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Harvard Library

The Harvard Library is the umbrella organization for the Harvard University libraries and their shared services, such as access, digital infrastructure, digital imaging, discovery services. The Harvard Library is nearly 400 years old, making it the oldest library system in the United States. Additionally, the Harvard Library is the largest private library system and largest academic library in the world, its collection holds nearly 20 million volumes, 400 million manuscripts, 10 million photographs, one million maps. Harvard Library holds the third largest collection in the United States, after the Library of Congress and Boston Public Library. Based on the number of items held, it is the fifth largest library in the United States. Additionally, Harvard is part of the Research Collections and Preservation Consortium, the Ivy Plus Libraries Confederation, making over 90 million books available to the Library’s users; the Library is open to current Harvard affiliates, some events and spaces are open to the public.

The most recognized building in the Harvard Library system is Widener Library, situated in Harvard Yard. Harvard's library system grew due to donations from prominent individuals, John Harvard being one of them. John Harvard was a Puritan minister; these volumes were left to Harvard. The works in this collection soon became obsolete, as Harvard Library changed to an academic institute and found little need for the theological titles; the location of the library changed over time. It was in the Old College building. In 1676, the library was moved to Harvard Hall, where it remained until the building burnt down during the fire in 1764; the fire of 1764 destroyed the entire collection. After, a new Harvard Hall was built and 15,000 books were collected to create the new library; as time went on space became limited in Harvard Hall, the library was moved to Gore Hall in 1841. Gore Hall was no longer suitable and the books were moved elsewhere in 1912. Around this time, the library spread into more than one building.

Some of the libraries were devoted to specialized topics. Over the next century the library grew to become the largest in America, but on January 24, 1764, a major fire destroyed all of Harvard's books and scientific instruments. All of the books in the library at the time of the fire were burned; the books, loaned out when the fire occurred were the only portion of the collection that remained. Books and donations were offered by friends of the college to replace its collections. An eccentric Englishman, Thomas Hollis V of Lincoln's Inn, began shipping thousands of specially chosen volumes to the University Library. Hollis continued to send books until his death in 1774 and he bequeathed £500 for a fund to continue buying books; this became Harvard's first endowed book fund, is still increasing the collections every year. Harvard Library's online catalog, HOLLIS, is named after him; some books were digitized within the Google Books Library Project, which began as a project developed with leadership and oversight by former Director Sidney Verba.

On August 1, 2012, a new Harvard Library organization began operations, designed to improve a fragmented system of 73 libraries across Harvard's Schools with one that promotes University-wide collaboration. Functions that occur within all libraries—Access Services, Technical Services and Preservation Services—were unified to enable greater focus on the needs of the user community; the new structure was developed from recommendations of the Task Force on University Libraries and the Library Implementation Working Group. In addition to millions of volumes, the Harvard Library houses a range of historical artifacts and primary documents from around the world, including one of only 23 complete Gutenberg Bibles; the largest collection of East Asian-language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library. The largest collection of archives focused on business and economic history is housed in the Baker Library Special Collections at Harvard Business School; the Botany Libraries’ archives include Henry David Thoreau’s personal herbaria, letters from Charles Darwin to Asa Gray, thousands of botanical illustrations.

The Wolbach Library holds the oldest surviving images of the moon, the Tozzer Library is one of the oldest anthropological libraries in the world. Harvard Library has a robust collection of digital content. More than 6 million digital objects are accessible online by anyone, regardless of whether or not they’re affiliated with Harvard, via the Harvard Digital Collections page; the CURIOSity tool offers another way to explore Harvard’s digital collections, providing curated views, specialized search options and discovery of unique content. Curated collections include the Colonial North America archive, the Islamic Heritage Project, over 3,5000 digitized daguerreotypes. By 1973, the Harvard Library had authored or published over 430 volumes in print, as well as nine periodicals and seven annual publications. Among these is a monthly newsletter, The Harvard Librarian, as well as a quarterly journal, the Harvard Library Bulletin; the latter was established in 1947, was dormant from 1960 until being revived in 1967.

The Bulletin is published three times a year in spring and fall. Anyone can subscribe to receive the Harvard Library Bulletin, an archive of past issues is available on the Harvard Library website; the Harvard Library is the formal name for an administrative entity within the central

Stream bed

A stream bed or streambed is the channel bottom of a stream or river, the physical confine of the normal water flow. The lateral confines or channel margins are known as the stream banks or river banks, during all but flood stage. Under certain conditions a river can branch from one stream bed to multiple stream beds. A flood occurs when a stream overflows its flows onto its flood plain; as a general rule, the bed is the part of the channel up to the normal water line, the banks are that part above the normal water line. However, because water flow varies, this differentiation is subject to local interpretation; the bed is kept clear of terrestrial vegetation, whereas the banks are subjected to water flow only during unusual or infrequent high water stages and therefore might support vegetation some or much of the time. The nature of any stream bed is always a function of the flow dynamics and the local geologic materials, influenced by that flow. With small streams in mesophytic regions, the nature of the stream bed is responsive to conditions of precipitation runoff.

Where natural conditions of either grassland or forest ameliorate peak flows, stream beds are stable rich, with organic matter and exhibit minimal scour. These streams support a rich biota. Where conditions produce unnatural levels of runoff, such as occurs below roads, the stream beds will exhibit a greater amount of scour down to bedrock and banks may be undercut; this process increases watershed erosion and results in thinner soils, upslope from the stream bed, as the channel adjusts to the increase in flow. The stream bed is complex in terms of erosion. Sediment is transported and deposited on the stream bed. With global warming there is a fear that the size and shape of riverbeds will change due to increased flood magnitude and frequency. However, one study has shown that the majority of sediment washed out in floods is "near-threshold" sediment, deposited during normal flow and only needs a higher flow to become mobile again; this shows that the stream bed is left unchanged in size and shape.

Beds are what would be left once a stream is no longer in existence. Dry stream beds are subject to becoming underground water pockets and flooding by heavy rains and water rising from the ground and may sometimes be part of the rejuvenation of the stream. Armor Benthic zone Hyporheic zone

A Time to Every Purpose Under Heaven

A Time to Every Purpose Under Heaven is a 2004 novel by the Norwegian writer Karl Ove Knausgård. It is known as A Time for Everything in the United States, its narrator is a man. The novel's Norwegian and British titles are a quotation from Ecclesiastes. Salley Vickers reviewed the book for The Guardian, wrote that it is "apparent from the start that here is a book that wants to be taken seriously". Vickers wrote. T is hard not to wonder if began this book as an academic theological study and halfway through decided to transform it into a hybrid fiction by giving his commentaries". Vickers ended the review: "This is a book, it may well become a cult novel. But it left me wanting to return to the spare and unpretentious tellings of the old stories that engendered it." Anna Paterson of The Independent wrote: "This kind of speculative tale needs good telling not to read like mad pedantry or utter tosh. Knausgard and his translator, who writes like the author's soulmate, veer close to both, yet the writing glows with an intense awareness of the here and now, loving observations of landscapes and objects."

2004 in literature Norwegian literature

King and Queen Courthouse Green Historic District

King and Queen Courthouse Green Historic District is a national historic district located at King and Queen Court House, near Shacklefords and Queen County, Virginia. It encompasses eight contributing buildings, seven contributing structures, two contributing objects in the county seat of King and Queen County; the district includes a small courthouse compound with a courthouse, clerk's office, county jail, a granite monument and brick wall, a hotel / tavern building, a school, a specialty store building, a residence on the site of another hotel and tavern. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998; the granite obelisk is located on the old court house grounds. The monument displays various symbols of the war and the below inscription: To The Confederate Soldiers And Sailors of King and Queen County Virginia 1861-1865 Fate Denied Them Victory But Gave Them The Love And Veneration Of Their Native Land, The Wonder And Admiration Of The World King & Queen Courthouse Tavern Museum: Courthouse Historic District

1960 Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection

The selection of the Democratic Party's vice presidential candidate for the 1960 United States presidential election occurred at the party's national convention on August 13, 1960. After winning the presidential nomination on the first ballot of the 1960 Democratic National Convention, Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy turned his attention to picking a running mate. Kennedy chose Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson, who had finished second on the presidential ballot, as his running mate. Johnson, a Protestant Texan, provided geographical and religious balance to a ticket led by a Catholic Northeasterner, but many liberals did not like the pick. Many were surprised both that Kennedy made the offer and that Johnson accepted the offer, as the two had been rivals for the 1960 presidential nomination. According to some accounts, Kennedy had offered the position to Johnson as a courtesy and expected Johnson to decline the offer. However, Kennedy may have made the offer in earnest due to Johnson's appeal in the south, Johnson's friendly relationship with Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn, Kennedy's desire to remove Johnson as Senate Majority Leader in favor of the more liberal Mike Mansfield.

Regardless, Johnson decided that accepting the offer would be better for his political career and better position himself to become president, so he chose to become Kennedy's running mate. The Democratic convention confirmed Johnson as the vice presidential nominee, although the delegation from Washington, D. C. attempted to select Minnesota Governor Orville Freeman instead. The Kennedy-Johnson ticket narrowly defeated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon and his running mate, former Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, in the 1960 election. Johnson ascended to the presidency in 1963 upon the assassination of Kennedy. Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson of Texas Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey Missouri Senator Stuart Symington Washington Senator Henry M. Jackson Minnesota Governor Orville Freeman Kansas Governor George Docking Iowa Governor Herschel C. Loveless Wisconsin Governor Gaylord Nelson 1960 Democratic National Convention 1960 Democratic Party presidential primaries

Ganesh Prasad

Ganesh Prasad was an Indian mathematician who specialised in the theory of potentials, theory of functions of a real variable, Fourier series and the theory of surfaces. He was trained at the Universities of Cambridge and Göttingen and on return to India he helped develop the culture of mathematical research in India; the mathematical community of India considers Ganesh Prasad as the Father of Mathematical Research in India. He was an educator taking special interest in the advancement of primary education in the rural areas of India. Ganesh Prasad was born on 15 November 1876 at Uttar Pradesh, he obtained the B. A. degree from Muir Central College, Allahabad, M. A. degree from the Universities in Allahabad and Calcutta and the D. Sc. degree from Allahabad University. After teaching at the Kayasth Pathshala, at the Muir Central College, for about two years, he proceeded to Cambridge for higher studies and research. While at Cambridge he became acquainted with mathematicians like E. W. Hobson and Andrew Forsyth.

He sat, though unsuccessfully, for the Adams prize competition. He moved to Göttingen where he was associated with Arnold Sommerfeld, David Hilbert and Georg Cantor. In Göttingen, Prasad showed his paper titled On the constitution of matter and the analytical theories of heat, the one he had submitted for the Adams prize competition, to Felix Klein, who appreciated it much and arranged its publication in the Göttingen Abhandlungen. Ganesh Prasad spent altogether about five years in Europe. Prasad returned to India from Europe in 1904 and was appointed professor of mathematics at the Muir Central College, Allahabad. Within a year of his appointment at Allahabad, Prasad was sent to the Queen's College, Banaras and he continued there till 1914 when he was invited to head the mathematics department of Calcutta University. Ganesh Prasad was the Ras Behari Ghosh Chair of Applied Mathematics of Calcutta University from 1914 to 1917 and Hardinge Professor of Mathematics in the same University from 1923 till his death on 9 March 1935.

In between these two assignments he served Banaras Hindu University as professor of mathematics. While at Banaras, he helped found the Banaras Mathematical Society. Ganesh Prasad was elected President of the Calcutta Mathematical Society and the Vice-President of the Indian Association for Advancement of Science, Calcutta in 1924 and continued in the same position till his death, he was a founder member of the National Institute of Sciences, which has now been rechristened as the Indian National Science Academy. Ganesh Prasad authored 11 books including A Treatise on Spherical Harmonics and the Functions of Bessel and Lame and over fifty research papers in mathematics. Ganesh Prasad worked hard for the promotion of education in general in the rural areas of Uttar Pradesh, he was instrumental in the introduction of compulsory primary education in villages in Uttar Pradesh. He donated from his private savings an amount of Rs. 22,000 for the education of girls in Ballia. He donated an amount of Rupees two hundred thousand for establishing prizes for the toppers at the M.

A. and MSc examinations of the Agra University. He donated large amounts of money to the Banaras Universities also. 1909: A Text-book of Differential Calculus, via Internet Archive 1929: "On the differentiability of the integral function", Journal fur die reine und angewandte Mathematik 160: 100–110 doi:10.1515/crll.1929.160.100 1930: "On the nature of Θ in the mean-value theorem of the differential calculus", Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 36: 289–91 doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1930-04937-X 1933: Some Great Mathematicians of the Nineteenth Century via Internet Archive List of Indian mathematicians Singal, M. K.. "Ganesh Prasad". Bulletin of the Mathematical Association of India. 6: 6–8. Sen, S. N.. "Factors in the development of scientific research in India during 1906 – 1930". Indian Journal of History of Science. 27: 379–388. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2010. Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani. Students' Britannica India: Select essays Volume 6. Popular Prakashan.

P. 441. ISBN 978-0-85229-762-9