A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales. It accomplishes this task by impaling the target animal and securing it with barb or toggling claws, allowing the fishermen to use a rope or chain attached to the projectile to catch the animal. A harpoon can be used as a weapon. In the 1990s, harpoon points, known as the Semliki harpoons or the Katanda harpoons, were found in the Katanda region in Zaire; as the earliest known harpoons, these weapons were made and used 90,000 years ago, most to spear catfishes. In Japan, spearfishing with poles was widespread in palaeolithic times during the Solutrean and Magdalenian periods. Cosquer Cave in Southern France contains cave art over 16,000 years old, including drawings of seals which appear to have been harpooned. There are references to harpoons in ancient literature. An early example can be found in the Bible in Job 41:7: "Can you fill its hide with harpoons or its head with fishing spears?"

The Greek historian Polybius, in his Histories, describes hunting for swordfish by using a harpoon with a barbed and detachable head. Copper harpoons were known to the seafaring Harappans well into antiquity. Early hunters in India include the Mincopie people, aboriginal inhabitants of India's Andaman and Nicobar islands, who have used harpoons with long cords for fishing since early times; the two flue harpoon was the primary weapon used in whaling around the world, but it tended to penetrate no deeper than the soft outer layer of blubber. Thus it was possible for the whale to escape by struggling or swimming away forcefully enough to pull the shallowly embedded barbs out backwards; this flaw was corrected in the early nineteenth century with the creation of the one flue harpoon. In the Arctic, the indigenous people used the more advanced toggling harpoon design. In the mid-19th century, the toggling harpoon was adapted by Lewis Temple; the Temple toggle was used, came to dominate whaling. In his famous novel Moby-Dick, Herman Melville explained the reason for the harpoon's effectiveness: In most land animals there are certain valves or flood gates in many of their veins, whereby when wounded, the blood is in some degree at least shut off in certain directions.

Not so with the whale. Yet so vast is the quantity of blood in him, so distant and numerous its interior fountains, that he will keep thus bleeding and bleeding for a considerable period, he describes another device, at times a necessary addition to harpoons: All whale-boats carry certain curious contrivances invented by the Nantucket Indians, called druggs. Two thick squares of wood of equal size are stoutly clenched together, so that they cross each other's grain at right angles, it is chiefly among gallied whales. For more whales are close round you than you can chase at one time, but sperm whales are not every day encountered. And if you cannot kill them all at once, you must wing them, so that they can be afterwards killed at your leisure. Hence it is; the first use of explosives in the hunting of whales was made by the British South Sea Company in 1737, after some years of declining catches. A large fleet was armed with cannon-fired harpoons. Although the weaponry was successful in killing the whales, most of the catch sank before being retrieved.

However, the system was still used, underwent successive improvements at the hands of various inventors over the next century, including Abraham Stagholt in the 1770s and George Manby in the early 19th century. William Congreve, who invented some of the first rockets for British Army use, designed a rocket-propelled whaling harpoon in the 1820s; the shell was designed to impale the whale with the harpoon. The weapon was in turn attached by a line to the boat, the hope was that the explosion would generate enough gas within the whale to keep it afloat for retrieval. Expeditions were sent out to try this new technology; these early devices, called bomb lances, became used for the hunting of humpbacks and right whales. A notable user of these early explosive harpoons was the American Thomas Welcome Roys in 1865, who set up a shore station in Seydisfjördur, Iceland. A slump in oil prices after the American Civil War forced their endeavor into bankruptcy in 1867. An early version of the explosive harpoon was designed by Jacob Nicolai Walsøe, a Norwegian painter and inventor.

His 1851 application was rejected by the interior ministry on the grounds that he had received public funding for his experiments. In 1867, a Danish fireworks

Mister Geppetto

Mister Geppetto Mastro Geppetto, is a fictional character in the novel The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi. Geppetto is the creator of Pinocchio, he wears a yellow wig resembling cornmeal mush, his neighbors call him "Polendina" to annoy him. The name Geppetto is a Tuscan diminutive of the name Giuseppe. Geppetto is introduced when carpenter Mister Antonio finds a talking block of pinewood that he was about to carve into a leg for his table; when Geppetto drops by looking for a piece of wood to build a marionette, Antonio gives the block to Geppetto. Geppetto, being poor and thinking on making a living as a puppeteer, carves the block into a boy and names him "Pinocchio". Before he is built, Pinocchio has a mischievous attitude. Once the puppet has been finished and Geppetto teaches him to walk, Pinocchio runs out the door and away into the town, he is caught by the carabiniere. When people say that Geppetto dislikes children, the carabiniere assumes that Pinocchio has been treated poorly and imprisons Geppetto.

The next morning, Geppetto finds that Pinocchio's feet have burnt off. Geppetto replaces them with new feet; when Geppetto feeds him three pears, Pinocchio promises to go to school. Because Geppetto has no money to buy school books, he sells his only coat. Geppetto is next seen when Pinocchio believes that the Fairy with Turquoise Hair has died and a pigeon carries him to the seashore, where Geppetto is building a boat to search for Pinocchio. Pinocchio tries to swim to Geppetto but is washed underwater while Geppetto is swallowed by The Terrible Dogfish. Geppetto is not seen again. Pinocchio and Geppetto are thence conveyed to shore by a tuna. After several months of hard work supporting the ailing Geppetto at a farmer's house, Pinocchio goes to buy himself a new suit, Geppetto and Pinocchio are not reunited until the puppet has become a boy. Geppetto is resuming woodcarving. In the Disney animated film, Geppetto is introduced as a shopkeeper finishing Pinocchio. Before falling asleep, Geppetto makes a wish on a falling star.

During the night, the Blue Fairy grants Geppetto's wish. The next day, he sends Pinocchio on his first day of school. En route, Pinocchio meets Honest John and Gideon, who convince him to join Stromboli's puppet show instead; when Pinocchio returns home, he finds the shop empty and learns from a letter by the Blue Fairy that Geppetto, venturing out to sea to rescue Pinocchio from Pleasure Island, had been swallowed by'Monstro'. Determined to rescue his father, Pinocchio is reunited with Geppetto and his pets in Monstro's throat, where Pinocchio burns spare furniture to choke their captor into releasing them; this done, Monstro pursues them to the coast, where Pinocchio pulls Geppetto to safety, but himself falls senseless. While Geppetto mourns Pinocchio at home, the Blue Fairy revives Pinocchio, makes him human. Geppetto appeared the following year in the short All Together, made for the Canadian government. Disney's version of Geppetto has made appearances in Disney's House of Mouse as well as in the Kingdom Hearts series of video games in the "Monstro" world.

The character made a cameo appearance alongside Pinocchio in the episode "Wonders of the Deep" of the Mickey Mouse TV show. Geppetto is the title character in the 2000 made-for-television musical, portrayed by Drew Carey, embarrassed about his involvement in the project, he dearly wishes to become a father until one night, the Blue Fairy appears in his workshop and brings Pinocchio to life. At first, Geppetto is happy that his wish came true, but runs into problems with Pinocchio asking persistent questions when trying to get to sleep, wandering off and getting into mischief when introducing him to the townspeople of Villagio and not interested in being a toymaker; the next day, Geppetto sends Pinocchio off to school, telling him to just act like all of the other children and he'll be alright. However, Pinocchio gets sent home from school after he gets into a fight for imitating all the other children, disappointing Geppetto. On their way home, they meet Stromboli the puppeteer, fascinated by Pinocchio and thinks he would be worth a fortune to him as the main attraction in his puppet show.

After a brief confrontation with the Blue Fairy doesn't go well, Geppetto returns home, only to find out that Pinocchio ran away to live with Stromboli, who keeps him under a contract he had him sign. When Geppetto arrives after the show, Stromboli says Pinocchio left, claiming that he wanted to see the world, only to find Pinocchio running off to Pleasure Island and they both set out to find him. Along the way, Geppetto meets a magician named Lezarno and visits the town of Idylia where Professor Buonragazzo and his son make obedient children for any family that wants one, he arrives at Pleasure Island and discovers the terrible curse it harnesses. After riding the rollercoaster, the boys all "make jackasses of themselves" by turning into donkeys, he arrives at the rollercoaster to rescue Pinocchio, but he refuses, saying he was a big disappointment to him, gets on the ride, is shipped off to the salt mines after having been turned into a donkey. Geppetto, keeping up with the ship using a tiny fishing boat gets swallowed by a monstrous whale where Pinocchio tells him that after he jumped in the water to save him, the donkey curse washed away and he became human again.


Douglas Robertson Bisset

Douglas Robertson Bisset, was a Scottish sculptor, best known for his works in the city of Glasgow and for several notable portrait busts. Bisset was born in Strichen in Aberdeenshire and served an apprenticeship with an architectural sculptor in Glasgow before studying at the Glasgow School of Art between 1930 and 1933. Bisset won the Newberry Gold Medal and a John Keppie Scholarship, which allowed him to travel to Germany and Denmark to further his studies. During 1933 he worked as an assistant teacher at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts under Einar Utzon-Frank. Bisset spent two years at the British School in Rome before moving to Greece in 1935 where he was attached to the British School of Archaeology in Athens for three years. Bisset contributed plaster statues, now lost, of David Livingstone and James Watt for the Scottish Pavilion North, part of the Empire Exhibition held in Glasgow in 1938. Many years he produced a relief panel, with an unusual take on the idea of the Grim Reaper, sited above the mortuary door of the Glasgow Victoria Infirmary.

Bisset settled in London. During 1939 he taught art and sculpture at the Brighton School of Art and in 1939 took the post of Head of Sculpture at Leeds College of Art where he remained until 1946. In 1944, the War Artists' Advisory Committee purchased a bronze bust by Bisset of the Victoria Cross holder John Patrick Kenneally. Bisset's 1950 portrait bust of Ernest Bevin is now in the British Government's Art Collection. From 1980 until 1995, Bisset lived in Mexico but returned to live in Glasgow