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Harry Atkinson

Sir Harry Albert Atkinson served as the tenth Premier of New Zealand on four separate occasions in the late 19th century, was Colonial Treasurer for a total of ten years. He was responsible for guiding the country during a time of economic depression, was known as a cautious and prudent manager of government finances, though distrusted for some radical policies such as his 1882 National Insurance scheme and leasehold land schemes, he participated in the formation of voluntary military units to fight in the New Zealand Wars, was noted for his strong belief in the need for seizure of Māori land. Atkinson, born in 1831 in the English village of Broxton, received his education in England, but chose at the age of 22 to follow his elder brother William to New Zealand, he was accompanied by his brother Arthur together with members of the Richmond family. On arriving in New Zealand and Arthur bought farmland in Taranaki, as did the Richmonds, the Ronalds family – five brothers and sisters of Dr Edmund Ronalds.

James and William Richmond later entered politics and the Ronalds sisters married Atkinson’s brothers. Atkinson's correspondence shows that he was satisfied with his decision to move to New Zealand, seeing it as an opportunity to prosper, he named his small farmhouse Hurworth after a village in England where he had lived as a boy, although—as his father worked as an itinerant builder and architect—the family did not settle anywhere. Atkinson first became involved as a member of the Taranaki provincial council, he represented the Grey and Bell electorate from 1857 to 1865, again from 1873 to 1874. He was a member of the Executive Council from 1868^ and again in 1874, he was Deputy Superintendent in 1861–1862 to Charles Brown, again in 1863. Of particular interest to him was policy regarding Māori-owned land, which he wished to see taken over by the British settlers. Continued Māori ownership, prevented economic development for the colony. Atkinson and his Richmond relations regarded the Māori as "savages", believed in war as a reasonable option for ensuring Māori co-operation with British land-acquisition.

When fighting broke out in Taranaki between Māori and the settlers in 1860, Atkinson helped to organise a number of volunteer units to fight the Māori. He himself fought in a number of battles; the importance of Atkinson's contribution is debated, but his endeavours earned him respect from like-minded politicians. The death of William Cutfield King in February 1861 caused a by-election in the Grey and Bell electorate. Atkinson was elected to Parliament unopposed. In 1864, he was made Defence Minister in the government of Frederick Weld, he was active in this portfolio, advocating a policy of self-reliance in the conduct of the war. In 1866, however, he retired due to the death of his wife Amelia; the following year, he married his cousin Annie. He returned to parliament from 1867 to 1869 for the Town of New Plymouth electorate, but in April 1869 he resigned to concentrate on maintaining his farm. In 1872, Atkinson returned to politics for the Egmont electorate. Atkinson declared that he would "not see a Foxite get in", narrowly defeated the candidate.

Once in parliament, Atkinson soon became involved in economic matters, opposing the policies of Julius Vogel. Vogel, who supported extensive borrowing to finance public works, was attacked by Atkinson as reckless. Vogel's response was that Atkinson was overly cautious, would delay economic progress. Atkinson and Vogel both agreed, that borrowing by provincial government was indeed out of control; the two believed that provincial politicians were petty and self-interested, that more co-operation was needed between provinces and the state. It was this shared view of provincial government that enabled Vogel and Atkinson to co-operate, although they never resolved their differences on borrowing by the central government or on dealings with the Māori. Atkinson became part of Vogel's cabinet, but not with portfolios related to negotiations with Māori or to finance, he did continue to express his opinions on these matters, but found it harder to convince people of his views. In 1876, Vogel retired, Atkinson managed to secure the Premiership.

One of his first acts was to abolish the provinces. He took over direct responsibility for financial policy, implemented a less aggressive strategy for borrowing, he attempted to reform the system by which money was handled, placing all responsibility for borrowing with the government while increasing control of spending at a district or municipal level. However, growing economic problems caused his plan to encounter difficulties; as the economy declined, Atkinson became more unpopular. Atkinson lost power in 1877, only over a year after he gained it, he entered opposition. He proposed a number of other measures, including national insurance. In 1883, he managed to make a comeback, gaining the Premiership for eleven months before losing it to Robert Stout; the two engaged in a protracted struggle for the leadership. A strong counter-offensive by Atkinson enabled him to unseat Stout again after only twelve days. Stout, was not so defeated, took the Premiership again after seven days; this time, Stout held his position for three years.

There was confusion in Wellington in September 1887 when the members gathered to form a govern

Hobby Japan

Hobby Japan Inc. is a Japanese publishing company known for publishing and releasing books, light novels and collectibles. Founded in 1969, the company owns and distributes such publications as the eponymous Hobby Japan magazine, as well as Uchusen; the company has released a number of role-playing and tabletop games, as well as action figures related to anime and manga franchises. Dungeons & Dragons 3rd, 3.5 and 4th edition Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay 2nd edition Ring Master I: The Shadow of Filias - Filias Nogisu no Anun Ring Master II: Forget You Not, Evermore - Eien Naru Omoi Queen's Blade Fighting Fantasy Queen's Blade Hyakka Ryōran Samurai Girls Seven Mortal Sins Invaders of the Rokujyōma!? HJ Bunko Bikini Warriors Mamame El Guevo Charano! List of game manufacturers Official website

Intersection number (graph theory)

In the mathematical field of graph theory, the intersection number of a graph G = is the smallest number of elements in a representation of G as an intersection graph of finite sets. Equivalently, it is the smallest number of cliques needed to cover all of the edges of G. Let F be a family of sets; every graph can be represented as an intersection graph in this way. The intersection number of the graph is the smallest number k such that there exists a representation of this type for which the union of F has k elements; the problem of finding an intersection representation of a graph with a given number of elements is known as the intersection graph basis problem. An alternative definition of the intersection number of a graph G is that it is the smallest number of cliques in G that together cover all of the edges of G. A set of cliques with this property is known as a clique edge cover or edge clique cover, for this reason the intersection number is sometimes called the edge clique cover number.

The equality of the intersection number and the edge clique cover number is straightforward to prove. In one direction, suppose that G is the intersection graph of a family F of sets whose union U has k elements. For any element x of U, the subset of vertices of G corresponding to sets that contain x forms a clique: any two vertices in this subset are adjacent, because their sets have a nonempty intersection containing x. Further, every edge in G is contained in one of these cliques, because an edge corresponds to a nonempty intersection and an intersection is nonempty if it contains at least one element of U. Therefore, the edges of G can be covered by k cliques, one per element of U. In the other direction, if a graph G can be covered by k cliques each vertex of G may be represented by the set of cliques that contain that vertex. Trivially, a graph with m edges has intersection number at most m, for each edge forms a clique and these cliques together cover all the edges, it is true that every graph with n vertices has intersection number at most n2/4.

More the edges of every n-vertex graph can be partitioned into at most n2/4 cliques, all of which are either single edges or triangles. This generalizes Mantel's theorem that a triangle-free graph has at most n2/4 edges, for in a triangle-free graph the only optimal clique edge cover has one clique per edge and therefore the intersection number equals the number of edges. An tighter bound is possible when the number of edges is greater than n2/4. Let p be the number of pairs of vertices that are not connected by an edge in the given graph G, let t be the unique integer for which t ≤ p < t. The intersection number of G is at most p + t. Graphs that are the complement of a sparse graph have small intersection numbers: the intersection number of any n-vertex graph G is at most 2e22ln n, where e is the base of the natural logarithm and d is the maximum degree of the complement graph of G. Testing whether a given graph G has intersection number at most a given number k is NP-complete. Therefore, it is NP-hard to compute the intersection number of a given graph.

The problem of computing the intersection number is, fixed-parameter tractable: that is, there is a function f such that, when the intersection number is k, the time to compute it is at most the product of f and a polynomial in n. This may be shown by observing that there are at most 2k distinct closed neighborhoods in the graph – two vertices that belong to the same set of cliques have the same neighborhood – and that the graph formed by selecting one vertex per closed neighbood has the same intersection number as the original graph. Therefore, in polynomial time the input can be reduced to a smaller kernel with at most 2k vertices; the double-exponential dependence on k cannot be reduced to single exponential by a kernelization of polynomial size, unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses, if the exponential time hypothesis is true double-exponential dependence is necessary regardless of whether kernelization is used. More efficient algorithms are known for certain special classes of graphs.

The intersection number of an interval graph is always equal to its number of maximal cliques, which may be computed in polynomial time. More in chordal graphs, the intersection number may be computed by an algorithm that considers the vertices in an elimination ordering of the graph and that, for each vertex v, forms a clique for v and its neighbors whenever at least one of the edges incident to v is not covered by any earlier clique. Bipartite dimension, the smallest number of bicliques needed to cover all edges of a graph Clique cover, the NP-complete problem of finding a small number of cliques that cover all vertices of a graph Weisstein, Eric W. "Intersection Number". MathWorld

Jim Laker

James Charles Laker was an English cricketer who played for Surrey County Cricket Club from 1946 to 1959 and represented the England cricket team in 46 Test matches. He was born in Shipley, West Yorkshire, died in Putney. A right-arm off break bowler, Laker is regarded as one of the greatest spin bowlers in cricket history. In 1956, he achieved a still-unequalled world record when he took nineteen wickets in a Test match at Old Trafford Cricket Ground in Manchester, enabling England to defeat Australia in what has become known as "Laker's Match". At club level, he formed a formidable spin partnership with Tony Lock, a left-arm orthodox spinner, they played a key part in the success of the Surrey team through the 1950s including seven consecutive County Championship titles from 1952 to 1958. Laker batted right-handed as a useful tail-ender, he was a good fielder in the gully position. For his achievements in 1951, Laker was selected by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack as one of the five Wisden Cricketers of the Year in its 1952 edition.

He was selected as the New Zealand Cricket Almanack Player of the Year in 1952 after playing for Auckland in the 1951/52 season. In 1956, his Surrey benefit season realised £11,086 and, at the end of that year, he was voted "BBC Sports Personality of the Year", the first cricketer to win the award, he worked for the BBC as a cricket commentator in its outside broadcast transmissions. Jim Laker's family background was complicated and it was not until Alan Hill researched his biography, published in 1998, that long-term misunderstandings were resolved. For many years, it was believed that Laker had been orphaned at an early age and raised by four aunts. Hill was able to consult family members and discover what happened; the information is presented in the first two chapters of his biography. Laker's mother was born circa 1878 in the Barnsley area, she was called Ellen Oxby and was the daughter of a railway worker and his wife who had moved to south Yorkshire from their native Lincolnshire. When Ellen was 20, circa 1898, she married a man called James Henry Kane, a journeyman printer from Bradford.

Over the next few years, Ellen had two daughters, called Margaret. Six years circa 1906, she had a third daughter called Doreen and, at around the same time, Kane deserted her. Hill discovered that Kane's family ostracised him but there was never a divorce, so Ellen continued to be known as Ellen Kane. In order to make ends meet, Ellen followed the example of her sister Emily Oxby and became a schoolteacher of infant and junior children, working at schools in the Shipley district, in Airedale, north of Bradford; some years she became involved with a man called Charles Henry Laker. He was a stonemason from Sussex, they set up home together and a daughter, was born in 1916. It is not clear from Hill's researches if Charles Laker joined the armed forces during World War I or if, as a qualified stonemason, he was reserved. In February 1922, the family were living in Shipley at 36, Norwood Road, where Jim Laker known as Charlie, was born. In 1924, Charles Laker deserted Ellen, who again had to pick up the pieces and rely on school teaching to feed the family.

Jim was two years old when this was told that his father had died. He maintained that he had no recollection of his father and had never seen a photograph of him. In the 1980s, only a few years before Jim's death, he discovered that his father had moved to Barnoldswick and had died there in 1931 after working locally as a stonemason, it transpired that Laker senior had left Ellen to live in Barnoldswick with a woman called Annie Sutcliffe. She was buried beside him, having died in 1959, it is possible that she knew about her famous quasi-stepson. Meanwhile, the Kane family pulled together and, as Hill says, "ringfenced" the situation, they told everybody that Charles Laker had died and, in due course after moving house from Norwood Avenue to nearby Carmona Avenue, that Ellen, Mollie and Doreen were all sisters and were the aunts of orphans Susie and Jim. In 1924, Ellen was working at the church school in Calverley; as Hill asserted, the priority in those times was to "silence gossip-mongering" and protect the vital teaching role.

Ellen was therefore Mrs Kane at school but, not so, she assumed the pretence of "aunt". Mollie and Margaret had left home but were still living in the Shipley area. No one who knew the family thought that Ellen was the mother of Susie and Jim, it was accepted that they were orphans and she was their aunt. Hill discovered that the children sometimes resided with a family living over a grocer's shop in Baildon, it seems that this was Margaret's family so the children on those occasions were staying with "another aunt", in fact their half-sister because Ellen was ill or for work reasons. In the years around 1930, Ellen was employed at Frizinghall Council School, which Jim attended until 1932, he was intelligent and, with the added advantage of being taught by his mother, was able to win a grammar school scholarship. This entitled him to a free place at the Salts High School in nearby Saltaire, he enrolled at Salts in September 1932 and remained for seven years saying that he was happy there. It was around 1932 that Ellen took up with a new partner, called Bert Jordan.

This was a sound relationship and Jim was able to enjoy a settled home life through his senior school years. The family moved to Kirklands Avenue in Baildon. Doreen went to live in Eastbourne. In due course, Susie married

Hallie Erminie Rives

Hallie Erminie Rives was a best-selling popular novelist and wife of the American diplomat Post Wheeler. She was born on May 2, 1874 in Hopkinsville, the daughter of Stephen Turner Rives and Mary Ragsdale, her father was from a prominent Virginia family. She was a distant cousin of poet Amélie Rives Troubetzkoy. An author's biography in one of her books notes that her father, who had fought for the Confederacy during the American Civil War and spent two years in a Northern prison camp, had "made her his little comrade" when she was a child and she was an excellent rifle shot and a bareback rider, called "the Rives' little wildcat" by outsiders, her father allowed her to spend so much time outdoors because her mother had been an invalid in the years before she died. Rives wrote her first novel at age eight, her first novel was published. In her novels she addressed politics between the Northern and Southern United States, issues of race, sex, causing great debate among critics. Among them was Smoking Flax, a novel controversial at the time, which takes a favorable position on lynching.

The novel is about an African American man accused of raping and murdering a white woman, lynched after the governor commuted his sentence to life. Many of her novels were bestsellers. Other books she wrote were better received by critics than Smoking Flax, her novel, The Castaway, is noted for being the subject of a Supreme Court copyright case, Bobbs-Merrill v. Straus, in which the US Supreme Court recognized the first sale doctrine, permitting purchasers of copies of books to resell them without seeking permission from the copyright holder, she married Wheeler in 1906 in Tokyo. A wedding announcement noted that Wheeler considered Rives "rather severe on men" in her books and she considered him "none too charitable concerning the faults of women" in his book Reflections of a Bachelor, they met at a reception in New York and began a friendship that led to marriage. She accompanied him to posts across Europe and South America throughout his career in foreign service, she and her husband co-wrote Dome of Many-Coloured Glass in 1952 about their lives in the United States Foreign Service.

She died on August 1956 in New York City, New York. Her widower died on Christmas Eve, December 23, 1956 at the Frances Convalescent Home in Neptune, New Jersey, just 4 months later. Media related to Hallie Erminie Rives at Wikimedia Commons Works by Hallie Erminie Rives at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Hallie Erminie Rives at Internet Archive Works by Hallie Erminie Rives at LibriVox

Mont-de-Huisnes German war cemetery

Mont-de-Huisnes German war cemetery is a military war grave mausoleum, located 1 km north of Huisnes-sur-Mer and a few kilometres southwest of Avranches, France. It presently contains in nearly 12,000 burials of German military personnel of World War II, plus some women and children, it is managed by the German War Graves Commission. The cemetery, situated at the top of a 30m hill at Mont-de-Huisnes, is the only German crypt construction in France. In 1961, the Reburial Service of the German War Graves Commission interred German soldiers from numerous small graveyards and field graves to the mausoleum; the only exception was that the German graves located in the graveyard of Fort-George in Saint Peter Port on the island of Guernsey were not moved. The circular crypt is 47m in diameter and constructed on two floors. Within the inner side of the crypt are 34 crypt rooms on each level containing 180 burials; the floors are connected by stairs. A large cross dominates the central grassed area. Opposite the entrance, steps lead onto up a natural terrace from which Mont-Saint-Michel can be viewed.

The names of the interred are placed on bronze tablets affixed to the walls of each crypt. The memorial was inaugurated on 14 September 1963; the majority of the fallen in the graveyard date from the American advance during Operation Cobra and the subsequent American breakthrough at Avranches in July and August 1944. Unlike the American and Commonwealth War Graves Commissions, the German Commission is voluntary and relies on gifts and collections to further its work. During the summer months one may see international school children tending the graves, they volunteer to work with the Volksbund during their school holidays and visit American and German war cemeteries, sites of the invasion and take part in the memorial ceremony with veterans and the mayor of La Cambe. List of military cemeteries in Normandy