Mountaineering is the set of activities that involves ascending mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, hiking and traversing via ferratas. Indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering are considered mountaineering as well. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed big mountains, it has branched into specializations that address different aspects of mountains, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow, or ice or on level ground. All require various degrees of experience, athletic ability, technical knowledge to maintain safety, it is still common to seek the summits of peaks, whether unclimbed or not. Mountaineering is called alpinism, mountain climbers are sometimes called alpinists, although use of the term may vary between countries and eras; the word "alpinism" was born in the 19th century to refer to climbing for the purpose of enjoying climbing itself as a sport or recreation, distinct from climbing while hunting or as a religious pilgrimage, done at that time.
The UIAA, the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, is the International Olympic Committee-recognized world governing body for mountaineering and climbing, addressing issues like access, mountain protection, safety and ice climbing. Many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they regarded as sacred due to their perceived proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. On April 26, 1336 famous Italian poet Petrarch climbed to the summit of 1,912 m Mount Ventoux overlooking the Bay of Marseilles, claiming to be inspired by Philip V of Macedon's ascent of Mount Haemo, making him the first known alpinist. One of the first European mountains visited by many tourists was Sněžka; this was due to the minor technical difficulties ascent and the fact that since the sixteenth century, many resort visitors flocked to the nearby Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój and visible Sněžka, visually dominant over all Krkonoše was for them an important attraction. The first confirmed ascent took place in the year 1456.
In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a little team, using ladders and ropes. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, has been said to mark the beginning of mountaineering. In 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains. During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, many mountain summits were surmounted for the first time.. In 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. In 1757 Swiss scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure made the first of several unsuccessful attempts on Mont Blanc in France offering a reward, claimed in 1786 by Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard. By the early 19th century many of the alpine peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812, the Breithorn in 1813.
In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc, followed in 1838 by Henriette d'Angeville. The beginning of mountaineering as a sport in the UK is dated to the ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 by English mountaineer Sir Alfred Wills, who made mountaineering fashionable in Britain; this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, Johannes Zumtaugwald. In the early years of the "golden age", scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and alpine mountaineering overall.
One of the most dramatic events was the spectacular first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865 by a party led by English illustrator Edward Whymper, in which four of the party members fell to their deaths. This ascent is regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age. By this point the sport of mountaineering had reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides and fixed guidelines. Mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James and two others in 1820. Though lower than Pikes Peak, the glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842. Pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Denali, the tallest peak in North America, was climbed
The Toklat River is an 85-mile tributary of the Kantishna River in central Alaska in the United States It drains an area on the north slope of the Alaska Range on the south edge of the Tanana Valley southwest of Fairbanks. It issues from unnamed glaciers in the northern Alaska Range in Denali National Park and Preserve, northeast of Denali, it flows northwest through hilly country to the tundra to the north of the Alaska Range. The river was described as the Toclat by Lt. H. T. Allen in 1885. Other names or variants include Tootl'ot Huno, Tootl'ot Huno' Hutl'ot, Tootl'ot No' and Tutlut River. Depth of 50 ft, width of 25 ft List of rivers of Alaska
Denali is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level. With a topographic prominence of 20,156 feet and a topographic isolation of 4,629 miles, Denali is the third most prominent and third most isolated peak on Earth, after Mount Everest and Aconcagua. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U. S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Preserve. The Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as "Denali" for centuries. In 1896, a gold prospector named it "Mount McKinley" in support of then-presidential candidate William McKinley. In August 2015, following the 1975 lead of the State of Alaska, the United States Department of the Interior announced the change of the official name of the mountain to Denali. In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, unsuccessful. In 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, proven to be false; the first verifiable ascent to Denali's summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit.
In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, therefore the most popular in use. On September 2, 2015, the U. S. Geological Survey announced that the mountain is 20,310 feet high, not 20,320 feet, as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry. Denali is a granitic pluton lifted by tectonic pressure from the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate; the forces that lifted Denali cause many deep earthquakes in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The Pacific Plate is seismically active beneath Denali, a tectonic region, known as the "McKinley cluster". Denali has a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level, making it the highest peak in North America and the northernmost mountain above 6,000 meters elevation in the world. Measured from base to peak at some 18,000 ft, it is among the largest mountains situated above sea level. Denali rises from a sloping plain with elevations from 1,000 to 3,000 ft, for a base-to-peak height of 17,000 to 19,000 ft.
By comparison, Mount Everest rises from the Tibetan Plateau at a much higher base elevation. Base elevations for Everest range from 13,800 ft on the south side to 17,100 ft on the Tibetan Plateau, for a base-to-peak height in the range of 12,000 to 15,300 ft. Denali's base-to-peak height is little more than half the 33,500 ft of the volcano Mauna Kea, which lies under water. Denali has two significant summits: the South Summit is the higher one, while the North Summit has an elevation of 19,470 ft and a prominence of 1,270 ft; the North Summit is sometimes counted as sometimes not. Five large glaciers flow off the slopes of the mountain; the Peters Glacier lies on the northwest side of the massif, while the Muldrow Glacier falls from its northeast slopes. Just to the east of the Muldrow, abutting the eastern side of the massif, is the Traleika Glacier; the Ruth Glacier lies to the southeast of the mountain, the Kahiltna Glacier leads up to the southwest side of the mountain. With a length of 44 mi, the Kahiltna Glacier is the longest glacier in the Alaska Range.
The Koyukon Athabaskans who inhabit the area around the mountain have for centuries referred to the peak as Dinale or Denali. The name is based on a Koyukon word for "high" or "tall". During the Russian ownership of Alaska, the common name for the mountain was Bolshaya Gora, the Russian translation of Denali, it was called Densmore's Mountain in the late 1880s and early 1890s after Frank Densmore, an Alaskan prospector, the first European to reach the base of the mountain. In 1896, a gold prospector named it McKinley as political support for then-presidential candidate William McKinley, who became president the following year; the United States formally recognized the name Mount McKinley after President Wilson signed the Mount McKinley National Park Act of February 26, 1917. In 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson declared the north and south peaks of the mountain the "Churchill Peaks", in honor of British statesman Winston Churchill; the Alaska Board of Geographic Names changed the name of the mountain to Denali in 1975, how it is called locally.
However, a request in 1975 from the Alaska state legislature to the United States Board on Geographic Names to do the same at the federal level was blocked by Ohio congressman Ralph Regula, whose district included McKinley's hometown of Canton. On August 30, 2015, just ahead of a presidential visit to Alaska, the Barack Obama administration announced the name Denali would be restored in line with the Alaska Geographic Board's designation. U. S. Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell issued the order changing the name to Denali on August 28, 2015, effective immediately. Jewell said the change had been "a long time coming"; the renaming of the mountain received praise from Alaska's senior U. S. senator, Lisa Murkowski, who had introduced legislation to accomplish the name change, but it drew criticism from several politicians from Pres
A riverboat is a watercraft designed for inland navigation on lakes and artificial waterways. They are equipped and outfitted as work boats in one of the carrying trades, for freight or people transport, including luxury units constructed for entertainment enterprises, such as lake or harbour tour boats; as larger water craft all riverboats are designed and constructed, or alternatively, constructed with special-purpose features that optimizes them as riverine or lake service craft, for instance, survey boats, fisheries management craft and law enforcement patrol craft. These vessels are less sturdy than ships built for the open seas, with limited navigational and rescue equipment, as they do not have to survive the high winds or large waves characteristic to large lakes, seas or oceans, they can thus be built from light composite materials. They are limited in size by width and depth of the river as well as the height of bridges spanning the river, they can be designed with shallow drafts, as were the paddle wheel steamers on the Mississippi River that could operate in water under two metres deep.
While a ferry is used to cross a river, a riverboat is used to travel along the course of the river, while carrying passengers and cargo, or both, for revenue.. The significance of riverboats is dependent on the number of navigable rivers and channels as well as the condition of the road and rail network. Speaking, riverboats provide slow but cheap transport suited for bulk cargo and containers; as early as 20,000 BC people started fishing in lakes using rafts and dugouts. Roman sources dated 50 BC mention extensive transportation of people on the river Rhine. Upstream, boats were powered by sails or oars. In the Middle Ages, towpaths were built along most waterways to use working animals or people to pull riverboats. In the 19th century, steamboats became common; the most famous riverboats were on the rivers of the midwestern and central southern United States, on the Mississippi and Missouri rivers in the early 19th century. Out west, riverboats were common transportation on the Colorado and Sacramento rivers.
These American riverboats were designed to draw little water, in fact it was said that they could "navigate on a heavy dew". Australia has a history of riverboats. Australia's biggest river, the Murray, has an inland port called Echuca. Many large riverboats were working on the Murray; the Kalgan River in Western Australia has had two main riverboats, the Silver Star, 1918 to 1935, would lower her funnel to get under the low bridge. Today, the Kalgan Queen riverboat takes tourists up the river to taste the local wines, she lowers her roof to get under the same bridge. It is these early steam-driven river craft that come to mind when "steamboat" is mentioned, as these were powered by burning wood, with iron boilers drafted by a pair of tall smokestacks belching smoke and cinders, twin double-acting pistons driving a large paddlewheel at the stern, churning foam; this type of propulsion was an advantage as a rear paddlewheel operates in an area clear of snags, is repaired, is not to suffer damage in a grounding.
By burning wood, the boat could consume fuel provided by woodcutters along the shore of the river. These early boats carried a brow on the bow, so they could head in to an unimproved shore for transfer of cargo and passengers. Modern riverboats are screw -driven, with pairs of diesel engines of several thousand horsepower; the standard reference for the development of the steamboat is Steamboats on Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History by Louis C. Hunter. Many of the riverboats shown below were operating on the Yangtze River; some large riverboats are comparable in accommodation, food service, entertainment to a modern oceanic cruise ship. Tourist boats provide a relaxing trip through the segment they operate in. On the Yangtze River employees have double duties: both as serving staff and as evening-costumed dancers. Tourist riverboats Smaller luxury craft operate on European waterways - both rivers and canals, with some providing bicycle and van side trips to smaller villages. High-speed boats such as those shown here had a special advantage in some operations in the free-running Yangtze.
In several locations within the Three Gorges, one-way travel was enforced through fast narrows. While less maneuverable and deeper draft vessels were obliged to wait for clearance, these high-speed boats were free to zip past waiting traffic by running in the shallows. High-speed planing and hydrofoil riverboats Smaller riverboats are used in urban and suburban areas for sightseeing and public transport. Sightseeing boats can be found in Amsterdam and other touristic cities where historical monuments are located near water; the concept of local waterborn public transport is known as water taxi in English-speaking countries, vaporetto in Venice, water/river tramway in former Soviet Union and Poland. Local waterborne public transport is similar to ferry; the transport craft shown below is used for short-distance carriage of passengers between villages and small cities along the Yangtze, while larger craft are used for low-cost carriage over longer distance, without the fancy food or shows seen on the tourist riverboats.
In some cases, the traveller must provide their own food. As the major rivers in China are east-west, most rail and road transport are nort
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
A dog sled or dog sleigh is a sled pulled by one or more sled dogs used to travel over ice and through snow. Numerous types of sleds are used, depending on their function, they can be used for dog sled racing. In Greenland the dogs pull in a fan shape in front of the sled, while in other regions, such as Alaska and Canada the dogs pull side by side in pairs. Dog power has been used for travel for over a thousand years; as far back as the 10th century BCE these dogs have contributed to human culture. Assembling a dog sled team involves picking leader dogs, point dogs, swing dogs, wheel dogs; the lead dog is crucial, so mushers take particular care of these dogs. Another important detail is to have powerful wheel dogs to pull the sled out from the snow. Point dogs are located behind the leader dogs, swing dogs between the point and wheel dogs, team dogs are all other dogs in between the wheel and swing dogs and are selected for their endurance and speed as part of the team. In dog sledding, Siberian Huskies or Alaskan Malamutes are the main types of dogs that are used for recreational sledding because of their strength and speed and endurance as well as their ability to withstand the cold.
However, Alaskan Huskies are a popular dog for sled dog racing, because of their endurance, good eating habits and dedication to running when tired. Sometimes, for sprint races, mushers use short haired hounds; these hounds are raised from a young age to pull. It is harder to train hounds than it is to train Siberian Huskies and Malamutes to pull a sled because it is not in their nature. Training should start at around six months of age by pulling a small log behind them. Drafting dog Sirius Dog Sled Patrol Sled dog The Canadian Museum of Civilization - History of Dogsled mail in the Yukon
Walter Harper was an Alaska Native mountain climber and guide. On Saturday, 7 June 1913, he was the first person to reach the summit of Denali, the highest mountain in North America, he was followed by the other members of the small expedition team, guide Harry Karstens, Episcopal archdeacon Hudson Stuck, who had organized the effort, Episcopal missionary Robert Tatum. After gaining more formal education, Harper married in 1918 and planned to go to medical school in Philadelphia, he and his wife took the steamer SS Princess Sophia from Skagway to Seattle for their honeymoon before setting off cross-country. The ship ran aground on a reef in a snowstorm, was broken up in a gale, sinking on October 25. All 268 passengers and 75 crew were lost; the youngest of eight children, Walter Harper was born in 1893 as the son of Jennie Seentahna Harper, of the Koyukon people from the Koyukuk region, Arthur Harper, an immigrant from County Antrim, Ireland. They married in 1874 when Harper was 39 and Jennie was 14, at Koyokuk.
Harper and his partner Al Mayo founded a trading post in Tanana, near the Athabascan site of Nuklukayet. Harper did some mining there, after years of experience in California and British Columbia. Mayo married a cousin of Jennie; the couple separated permanently in 1895, Arthur Harper left the area. He died of tuberculosis in 1897. Jennie reared Walter as traditional Koyukon. All the older Harper children had been sent for education to boarding schools "Outside" in San Francisco, California. Harper's partners followed this practice for their mixed-race children. At the age of 16, Walter Harper started going to Tortella School, an Episcopal boarding school associated with St. Marks Mission in Nenana, Alaska. There he met Hudson Stuck, Episcopal archdeacon of the Yukon, who served a large area of the Interior as a missionary. Stuck was impressed by Harper's intelligence and skills in fishing, trapping, fire-building, dog handling, he hired him to work as his interpreter and dog driver. He encouraged him to continue with his formal education.
Stuck invited Harper 20, to be part of his 1913 expedition to climb Denali. Others in the party were co-leader Harry Peter Karstens; this pair brought the dog teams down when the terrain became too rough for their use. On March 17, 1913, the expedition left from Nenana to climb Denali; the first day, they hiked 30 miles along the Tanana River valley with two sleds of supplies, pulled by fourteen dogs. The 110-mile trip up the river to Eureka took eight days, it took them weeks to reach their final camp. Their journey had been much longer than expected, they had made it through the crevasse-filled Muldrow Glacier. But it took them three weeks to get through the Karstens Ridge, where the trail was blocked by huge rocks and blocks of ice thrown up by an earthquake the year before, they survived a 50-foot icefall. On June 6, they arrived at their final camp, at an elevation of 18,000 feet, the highest camp established in North America. At 4:00 a.m. the next morning, the climbers left camp for their final summit push.
At 1:30 p.m. the party reached the top of an elevation of 20,310 feet. Harper was the first to gain the summit, they spent an hour and a half on the summit, during which Tatum planted a flag he had made earlier from handkerchiefs. He compared the view to "looking out of a window of heaven." Stuck ensured they put up a six-foot cross. After taking readings from their instruments to establish the height of the mountain, the party began the descent. Compared to the 50-day journey up the mountain, it took them just two days to make it back to base camp; the expedition returned to Tanana on three months and four days since they left. Encouraged by Stuck, Harper gained an education in Alaska, he planned to go to medical school in Philadelphia. On September 1, 1918, he married Frances Wells in Fort Yukon, with Archdeacon Stuck officiating. For their honeymoon, the couple took the SS Princess Sophia from Skagway to Seattle. From there, they would travel to Philadelphia, where Harper had been admitted to medical school, his wife planned to join the Red Cross.
They embarked on October 23 at Skagway, the four-year-old Scottish steamer left at 10:00 that night. A day as the ship was passing through Lynn Canal en route to Juneau, she encountered a strong gale and heavy snow. Princess Sophia went 1 mile off course and ran aground on Vanderbilt Reef, the flat, rocky tip of an underwater mountain; the sea was calm, but another gale came in. The ship asked by radio for help, but neither ships nor small boats could get close enough to rescue the people aboard because of the dangerous conditions. After about 40 hours, Princess Sophia broke apart and sank on October 25, killing all 268 passengers and 75 crew, a total of 343 persons lost. After the Harpers' bodies were recovered, the couple was buried side by side in Juneau. In 1913, Stuck named Harper Glacier after the first man to reach the summit; the 4-mile-long glacier runs from Denali Pass on Denali to the Great Icefall before becoming Muldrow Glacier. It was named for Walter's father Arthur. On June 7, 2012, the 99th anniversary of the first ascent, Alaskan Senator Lisa Murkowski introduced bill S. 2273, to "designate the Talkeetna Ranger Station in Talkeetna, Alaska, as the Walter Harper Talkeetna Ranger Station."