by various organisations such as cultural and sporting bodies. The name Ulster has several possible derivations: from the Norse name "Uladztir", an adaptation of Ulaidh and tir, the Irish for "land", it has been suggested to have derived from Uladh plus the Norse suffix ster, common in the Shetland Islands and Norway. The Irish name, Cúige Uladh, means the "province of the Ulaid", with the term cúige referring to a fifth; the Ulaidh were a group of tribes. Ulaidh has been anglicised as Ulagh or Ullagh and Latinised as Ulidia or Ultonia.
The latter two have yielded the terms Ultonian. The Irish word for someone or something from Ulster is Ultach, this can be found in the surnames MacNulty, MacAnulty, Nulty, which all derive from Mac an Ultaigh, meaning "son of the Ulsterman". Words that have been used in English are Ulsterman/Ulsterwoman. Northern Ireland is referred to as Ulster, despite including only six of Ulster's nine counties; this usage is most common amongst people in Northern Ireland who are unionist, although it is used by the media throughout the United Kingdom. Most Irish nationalists object to the use of Ulster in this context. Ulster has an area of 21,552 square kilometres. About 62 % of the area of Ulster is in the UK. Ulster's biggest city, has an urban population of over half a million inhabitants, making it the second-largest city on the island of Ireland and the 10th largest urban area in the UK. Six of Ulster's nine counties, Armagh, Fermanagh and Tyrone, including the former parliamentary boroughs of Belfast and Londonderry, form Northern Ireland which remained part of the United Kingdom after the partition of Ireland in 1921.
Three Ulster counties – Cavan and Monaghan – form part of the Republic of Ireland. About half of Ulster's population lives in counties Down. Across the nine counties, according to the aggregate UK 2011 Census for Northern Ireland, the ROI 2011 Census for counties Cavan and Monaghan, there is a Roman Catholic majority over Protestant of 50.8% to 42.7%. While the traditional counties continue to demarcate areas of local government in the Republic of Ireland, this is no longer the case in Northern Ireland. Since 1974, the traditional counties have a ceremonial role only. Local government in Northern Ireland is today demarcated by 11 districts. Counties shaded in grey are in the Republic of Ireland. Counties shaded in pink are in Northern Ireland. Settlements in Ulster with at least 14,000 inhabitants, li
Smithwick's is an Irish red ale-style beer. Smithwick's brewery was founded in Kilkenny in 1710. In 1965, it was acquired by Guinness, now part of Diageo; the Kilkenny brewery was shut down in 2013 and production of all Smithwick's and Kilkenny branded beers moved to Dublin. Smithwick's Brewery was founded by John Smithwick in 1710; the brewery is on the site of a Franciscan abbey, where monks had brewed ale since the 14th century, ruins of the original abbey still remain on its grounds. The old brewery has since been renovated and now hosts "The Smithwick's Experience Kilkenny" visitor attraction and centre. At the time of its closure, it was Ireland's oldest operating brewery. John Smithwick was an orphan. Shortly after his arrival, Smithwick went into the brewing business with Richard Cole on a piece of land that Cole had leased from the Duke of Ormond in 1705. Five years John Smithwick became the owner of the land; the brewery stayed small. Following John Smithwick's death, the brewery temporarily fell out of family hands.
John Smithwick's great grandson, Edmond bought the brewery land back freehold and worked to reshape its future. Edmond concentrated on discovering new markets and building export trade. Drinkers in England and Wales developed a taste for Smithwick's brews and output increased fivefold; as a result of substantial contributions made to St Mary's Cathedral, Edmond became great friends with Irish liberal Daniel O'Connell, who became godfather to one of his sons. Edmond Smithwick became well known and respected by the people of Kilkenny who elected him town mayor four times. In 1800, export sales began to fall and the brewing industry encountered difficulty. To combat this, the Smithwick family increased production in their maltings, began selling mineral water and delivered butter with the ale from the back of their drays. By 1900, output was at an all-time low and the owner James Smithwick was advised by auditors to shut the doors of the brewery. Instead, James reduced the range of beers they set out to find new markets.
He secured military contracts and soon after saw output increase again. James' son, took control in 1930 and steered the brewery to success through the hardships of both World War II and challenging weather conditions. By January 1950, Smithwick's was exporting ale to Boston. Smithwick's was purchased from Walter Smithwick in 1965 by Guinness and is now, along with Guinness, part of Diageo. Together, Guinness & Co. and Smithwick's developed and launched Smithwick's Draught Ale in 1966. By 1979, half a million barrels were sold each year. In 1980, Smithwick's began exporting to France. In 1993, Smithwick's Draught became Canada's leading imported ale. By 2010, Smithwick's continued to be brewed in Dundalk and Kilkenny with tankers sent to Dublin to be kegged for the on trade market. Cans and bottles were packaged by IBC in Belfast. Production in the Kilkenny brewery finished on 31 December 2013 and Smithwicks brands are now produced in the Diageo St. James' Gate brewery in Dublin; the original Kilkenny site was sold to Kilkenny County Council, with a small portion of the site dedicated to the opening of a visitor's centre, the "Smithwick's Experience Kilkenny".
Official Smithwick's videos give the pronunciation as. Due to the differing accent and dialects of Ireland, it is pronounced, or there but never or; when ordering in the US, or is preferred, while is the most prevalent pronunciation in Canada. In the Old Kilkenny Review, year unknown, Peter Smithwick, K. M. Solicitor, wrote that the tradition in Kilkenny is that Sullivan's Brewery was founded in 1702 by Daniel Sullivan, a Protestant, who bought property in trust for Pierse Bryan of Jenkinstown, a Catholic, prohibited by the Penal Laws from buying land; the property, on the West side of High Street, "standing backward in James' Street", is believed to have been the site of Sullivan's Brewery, the forerunner of Smithwicks. Smithwick's Draught is an Irish red ale and as the style has a red tone, it is produced using roasted, malted barley. In 2004, Diageo PLC began distribution in the USA. Smithwick's had been marketed in Canada. Kilkenny Irish Cream Ale is similar to Smithwick's Draught; the Kilkenny name was used during the'80s and'90s to market a stronger version of Smithwick's for the European and Canadian market due to local difficulty in pronunciation of the word "Smithwick's", but it now refers to a similar yet distinctly different beer.
Smithwick's Pale Ale was launched in 2011. The ale is made of pale ale malt, traditional Smithwick's yeast and Amarillo hops and has an ABV of 4.5%. Irish beer Official website
Tanqueray is a brand of gin produced by Diageo plc and marketed worldwide. Although originated in London, it is now produced in Scotland, it does not command a sizeable market share in its native market, but its largest market is in the United States, where it is the highest selling gin import, followed by southern Europe. Tanqueray is a London dry gin. London dry gin is made by means of double distillation of grain. Botanicals are added during the second distillation. While the recipe is a guarded trade secret, it is known to contain four botanicals: juniper, angelica root, liquorice, it is one of Diageo's 16 "strategic brands" earmarked for prioritisation in promotion and distribution worldwide. Tanqueray gin was distilled in 1830 by Charles Tanqueray in the Bloomsbury district of London; the retail outlet of Edward & Charles Tanqueray & Co was established on Vine Street, London, in 1838. When Charles died in 1868, his son Charles Waugh Tanqueray inherited the distillery, which continued to operate until it was damaged during World War II.
The only facility to survive the Axis bombing, now known as "Old Tom", has since been moved to Cameron Bridge, Scotland. According to one report, Tanqueray became the highest selling gin in the world for the first time in 2016, with nearly three million nine-liter cases sold. Tanqueray London Dry Gin is the original product, launched in 1830, it is variously sold as: Special Dry 47.3% ABV Export Strength 43.1% ABV 40% ABV Tanqueray No. Ten is targeted at the martini market, it is distilled four times. Tanqueray Sterling Vodka was introduced in 1989 and is available in both neutral and citrus flavours, its main market is the United States. Tanqueray Rangpur Gin was introduced in Maryland and Washington, D. C. in the summer of 2006. It has a strong citrus flavor, the result of rangpur limes and bay leave being added during the final distillation process, it is now available throughout the United States. Tanqueray Malacca Gin was introduced in 1997 as a "wetter" alternative to the London Dry, with more sweetness and a stronger fruit palate.
Discontinued in 2001, Diageo announced on 12 December 2012 that a 16,000-case limited edition of Tanqueray Malacca would be relaunched in the US, Great Britain, Western Europe for February 2013. Past offerings from Tanqueray include both orange and lemon gins, produced from 1937 until 1957, when both were phased out. Notable spirit ratings for Tanqueray included a string of Double Golds for 2005–2007 from the San Francisco World Spirits Competition. Years' competitions saw Tanqueray win a string of silver medals and another double gold in 2012. Wine Enthusiast rated the London Dry in its "96–100" category in 2007 but gave it a "90–95" in 2011. Tanqueray introduced "Mr. Jenkins," a white-haired, well-dressed spokes-character, in print ads in 1994, he was retired a few years later. In 2004 Tanqueray introduced “Tony Sinclair,” a younger, foppish hipster socialite spokes-character in television ads. Sinclair's catchphrase at the end of every commercial was “Ready to Tanqueray?” Followed by a manic laugh.
He was portrayed by Rodney Mason as a madcap socialite of Black British descent. Williams, Olivia. Gin Glorious Gin: How Mother's Ruin Became the Spirit of London. London: Headline Publishing Group ISBN 978-1-4722-1534-5 Official website of Tanqueray gin Tanqueray on thebar UK, owned by Diageo
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power