Henry Peter "Harry" Karstens was the first superintendent of Mount McKinley National Park, from 1921 to 1928. He was the guide and climbing leader of the first complete ascent of Denali in 1913, with expedition members Hudson Stuck, Episcopal Archdeacon of the Yukon and Arctic. John Fredson was one of two young Gwich ` in Alaska Natives. Harry Karstens was born in Chicago, Illinois on September 2, 1878, his parents were an immigrant from the Duchy of Holstein. His father owned livery. Harry was the fifth born of seven children in his family. Like many young men, Karstens went North for adventure to Dawson City, Canada during the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897. There, he helped lay out the town of Eagle, Alaska, he carried freight and mail with Charles McGonagall via dog teams among the frontier towns of Fairbanks and Kantishna, being paid $75 per month. He gained his nickname as the "Seventymile Kid" after working for the post office, he worked as a packer, hauling miners' supplies over the Chilkoot Pass on his back in 50-pound packs.
In winter, the ice leading to the summit was cut into 1500 steps, which travelers climbed in single file. Authorities required each "stampeder" to bring in two tons of supplies to provide for himself for a year in the camps. Karstens ran dog teams on the frontier, as well as riverboats. Drawing on his skills developed on the frontier, from 1906 to 1908, Karstens accompanied Charles Sheldon, a hunter and naturalist, on hunting trips into the Toklat River region. Sheldon, the chairman of the influential Boone and Crockett Club campaigned with Congress to have the area set aside as a national park. In 1917, Denali National Park was established as Mount McKinley National Park. On March 27, 1912, Hudson Stuck, Episcopal Archdeacon of the Yukon, sent Karstens a letter inviting him to join an expedition to climb Denali. Stuck emphasized the financial value of the trip, saying, "if we succeed in the ascent, the expedition will not be without the likelihood of financial value, that there will be return to you for the time and labour."
Karstens accepted. While Stuck had been traveling in Alaska for several years for his work and had experience mountain climbing, Karstens had the greater experience, which he applied as guide to the small expedition, its other members were 21 at the time. In addition, two Gwich'in youths from Stuck's mission school, Johnny Fredson and Esias George, supported the party by managing its dog teams, in base camp by hunting for meat and organizing supplies.. The expedition party left from Nenana on March 17, 1913, proceeded up the Tanana River valley; the first day, they hiked 30 miles up the Tanana with two sleds of supplies pulled by fourteen dogs. The 110-mile trip up the river to Eureka took eight days. After leaving Eureka, the terrain became rougher, the expedition's pace slowed to about 10 miles a day. At an elevation of 2,000 feet, the party established base camp near the tree line of the mountain, where they encountered temperatures as low as −46 °F, they set off again, up the steep Muldrow Glacier.
While they were camping at the top of the glacier, a tent full of supplies and food was accidentally burned. It took three weeks for Harper and Fredson to go to and return from base camp to replace their supplies; the next step was the northeast ridge. A previous expedition had called it "step, but practicable," so Karstens and Stuck were surprised to find huge chunks of rocks and ice in their path; these had been upturned by an earthquake the previous summer. The expedition's progress slowed while they maneuvered under, over, or sometimes through the debris, they camped on the ridge for three days, where temperatures ranged from 50 °F during the day to −21 °F at night. It took them three weeks to dig a road three miles long through the blockage of materials in their path; the party the year before had passed this area before the earthquake. After that, they climbed the upper glacier. Looking at the North Summit through field glasses, they saw a flagstaff set up by Thomas Lloyd and three other men.
Known as the "Sourdough Expedition", Lloyd's party had found their achievement doubted because others had not witnessed it. On June 6, the Karstens-Stuck party made their final camp at an elevation of 18,000 feet. At the time, it was the highest camp established in North America. At 4:00 the next morning, the group left camp for their final attempt at the summit. Around noon, they stopped in a small shelter; the remaining 1,000 feet went slowly because the thin air made breathing difficult. At about 1:30 p.m. they reached the summit of an elevation of 20,310 feet. They spent an hour and a half on the summit, during which Robert Tatum planted the American flag he had made earlier from red and blue handkerchiefs. Tatum said, "The scenery was of indescribable beauty... It was like looking out of a window of heaven."After reading their instruments and calculating the altitude, they began their d
King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, a founding constituent college of the federal University of London. King's was established in 1829 by King George IV and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when it received its first royal charter, claims to be the fourth oldest university institution in England. In 1836, King's became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. In the late 20th century, King's grew through a series of mergers, including with Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology, the Institute of Psychiatry, the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals and the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery. King's has five campuses: its historic Strand Campus in central London, three other Thames-side campuses and one in Denmark Hill in south London. In 2017/18, King's had a total income of £841.1 million, of which £194.4 million was from research grants and contracts.
It is the 12th largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, the largest of any in London, its academic activities are organised into nine faculties, which are subdivided into numerous departments and research divisions. King's is considered part of the'golden triangle' of research-intensive English universities alongside the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, University College London, Imperial College London, The London School of Economics, it is a member of academic organisations including the Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association, the Russell Group. King's is home to six Medical Research Council centres and is a founding member of the King's Health Partners academic health sciences centre, Francis Crick Institute and MedCity, it is the largest European centre for graduate and post-graduate medical teaching and biomedical research, by number of students, includes the world's first nursing school, the Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery.
Globally, it was ranked 31st in the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 36th in the 2018 CWTS Leiden Ranking, 36th in the 2018 The World University Rankings, 46th in the 2017 ARWU. King's was ranked 42nd in the world for reputation in the annual Times Higher Education survey of academics for 2018. Nationally it was ranked 26th in the 2019 Complete University Guide, 35th in the 2019 Times/Sunday Times University Guide, 58th in the 2019 Guardian University Guide. King's alumni and staff include 12 Nobel laureates. Alumni include heads of states and intergovernmental organisations. King's College, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the theological controversy surrounding the founding of "London University" in 1826. London University was founded, with the backing of Utilitarians and Nonconformists, as a secular institution, intended to educate "the youth of our middling rich people between the ages of 15 or 16 and 20 or later" giving its nickname, "the godless college in Gower Street".
The need for such an institution was a result of the religious and social nature of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which educated the sons of wealthy Anglicans. The secular nature of London University was disapproved by The Establishment, indeed, "the storms of opposition which raged around it threatened to crush every spark of vital energy which remained". Thus, the creation of a rival institution represented a Tory response to reassert the educational values of The Establishment. More King's was one of the first of a series of institutions which came about in the early nineteenth century as a result of the Industrial Revolution and great social changes in England following the Napoleonic Wars. By virtue of its foundation King's has enjoyed the patronage of the monarch, the Archbishop of Canterbury as its visitor and during the nineteenth century counted among its official governors the Lord Chancellor, Speaker of the House of Commons and the Lord Mayor of London; the simultaneous support of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, for an Anglican King's College London and the Roman Catholic Relief Act, to lead to the granting of full civil rights to Catholics, was challenged by George Finch-Hatton, 10th Earl of Winchilsea, in early 1829.
Winchilsea and his supporters wished for King's to be subject to the Test Acts, like the universities of Oxford, where only members of the Church of England could matriculate, Cambridge, where non-Anglicans could matriculate but not graduate, but this was not Wellington's intent. Winchilsea and about 150 other contributors withdrew their support of King's College London in response to Wellington's support of Catholic emancipation. In a letter to Wellington he accused the Duke to have in mind "insidious designs for the infringement of our liberty and the introduction of Popery into every department of the State"; the letter provoked a furious exchange of correspondence and Wellington accused Winchilsea of imputing him with "disgraceful and criminal motives" in setting up King's C
Fort Yukon, Alaska
Fort Yukon is a city in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. The population, predominately Gwich'in Alaska Natives, was 583 at the 2010 census, down from 595 in 2000. Fort Yukon is the hometown of Alaska Congressman Don Young. Served by Fort Yukon Airport, it is known for having the record highest temperature in Alaska; this area north of the Arctic Circle was occupied for thousands of years by cultures of indigenous people and in historic times by the Gwich’in people. What became the village of Fort Yukon developed from a trading post, Fort Yukon, established by Alexander Hunter Murray of the Hudson's Bay Company, on 25 June 1847. Murray drew numerous sketches of fur trade posts and of people and wrote the Journal of the Yukon, 1847–48, which gave valuable insight into the culture of the Gwich’in at the time. While the post was in Russian America, the Hudson's Bay Company continued to trade there until the American traders expelled it in 1869, following the Alaska Purchase when the Alaska Commercial Company took over the post.
During the Klondike Gold Rush, in the winter of 1897–1898, Fort Yukon received two hundred prospectors from Dawson City, short of supply. A post office was established on July 1898 with John Hawksly as its first postmaster; the settlement suffered over the following decades as a result of several infectious disease epidemics and a 1949 flood. During the 1950s, the United States Air Force established a radar station at Fort Yukon. Since the late 20th century, due in part to its extreme northerly location and its proximity to Fairbanks, it has become a minor tourist destination. On February 7, 1984 a Terrier Malemute-type sounding rocket, with a maximum altitude of 310 miles, was launched from Fort Yukon. Fort Yukon is located at 66°34′2″N 145°15′23″W. Fort Yukon is located on the north bank of the Yukon River at its junction with the Porcupine River, about 145 miles northeast of Fairbanks. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city in Northeastern Alaska has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which, 7.0 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water.
It is located 8 miles north of the Arctic Circle, at the confluence of the Yukon and Porcupine Rivers and in the middle of the Yukon Flats. The highest temperature recorded in Alaska occurred in Fort Yukon on June 27, 1915, when it reached 100 °F or 37.8 °C. Until 1971, Fort Yukon held the all-time lowest temperature record at −78 °F or −61.1 °C, it still holds the record for the lowest mean monthly temperature when the notoriously cold month of December 1917 had an average daily temperature of −48.3 °F or −44.6 °C and the minimum averaged −58 °F or −50 °C. The climate regime is a strong continental subarctic climate with severe winters, being less influenced by chinook winds than areas to the west – the winter season absolute maximum being 17 °F or 9.4 °C colder than in Fairbanks. Summer temperatures are exceptionally high for such a northerly area, being far warmer than the tree line threshold. In the Summer Fort Yukon has midnight sun and in December there is no sun at all. Fort Yukon first appeared on the 1880 U.
S. Census as an unincorporated village of 109 residents. Of those, 107 were members of the Tinneh Tribe and 2 were Whites, it did not appear on the 1890 census, but has returned in every successive census since 1900. It formally incorporated in 1959, the year Alaska became a state; as of the census of 2000, there were 595 people, 225 households, 137 families residing in the city. The population density was 85.0 people per square mile. There were 317 housing units at an average density of 45.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.05% Native American, 10.76% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 0.17% Asian, 0.17% from other races, 2.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.34% of the population. There were 225 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.8% were married couples living together, 23.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.37. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.4% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 6.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 112.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,375, the median income for a family was $32,083. Males had a median income of $25,000 versus $27,813 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,360. About 18.0% of families and 18.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.3% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over. Yukon Flats School District operates the Fort Yukon School. Clarence Alexander Jonathon Solomon Velma Wallis Don Young Hudson Stuck Media related to Fort Yukon, Alaska at Wikimedia Commons
The Arctic Circle is one of the two polar circles and the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth. It marks the northernmost point at which the centre of the noon sun is just visible on the December solstice and the southernmost point at which the centre of the midnight sun is just visible on the June solstice; the region north of this circle is known as the Arctic, the zone just to the south is called the Northern Temperate Zone. As seen from the Arctic, the Sun is above the horizon for 24 continuous hours at least once per year and below the horizon for 24 continuous hours at least once per year; this is true in the Antarctic region, south of the equivalent Antarctic Circle. The position of the Arctic Circle is not fixed, its latitude depends on the Earth's axial tilt, which fluctuates within a margin of more than 2° over a 41,000-year period, due to tidal forces resulting from the orbit of the Moon. The Arctic Circle is drifting northwards at a speed of about 15 m per year.
The word arctic comes from the Greek word ἀρκτικός and that from the word ἄρκτος. The Arctic Circle is the southernmost latitude in the Northern Hemisphere at which the centre of the sun can remain continuously above or below the horizon for twenty-four hours. Directly on the Arctic Circle these events occur, in principle once per year: at the June and December solstices, respectively. However, because of atmospheric refraction and mirages, because the sun appears as a disk and not a point, part of the midnight sun may be seen on the night of the northern summer solstice up to about 50 minutes south of the Arctic Circle; that is true at sea level. Only four million people live north of the Arctic Circle due to the climate. Tens of thousands of years ago, waves of people migrated from eastern Siberia across the Bering Strait into North America to settle; the largest communities north of the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia and Sweden: Murmansk, Tromsø, Kiruna. Rovaniemi in Finland is the largest settlement in the immediate vicinity of the Arctic Circle, lying 6 km south of the line.
In contrast, the largest North American community north of the Arctic Circle, has 5,000 inhabitants. Of the Arctic communities in Canada and the United States, Alaska is the largest settlement with about 4,000 inhabitants; the Arctic Circle is 16,000 km long. The area north of the Circle is about 20,000,000 km2 and covers 4% of Earth's surface; the Arctic Circle passes through the Arctic Ocean, the Scandinavian Peninsula, North Asia, Northern America, Greenland. The land within the Arctic Circle is divided among eight countries: Norway, Finland, the United States, Canada and Iceland; the climate inside the Arctic Circle is cold, but the coastal areas of Norway have a mild climate as a result of the Gulf Stream, which makes the ports of northern Norway and northwest Russia ice-free all year long. In the interior, summers can be quite warm, while winters are cold. For example, summer temperatures in Norilsk, Russia will sometimes reach as high as 30 °C, while the winter temperatures fall below −50 °C.
Starting at the prime meridian and heading eastwards, the Arctic Circle passes through: Terra Incognita: Exploration of the Canadian Arctic—Historical essay about early expeditions to the Canadian Arctic, illustrated with maps and drawings Temporal Epoch Calculations ©2006 by James Q. Jacobs Download: Epoch v2009.xls Useful constants" See: Obliquity of the ecliptic
Denali is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level. With a topographic prominence of 20,156 feet and a topographic isolation of 4,629 miles, Denali is the third most prominent and third most isolated peak on Earth, after Mount Everest and Aconcagua. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U. S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Preserve. The Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as "Denali" for centuries. In 1896, a gold prospector named it "Mount McKinley" in support of then-presidential candidate William McKinley. In August 2015, following the 1975 lead of the State of Alaska, the United States Department of the Interior announced the change of the official name of the mountain to Denali. In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, unsuccessful. In 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, proven to be false; the first verifiable ascent to Denali's summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit.
In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, therefore the most popular in use. On September 2, 2015, the U. S. Geological Survey announced that the mountain is 20,310 feet high, not 20,320 feet, as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry. Denali is a granitic pluton lifted by tectonic pressure from the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate; the forces that lifted Denali cause many deep earthquakes in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The Pacific Plate is seismically active beneath Denali, a tectonic region, known as the "McKinley cluster". Denali has a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level, making it the highest peak in North America and the northernmost mountain above 6,000 meters elevation in the world. Measured from base to peak at some 18,000 ft, it is among the largest mountains situated above sea level. Denali rises from a sloping plain with elevations from 1,000 to 3,000 ft, for a base-to-peak height of 17,000 to 19,000 ft.
By comparison, Mount Everest rises from the Tibetan Plateau at a much higher base elevation. Base elevations for Everest range from 13,800 ft on the south side to 17,100 ft on the Tibetan Plateau, for a base-to-peak height in the range of 12,000 to 15,300 ft. Denali's base-to-peak height is little more than half the 33,500 ft of the volcano Mauna Kea, which lies under water. Denali has two significant summits: the South Summit is the higher one, while the North Summit has an elevation of 19,470 ft and a prominence of 1,270 ft; the North Summit is sometimes counted as sometimes not. Five large glaciers flow off the slopes of the mountain; the Peters Glacier lies on the northwest side of the massif, while the Muldrow Glacier falls from its northeast slopes. Just to the east of the Muldrow, abutting the eastern side of the massif, is the Traleika Glacier; the Ruth Glacier lies to the southeast of the mountain, the Kahiltna Glacier leads up to the southwest side of the mountain. With a length of 44 mi, the Kahiltna Glacier is the longest glacier in the Alaska Range.
The Koyukon Athabaskans who inhabit the area around the mountain have for centuries referred to the peak as Dinale or Denali. The name is based on a Koyukon word for "high" or "tall". During the Russian ownership of Alaska, the common name for the mountain was Bolshaya Gora, the Russian translation of Denali, it was called Densmore's Mountain in the late 1880s and early 1890s after Frank Densmore, an Alaskan prospector, the first European to reach the base of the mountain. In 1896, a gold prospector named it McKinley as political support for then-presidential candidate William McKinley, who became president the following year; the United States formally recognized the name Mount McKinley after President Wilson signed the Mount McKinley National Park Act of February 26, 1917. In 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson declared the north and south peaks of the mountain the "Churchill Peaks", in honor of British statesman Winston Churchill; the Alaska Board of Geographic Names changed the name of the mountain to Denali in 1975, how it is called locally.
However, a request in 1975 from the Alaska state legislature to the United States Board on Geographic Names to do the same at the federal level was blocked by Ohio congressman Ralph Regula, whose district included McKinley's hometown of Canton. On August 30, 2015, just ahead of a presidential visit to Alaska, the Barack Obama administration announced the name Denali would be restored in line with the Alaska Geographic Board's designation. U. S. Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell issued the order changing the name to Denali on August 28, 2015, effective immediately. Jewell said the change had been "a long time coming"; the renaming of the mountain received praise from Alaska's senior U. S. senator, Lisa Murkowski, who had introduced legislation to accomplish the name change, but it drew criticism from several politicians from Pres