Harvard School of Dental Medicine

The Harvard School of Dental Medicine is the dental school of Harvard University. It is located in the Longwood Medical Area in Massachusetts. In addition to the DMD degree, HSDM offers specialty training programs, advanced training programs, a PhD program through the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Admission into the DMD program, as well as into the post-doctoral residency programs, is fiercely competitive; the program considers dentistry a specialty of medicine. Therefore, all students at HSDM experience dual citizenship between Harvard School of Dental Medicine and Harvard Medical School. Today, HSDM is the smallest school at Harvard University with a total student body of 280; when compared to other dental schools, HSDM is small, its total living alumni number is 2,500 worldwide and continues to have considerable influence on dental education and research within the broader oral health community. Many other HSDM alumni pursue careers as full-time faculty members, department heads, leaders of organized dentistry.

In the early 19th century a dentist was culturally understood as a tradesman, as opposed to a professional in the medical sense. Most dentists had either learned their trade through apprenticeships or offered their services to the public as self-proclaimed experts. Physicians and surgeons had once been tradesmen; the advent of science was a principal factor in the professionalization of medicine and surgery, because as scientific knowledge of biology and physiology advanced, it became necessary to be educated academically in order to master the full body of knowledge in medicine. A similar evolution happened in dentistry, as dentists today are required to understand a large amount of oral medicine to earn license to practice; the move toward more formal dental education and the professionalization of dentistry in the United States began when the state of Maryland chartered the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery in 1840. The establishment of this independent college, which may have occurred after the University of Maryland refused to add dental education to its curriculum, exemplified the nineteenth-century debate over whether dentistry should be part of scholarly education or should be taught in separate trade schools.

As a result of this resistance, the various American dental schools that existed by 1866 were all freestanding. They included the aforementioned Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, the Ohio College of Dental Surgery, the Philadelphia College of Dental Surgery, the New York College of Dentistry, the Philadelphia Dental College, the Missouri Dental College; the move towards university-based dental education institutions began with the formation of Harvard Dental School in 1867. Dr. Reidar Fauske Sognnaes, noted oral pathologist and founding dean of the UCLA School of Dentistry, commented on the significance of the school's formation in a 1977 New England Journal of Medicine article: There was a time when the mouth speaking, was considered a scientific "no-man's land." That was when dental education fell between academic chairs--literally between the eyes, ears and throat. In the United States dentistry was denied the academic status of other segments of higher education until 1867, when Harvard established the first dental school affiliated with a university-based faculty of medicine.

Harvard was the first dental school to award the DMD degree. The establishment of the degree is detailed at Dental degree § DDS vs DMD degree. There is no difference between the DDS degree; the school was established as Harvard Dental School in 1867, but renamed the Harvard School of Dental Medicine in 1940. This symbolic change was made to emphasize the biological basis of oral medicine and the multidisciplinary focus of dental research. In 1957, Harvard School of Dental Medicine was awarded a training grant from the National Institute of Dental Research to expand its postdoctoral training programs; these new programs included an maxillofacial surgery/MD/general surgery residency program. The school's current post-doctoral programs include both school-based and hospital based residencies. School-based programs award the Master of Medical Science degree, with an optional Doctor of Medical Sciences degree available for those spending extra time on research activities. School-based programs Orthodontics Endodontics Prosthodontics Periodontics Dental Public HealthHospital-based programs Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: combined Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/General Surgery & MD program at Massachusetts General Hospital with MD degree awarded from Harvard Medical School Pediatric Dentistry: at Boston Children's Hospital General Practice Residency: combined program at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital In 1994, a major change in the predoctoral curriculum included an increase of the predoctoral class size to 35, introduction of problem-based curriculum, a switch from a 5-year program to a 4-year case-based curriculum.

The Harvard Odontological Society was established in 1878 to promote education and good fello

GerĂ³nimo Salguero

Gerónimo Salguero de Cabrera Moynos, sometimes seen as Luis Jerónimo Cabrera y Cabrera or some variant, was an Argentine statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán, which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina. Salguero was born in Córdoba to an influential local family. A relative, Diego Salguero de Cabrera, had been bishop of Arequipa, an ancestor, Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, had established the city of Córdoba in 1573, he was educated at the Colegio Nacional de Monserrat and graduated in civil law in 1796 at the University of San Carlos, both in Córdoba. He married María Josefa Rolón. Salguero was Finance Minister in the provincial government of José Javier Díaz, he was elected to represent Córdoba in the Congress of Tucumán and served for the declaration in 1816. He was, along with his Córdoba colleagues, among the few federalists in the Congress, speaking for a system of strong autonomous provinces. In 1819, Salguero was appointed Treasurer of the Casa de la Moneda of Buenos Aires.

He served as prosecutor in the appeals chamber in Córdoba, but was forced to resign from his position and leave Córdoba in 1838, at the height of the Argentine Civil Wars. He died in Chuquisaca, Bolivia, in 1847. A street in the Palermo district of Buenos Aires, Jerónimo Salguero, is named after him

Alumni Center (Iowa State University)

The ISU Alumni Center is a $11.2 million, 34,500-square-foot facility, built to house the Iowa State University's Alumni Association and Student Alumni Leadership Council. Built near the Iowa State Center in Ames, the Alumni Center serves as an enhancement to student life, alumni homecomings, community and alumni engagement; the center was built using donations to the Alumni Association with Roy & Bobbi Reiman donating $9 million toward the building's construction. On the east side of the building sits a statue of Iowa State University's mascot Cy', it is the only sculpture of the school's mascot on campus. The building, in the plans for over 30 years, was architecturally designed to resemble parts of Iowa State University campus; the building is part of Iowa State's "Live Green!" Campaign and uses geothermal for cooling. It is the only building at Iowa State that uses geothermal