Harriet Tubman was an American abolitionist and political activist. Born into slavery, Tubman escaped and subsequently made some 13 missions to rescue 70 enslaved people, including family and friends, using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. During the American Civil War, she served as an armed spy for the Union Army. In her years, Tubman was an activist in the struggle for women's suffrage. Born a slave in Dorchester County, Tubman was beaten and whipped by her various masters as a child. Early in life, she suffered a traumatic head wound when an irate slave owner threw a heavy metal weight intending to hit another slave, but hitting her instead; the injury caused dizziness and spells of hypersomnia, which occurred throughout her life. After her injury, Tubman began experiencing strange visions and vivid dreams, which she ascribed to premonitions from God; these experiences, combined with her Methodist upbringing, led her to become devoutly religious.
In 1849, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia immediately returned to Maryland to rescue her family. One group at a time, she brought relatives with her out of the state, guided dozens of other slaves to freedom. Traveling by night and in extreme secrecy, Tubman "never lost a passenger". After the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed, she helped guide fugitives farther north into British North America, helped newly freed slaves find work. Tubman met John Brown in 1858, helped him plan and recruit supporters for his 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry; when the Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, as an armed scout and spy. The first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war, she guided the raid at Combahee Ferry, which liberated more than 700 slaves. After the war, she retired to the family home on property she had purchased in 1859 in Auburn, New York, where she cared for her aging parents, she was active in the women's suffrage movement until illness overtook her, she had to be admitted to a home for elderly African Americans that she had helped to establish years earlier.
After her death in 1913, she became an icon of freedom. Tubman was born Araminta "Minty" Ross to Harriet Green and Ben Ross. Rit was owned by Mary Pattison Brodess. Ben was held by Anthony Thompson, who became Mary Brodess's second husband, who ran a large plantation near the Blackwater River in the Madison area of Dorchester County, Maryland; as with many slaves in the United States, neither the exact year nor place of Tubman's birth is known, historians differ as to the best estimate. Kate Larson records the year as 1822, based on a midwife payment and several other historical documents, including her runaway advertisement, while Jean Humez says "the best current evidence suggests that Tubman was born in 1820, but it might have been a year or two later". Catherine Clinton notes that Tubman reported the year of her birth as 1825, while her death certificate lists 1815 and her gravestone lists 1820. Modesty, Tubman's maternal grandmother, arrived in the United States on a slave ship from Africa.
As a child, Tubman was told that she seemed like an Ashanti person because of her character traits, though no evidence exists to confirm or deny this lineage. Her mother, was a cook for the Brodess family, her father, was a skilled woodsman who managed the timber work on Thompson's plantation. They married around 1808 and, according to court records, had nine children together: Linah, Mariah Ritty, Robert, Ben, Rachel and Moses. Rit struggled to keep her family together. Edward Brodess sold three of her daughters; when a trader from Georgia approached Brodess about buying Rit's youngest son, she hid him for a month, aided by other slaves and free blacks in the community. At one point she confronted her owner about the sale. Brodess and "the Georgia man" came toward the slave quarters to seize the child, where Rit told them, "You are after my son. Brodess abandoned the sale. Tubman's biographers agree that stories told about this event within the family influenced her belief in the possibilities of resistance.
Tubman's mother had scarce time for her family. When she was five or six years old, Brodess hired her out as a nursemaid to a woman named "Miss Susan". Tubman was ordered to rock its cradle as it slept, she recounted a particular day when she was lashed five times before breakfast. She carried the scars for the rest of her life, she found ways to resist, such as running away for five days, wearing layers of clothing as protection against beatings, fighting back. As a child, Tubman worked at the home of a planter named James Cook, she had to check the muskrat traps in nearby marshes after contracting measles. She became so ill. Brodess hired her out again, she spoke of her acute childhood homesickness, comparing herself to "the boy on the Swanee River", an allusion to Stephen Foster's song "Old Folks at Home". As she grew older and stronger, she was assigned to field and forest wor
Reinado Internacional del Café 2016 beauty pageant, was held in Manizales, Colombia, on January 9, 2016. At the end of the event, the outgoing queen Yuri Uchida, Reina Internacional del Café 2015 from Japan crowned Maydeliana Díaz from Venezuela as her successor. Vanessa Mendoza – Miss Colombia 2001 Andrés Pajón – Fashion designer Natalia Robledo Luna – Editor of Jet Set Magazine Contestants who competed or will compete at other beauty pageants: Miss Universe: 2014: Bolivia – Claudia Tavel 2015: Canada – Paola Núñez 2019: Brazil – Júlia HortaMiss World: 2015: Honduras – Gabriela Salazar 2016: Nicaragua – María Laura Castillo 2019: Portugal – Inês Brusselmans Miss Supranational: 2015: Portugal – Inês BrusselmansMiss Intercontinental: 2014: United States – Jeslie Mergal 2015: Costa Rica – Lisbeth ValverdeReina Hispanoamericana: 2013: Bolivia – Claudia Tavel Miss United Continents: 2014: Honduras – Gabriela SalazarMiss America Latina del Mundo: 2015: Costa Rica – Lisbeth Valverde 2015: Peru – Carla Vieira Last competed in 2014: Aruba Spain Uruguay USA Haiti Mexico Instituto de Cultura y Turismo de Manizales Alcaldía de Manizales Feria de Manizales
Emerson Muschamp Bainbridge was an English mining consulting engineer and Liberal Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1895 to 1900. Bainbridge was educated at Doncaster and at Durham University, he was articled to mining engineering with the Marquis of Londonderry in Durham College. In 1870 he became manager of the Sheffield and Tinsley Collieries, soon afterwards he was in charge of the Nunnery pits on behalf of the Duke of Norfolk; these were turned into a limited company in 1874, he became managing director with a controlling interest. In 1873 was awarded the Hermon prize for an essay on the prevention of mine explosions, he was head of a noted firm of mining consulting engineers. In 1889 Bainbridge, obtained a lease from the Duke of Portland for the Tophard or Barnsley coal, under areas of land in Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, he founded the Bolsover Colliery Company to take over the lease, to mine the coal. He was responsible for the development of Bolsover with regard to both the colliery and the New Bolsover model village.
Bainbridge was interested in local railways, held many directorships including the Lancashire and East Coast Railway, the Sheffield District Railway, Hardy Patent Pick Co. New Hucknall Colliery, Yorkshire Engine Co. and Wharncliffe Silkstone Colliery. He was a great supporter of the project for an East to West railway from Sutton-on-Sea to Liverpool, of which only the eastern portion was completed He supported the Sheffield Canal, in 1889 lectured in the town on the possibility of bringing large vessels up the canal into Sheffield. Bainbridge was known as a philanthropist, he provided money for the Y. M. C. A. Scheme at Sheffield, leading to the establishment of the Association Buildings Co. Ltd. and the headquarters buildings. In 1881 he entertained all the members at Chatsworth, he built and founded the Jeffie Bainbridge Home for Waifs and Strays at the corner of Norfolk Street and Surrey Street in Sheffield in memory of his wife, the building being opened by the Duke and Duchess of Portland. At the 1895 general election Bainbridge was elected as Member of Parliament for Gainsborough, but lost the seat in 1900.
Bainbridge was a notable sportsman. He owned a large deer forest at Auchnashellach Ross-shire, containing 40,000 acres, with much red deer. In 1905 he built a villa, between Menton and Monte Carlo, as a potential home for his days; however he made little use of it before his death at the age of 65. His daughter Eva Jeffie Bainbridge married Brigadier General William Darell. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Emerson Bainbridge