Harry Houdini

Harry Houdini was a Hungarian-born American illusionist and stunt performer, noted for his sensational escape acts. He first attracted notice in vaudeville in the US and as "Harry'Handcuff' Houdini" on a tour of Europe, where he challenged police forces to keep him locked up. Soon he extended his repertoire to include chains, ropes slung from skyscrapers, straitjackets under water, having to escape from and hold his breath inside a sealed milk can with water in it. In 1904, thousands watched as he tried to escape from special handcuffs commissioned by London's Daily Mirror, keeping them in suspense for an hour. Another stunt saw him buried alive and only just able to claw himself to the surface, emerging in a state of near-breakdown. While many suspected that these escapes were faked, Houdini presented himself as the scourge of fake spiritualists; as President of the Society of American Magicians, he was keen to uphold professional standards and expose fraudulent artists. He was quick to sue anyone who imitated his escape stunts.

Houdini quit acting when it failed to bring in money. He was a keen aviator and aimed to become the first man to fly a plane in Australia. Erik Weisz was born in Budapest to a Jewish family, his parents were Cecília Steiner. Houdini was one of seven children: Herman M., Houdini's half-brother by Rabbi Weisz's first marriage. Weisz arrived in the United States on July 3, 1878, on the SS Fresia with his mother and his four brothers; the family changed their name to the German spelling Weiss, Erik became Ehrich. The family lived in Appleton, where his father served as Rabbi of the Zion Reform Jewish Congregation. According to the 1880 census, the family lived on Appleton Street in an area, now known as Houdini Square. On June 6, 1882, Rabbi Weiss became an American citizen. Losing his job at Zion in 1882, Rabbi Weiss and family moved to Milwaukee and fell into dire poverty. In 1887, Rabbi Weiss moved with Ehrich to New York City, where they lived in a boarding house on East 79th Street, he was joined by the rest of the family.

As a child, Ehrich Weiss took several jobs, making his public début as a 9-year-old trapeze artist, calling himself "Ehrich, the Prince of the Air". He was a champion cross country runner in his youth; when Weiss became a professional magician he began calling himself "Harry Houdini", after the French magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, after reading Robert-Houdin's autobiography in 1890. Weiss incorrectly believed. In life, Houdini claimed that the first part of his new name, was an homage to Harry Kellar, whom he admired, though it was more adapted from "Ehri", a nickname for "Ehrich", how he was known to his family; when he was a teenager, Houdini was coached by the magician Joseph Rinn at the Pastime Athletic Club. Houdini had little success, he appeared in a tent act with strongman Emil Jarrow. He performed in dime museums and sideshows, doubled as "The Wild Man" at a circus. Houdini focused on traditional card tricks. At one point, he billed himself as the "King of Cards"; some – but not all – professional magicians would come to regard Houdini as a competent but not skilled sleight-of-hand artist, lacking the grace and finesse required to achieve excellence in that craft.

He soon began experimenting with escape acts. In 1893, while performing with his brother "Dash" at Coney Island as "The Brothers Houdini", Houdini met a fellow performer, Wilhelmina Beatrice "Bess" Rahner. Bess was courted by Dash, but she and Houdini married in 1894, with Bess replacing Dash in the act, which became known as "The Houdinis". For the rest of Houdini's performing career, Bess worked as his stage assistant. Houdini's big break came in 1899 when he met manager Martin Beck in Minnesota. Impressed by Houdini's handcuffs act, Beck advised him to concentrate on escape acts and booked him on the Orpheum vaudeville circuit. Within months, he was performing at the top vaudeville houses in the country. In 1900, Beck arranged for Houdini to tour Europe. After some days of unsuccessful interviews in London, Houdini's British agent Harry Day helped him to get an interview with C. Dundas Slater manager of the Alhambra Theatre, he was introduced to William Melville and gave a demonstration of escape from handcuffs at Scotland Yard.

He succeeded in baffling the police so that he was booked at the Alhambra for six months. His show was an immediate hit and his salary rose to $300 a week. Between 1900 and 1920 he appeared in theatres all over Great Britain performing escape acts, card tricks and outdoor stunts, becoming one of the world's highest paid entertainers, he toured the Netherlands, Germany and Russia and became known as "The Handcuff King". In each city, Houdini challenged local police to restrain him with shackles and lock him in their jails. In many of these challenge escapes, he searched. In Moscow, he escaped from a Siberian prison transport van, claiming that, had he been unable to free himself, he would have had to travel to Siberia, where the only key was kept. In Cologne, he sued a police officer, Werner Graff, who alleged that he made his escapes via bribery. Houdini won the case when he opened the judge's safe (he said

University of the Philippines Manila

The University of the Philippines Manila is a state-funded medical and research university located in Ermita, Philippines. It is known for being country's center of excellence in the health sciences, including health professional education and research, it is the oldest of the seven constituent universities of the University of the Philippines System predating the founding of UP by three years. Established on December 1, 1905 as the Philippine Medical School and called as the UP College of Medicine and Surgery on June 10, 1907, it was renamed as University of the Philippines Manila in 1983. UP Manila administers and operates the Philippine General Hospital, the largest medical center and the national referral center for health in the Philippines; the university is the home of the National Institutes of Health. Its 14 hectare campus occupies two large city blocks and it contains pre-war heritage buildings and structures built during the American Period designed by American Architect William E. Parsons, which were declared by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines as historical landmarks.

Since 2001, the College of Medicine and the College of Nursing has been recognized as Centers of Excellence by the Commission on Higher Education. On December 1, 1905, the Philippine Medical School was established under Commonwealth Act No. 1415. It opened on June 10, 1907, was housed at the School for the Deaf and Blind located on Malecon Drive. On June 18, 1908, the Philippine Assembly passed the Act No. 1870 known as the University Charter, marking the birth of the University of the Philippines. The Act renamed the Philippine Medical School as the University of the Philippines College of Medicine and Surgery; the control and management of the medical school was entrusted to the University of the Philippines Board of Regents on December 8, 1910. Its name was shortened to the University of the Philippines College of Medicine on March 1, 1923. UP opened its doors in 1909 with the School of Fine Arts, the College of Liberal Arts, College of Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, College of Engineering and the College of Law.

It operates the UP College of Agriculture in Los Baños, Laguna. These schools and colleges, established on different locations, were transferred to the UP Campus along Pedro Gil Street, Manila on July 1, 1910 except for the College of Agriculture. In 1907, the US government passed a law establishing the Philippine General Hospital, it was founded by Dean C. Worcester, an American, a member of the United States Philippine Commission. On September 1, 1910, the 350-bed capacity hospital was opened to the public for health care delivery and clinical instruction and training of medical students. Dr. Paul Freer served as its first Medical School Dean until 1912. On February 5, 1915, the Philippine Legislative Act No. 2467 reorganized the Training School for Nurses into the PGH School of Nursing and established it as a department of PGH. A few years in 1914, 1915 and 1927, the School of Pharmacy, Department of Dentistry and the School of Public Health were created under the UP College of Medicine; these units became full-fledged degree-granting units in 1935, 1948, 1932, respectively.

The university was destroyed during the Battle of Manila in 1945. However, the College of Medicine under Dean, Dr. Antonio G. Sison, PGH were still able to fulfill their mandate of attending to the injured and the sick. On December 15, 1948, much the university transferred to its sprawling 493 hectare campus in Diliman, Quezon City. Three units, Medicine and Public Health, were left behind in the war-torn UP Campus in Manila. On the 40th anniversary of the University of the Philippines in 1949, the original Oblation was transferred to UP's Diliman Campus in Quezon City from its original site along Padre Faura Street in Manila as a symbol of transfer of administrative seat. In April 1948, the UP College of Nursing, which established in the Diliman Campus, instituted the first baccalaureate program in Nursing in the Philippines. More academic units were established in the 1960s; these included the School of Allied Medical Professions, housed at the National Orthopedic Hospital, the Philippine Eye Research Institute in 1965.

With the clamor to meet the health science education needs of the growing population, a Health Sciences Center within the University of the Philippines was created through the passage of RA 5163 on June 17, 1967. It was mandated to seek and emphasize the highest standards of training and research in the various health sciences. However, the Center at the Diliman Campus did not materialize due to fiscal constraints. In 1972, the UP College Manila was instituted as the first extension unit to offer liberal arts courses. Thereafter, UP was reorganized into the University of the Philippines System to effect institutional unity, while allowing decentralization of authority and autonomy of the component units through Presidential Decree No. 58, promulgated on November 20, 1972, under the administration of President Ferdinand E. Marcos, it was approved by the Board of Regents at its 828th meeting on November 21, 1972, was implemented on January 1, 1973. The UP Health Sciences Center became an autonomous component of the UP System through Executive Order No. 519 dated January 24, 1979.

At that time, the Center was composed of the College of Medicine, College of Pharmacy, College of Dentistry, Institute of Public Health, School of Allied Medical Professions, Philippine General Hospital, UP Health Service, Philippine Eye Referral Institute (renamed as the Institute of Ophthal


Warnant-Dreye is a sub-municipality in the municipality of Villers-le-Bouillet in the Province of Liège, consisting of the villages Dreye and Warnant. Its post code is 4530, it should not be confused with the other Warnant in the Province of Namur. The region was settled by the Franks as early as the 4th century. Merovingian tombs have been surrounding villages north of Huy; the first mention of Warnant goes back to the 11th century, with a knight named Sebastian of Warnant. The Counts of Oultremont, one of Belgium's oldest noble families, originated in Warnant, their oldest ancestor in direct line is Otto of Warnant, who at the end of the 13th century was lord of Warnant and Moha. In 1266, Otto cedes all his goods in Warnant to the Abbey of Floreffe; the Premonstratensian monks would henceforth be present in Warnant, notably at the so-called Abbey's Farm. They would serve the two churches in the village, St. Remi and St. John the Baptist; the two churches were merged by the Bishop of Liège in 1451.

St. John the Baptist's Church was demolished in the 16th century, but the other one is still standing nowadays; the first castle of Warnant, a fortified dungeon facing St. Remi's Church, was destroyed under the rule of Otto I in 1276, in the heat of the War of the Cow, which ravaged the Principality of Liège and the County of Namur between 1275 and 1278. After Otto I, the House of Warnant would split in several branches, including the La Neuville, Oultremont, Saint-Jean, Vaux, etc; the family thus controlled most of the hamlets in the area, provided many Bailiff of Moha, Grand Bailiff of Hesbaye, Alderman of Huy and Liège. The branches of La Neuville-en-Condroz and Oultremont would become Barons. In 1731, Jean-François-Paul-Emile d'Oultremont was elevated to the rank of Count of the Holy Roman Empire. One of his children, Charles-Nicolas d'Oultremont would be elected Prince-Bishop of Liège in 1763; the Warnant/Oultremont family is the only surviving Belgian family which has counted a Prince-Bishop of Liège amongst its members.

In 1823, the villages of Warnant and Dreye were merged to form the municipality of Warnant-Dreye, which in turn was added to Villers-le-Bouillet as a sub-municipality in the municipal reorganization of 1977