Harry Potter is a series of fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling; the novels chronicle the lives of a young wizard, Harry Potter, his friends Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The main story arc concerns Harry's struggle against Lord Voldemort, a dark wizard who intends to become immortal, overthrow the wizard governing body known as the Ministry of Magic and subjugate all wizards and Muggles. Since the release of the first novel, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, on 26 June 1997, the books have found immense popularity, critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide, they have attracted a wide adult audience as well as younger readers and are considered cornerstones of modern young adult literature. As of February 2018, the books have sold more than 500 million copies worldwide, making them the best-selling book series in history, have been translated into eighty languages; the last four books consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history, with the final instalment selling eleven million copies in the United States within twenty-four hours of its release.
The series was published in English by two major publishers, Bloomsbury in the United Kingdom and Scholastic Press in the United States. A play, Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, based on a story co-written by Rowling, premiered in London on 30 July 2016 at the Palace Theatre, its script was published by Little, Brown; the original seven books were adapted into an eight-part namesake film series by Warner Bros. Pictures, the third highest-grossing film series of all time as of February 2020. In 2016, the total value of the Harry Potter franchise was estimated at $25 billion, making Harry Potter one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time. A series of many genres, including fantasy, coming of age, the British school story, the world of Harry Potter explores numerous themes and includes many cultural meanings and references. According to Rowling, the main theme is death. Other major themes in the series include prejudice and madness; the success of the books and films has allowed the Harry Potter franchise to expand with numerous derivative works, a travelling exhibition that premiered in Chicago in 2009, a studio tour in London that opened in 2012, a digital platform on which J.
K. Rowling updates the series with new information and insight, a pentalogy of spin-off films premiering in November 2016 with Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, among many other developments. Most themed attractions, collectively known as The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, have been built at several Universal Parks & Resorts amusement parks around the world; the central character in the series is Harry Potter, a boy who lives in the fictional town of Little Whinging, Surrey with his aunt and cousin – the Dursleys – and discovers at the age of eleven that he is a wizard, though he lives in the ordinary world of non-magical people known as Muggles. The wizarding world exists parallel to the Muggle world, albeit hidden and in secrecy, his magical ability is inborn, children with such abilities are invited to attend exclusive magic schools that teach the necessary skills to succeed in the wizarding world. Harry becomes a student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, a wizarding academy in Scotland, it is here where most of the events in the series take place.
As Harry develops through his adolescence, he learns to overcome the problems that face him: magical and emotional, including ordinary teenage challenges such as friendships, romantic relationships and exams, depression and the greater test of preparing himself for the confrontation that lies ahead in wizarding Britain's increasingly-violent second wizarding war. Each novel chronicles one year in Harry's life during the period from 1991 to 1998; the books contain many flashbacks, which are experienced by Harry viewing the memories of other characters in a device called a Pensieve. The environment Rowling created is intimately connected to reality; the British magical community of the Harry Potter books is inspired by 1990s British culture, European folklore, classical mythology and alchemy, incorporating objects and wildlife such as magic wands, magic plants, spells, flying broomsticks and other magical creatures, the Philosopher's Stone, beside others invented by Rowling. While the fantasy land of Narnia is an alternate universe and the Lord of the Rings' Middle-earth a mythic past, the wizarding world of Harry Potter exists parallel to the real world and contains magical versions of the ordinary elements of everyday life, with the action set in Scotland, the West Country, Devon and Surrey in southeast England.
The world only accessible to wizards and magical beings comprises a fragmented collection of overlooked hidden streets, ancient pubs, lonely country manors, secluded castles invisible to the Muggle population. When the first novel of the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, opens, it is apparent that some significant event has taken place in the wizarding world – an event so remarkable that Muggles notice signs of it; the full background to this event and Harry Potter's past is revealed throughout the series. After the introductory chapter, the book leaps forward to a time shortly before Harry Potter's eleventh birthday, it is at this point that his magical background begins to be revealed. Despite Harry's aunt
William Rea was a British ironmaster, owner or partner in many ironworks. He was born on 24 February 1662 and he may have been the son of Richard Rea, manager of the Foley family's steelworks in and about the Forest of Bob. In the early 18th century he was the managing partner of the Foley steelworks from 1690 to 1725, an important figure in coal iron production. In this role, he succeeded John Wheeler, he appears as a manager of Wilden Forge about 1692, was managing some forges near the Forest of Dean for John Wheeler and Obadiah Lane from about 1701. It is thought. After Wheeler's death, Rea married one of his daughters.. Rea seems to have managed the business of the Forest Partnership with some oversight from Richard Avenant and Richard Knight of Bringewood Ironworks. After the death of Philip Foley in 1716, his children sold out, as did Richard Knight who had become a partner in about 1709; that left as partners just John Wheeler II and Thomas Foley, the eldest son of Paul Foley and Auditor of the Imposts.
In 1717, an embargo was placed on British trade with Sweden. As a substantial part of the iron used in Britain was imported from Sweden, there was a shortage of it and the price rose; this meant large potential profits such as Rea. But to make more iron, they needed more charcoal; the price of cordwood from which charcoal was made is likely to have risen. Rea bought a large quantity of wood - both timber - at Holme Lacy near Hereford, he realised that the deal asked Thomas Foley to become his partner. The best timber was sold to the Navy for shipbuilding; the charcoal made from the cordwood no doubt went to their ironworks. However, iron imports had only been temporarily interrupted, as Swedish iron was re-exported to England from Prussia and the Netherlands, the embargo was lifted in 1719; the price of iron came back down. This was financially disastrous for him, it is that his failure left him depressed. Accordingly, the Forest Partners sacked him. Warine Falkner was the next manager, but his wife wanted to move back to Staffordshire to be near her family, he left.
In the time of his successor Thomas Pendrill, the business contracted, ended in obscurity as an unimportant concern, some time after 1751. Rea's sacking was followed by litigation in the Court of Exchequer; this was partly resolved by an arbitration by Warine Falkner and Edward Kendall with William Knight as umpire. The result left Rea financially ruined, with his property mortgaged to the Duke of Beaufort, to whom he surrendered it. Little is known of Rea's career, he had had shares in ironworks in Cheshire and Staffordshire, at Cunsey in Furness, in Sussex, was evidently an important figure in the iron industry, but withdrew from these shares during the 1720s. He is last heard of in 1748. Samuel Jewkes had given him a partnership in Wolverley Old Forge during the embargo and had died without paying. William Rea brought proceedings in Chancery for payment, but had to await the majority of the grandson before the estate could be sold and he could be paid; the estate was bought by William Knight's son Edward, by an important and wealthy ironmaster in the area.
William Rea died before 2 April 1757 when William Marks of Brockham in the parish of Astley, grand-nephew and heir of William Rea of Monmouth is cited in a legal case. King, P. W. "Early Statistics for the iron industry: a vindication" Historical Metallurgy 30, 23-46
"Timmy 2000" is the third episode of the fourth season of the American animated television series South Park, the 51st episode of the series overall. It aired on April 19, 2000, it was voted #6 of the "10 South Park episodes that changed the world". The episode has a 12 certificate in the United Kingdom; the boys have a new fellow student in their class, the mentally and physically handicapped Timmy, only capable of saying his own name, the phrase "livin' a lie", otherwise a limited number of words. Mr. Garrison and Principal Victoria do not realize the extent of Timmy's handicaps, Mr. Mackey suggests that Timmy may suffer from ADD, they send him to a doctor who diagnoses him with that condition in a odd fashion. Timmy is freed from all homework, leading all the other kids in the class to claim that they have ADD in an attempt to get out of their homework, they are all promptly diagnosed with the condition using a similar method as Timmy, they are all prescribed Ritalin as a result. Without the burden of homework, Timmy finds a new pastime as he is discovered by The Lords of the Underworld, which takes him on as its new lead singer.
The band becomes successful due to Timmy's antics. However, many people are upset. Phil Collins in particular is displeased with the new band, booked to open for him at the Lalapalalapaza festival. Shortly after and the Lords of the Underworld take Collins's place as the headliners of the festival; the other boys have started to take their Ritalin medication, making them calm and rather boring. Cartman develops a side effect from Ritalin; the adults are uncomfortable among them, but accept their new kind and obedient children when they start taking Ritalin. Chef and the pharmacists are the only people left. Meanwhile, Phil Collins tries to break up the Lords of the Underworld. First by appealing to Timmy's parents and Helen, by telling the guitarist, that Timmy is stealing his fame and is only holding Skyler back, reminiscing to his Genesis era. Skyler leaves the band, subsequently cancelled from the festival. Collins regains his headlining spot, Skyler's solo project Reach for the Skyler is booked to open for him, but Skyler bails out.
In the meantime, Chef tries to convince the parents that there are other methods to fight ADD than medication, namely beating the children to force them to "sit down and study," but as the parents are all taking Ritalin too, he does not get any help. After the boys come in and tell Chef that they want to go to the festival to see Phil Collins perform, Chef decides to go confront the pharmacist alone; as the pharmacist and doctor who prescribed the Ritalin are counting their profits, Chef angrily tells them that they are responsible for the children liking Collins. Horrified that they are responsible for this, they make a plan to distribute an antidote called "Ritalout" by mixing it into free drinks at the Lalapalalapaza festival, they get the drinks from a lemonade stand run by Mr. Derp; the plan works perfectly. The band reunites with Skyler and they play their show. Timmy learns the words to introduce the band properly. Collins is carried out of the arena via crowd surfing, with the position of the Oscar implied to have been inserted in his anus.
This was shown in a segment. Phil Collins is always seen holding an Academy Award; this refers to his award in 1999 for best song, "You'll Be in My Heart" from Disney's Tarzan, which won against a song from South Park: Bigger and Uncut called "Blame Canada". Collins' appearance and mannerisms in the episode are similar to the "Gumby" character as seen in Monty Python's Flying Circus, an influence of Stone and Parker; the characters always mispronounce the name of a yearly music event. Kurt Loder is parodied on an episode of MTV News. Loder ponders why he is still doing this and says, "I've got to be the oldest person on this network by at least 40 years." The MTV News logo is seen with its satellite orbiting and the announcer mocks how the network is so cool they decide what's cool. The song featured in this episode, "Timmy and the Lords of the Underworld", is a bonus song in Rock Band, it was released as a standalone single. As explained in the FAQ section on the official website: "When the year 2000 was coming up, everyone and their brother had'2000' in the titles of their products and TV shows.
America was obsessed with 2000, so Trey Parker put'2000' in the titles to make fun of the ubiquity of the phrase. However the joke soon got old after the first four episodes so they decided to drop it." Timmy 2000 Full episode at South Park Studios Timmy 2000 Episode guide at South Park Studios "Timmy 2000" on IMDb "Timmy 2000" at TV.com