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Harvey Washington Wiley

Harvey Washington Wiley was an American chemist who fought for the passage of the landmark Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and subsequently worked at the Good Housekeeping Institute laboratories. He was the first commissioner of the United States Drug Administration. Wiley was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1910. Wiley was born on October 18, 1844, in a log farmhouse near Kent, in Jefferson County, the son of a farmer, he enrolled in nearby Hanover College in 1863 and studied for about one year until he enlisted with the Union Army in 1864, during the American Civil War. He finished the war as a corporal in Company I of the 137th Indiana Infantry Regiment, he returned to Hanover in 1865, majored in the humanities and was a top graduate in 1867. Wiley earned his M. D. from Indiana Medical College in 1871. He was professor of Greek and Latin at Butler College, Indianapolis, 1868-70. After earning his medical degree Wiley taught chemistry at the Medical College, where he led Indiana's first laboratory course in chemistry beginning in 1873.

At Harvard University, he was awarded a B. S. degree in 1873 after only a few months of intense effort. He accepted a faculty position in chemistry at Purdue University, which held its first classes in 1874, he was appointed state chemist of Indiana. In 1878, Wiley went to Germany where he attended the lectures of August Wilhelm von Hofmann—the celebrated German discoverer of organic tar derivatives like aniline. While there, Wiley was elected to the prestigious German Chemical Society founded by Hofmann. Wiley spent most of his time in the Imperial Food Laboratory in Bismarck working with Eugene Sell, mastering the use of the polariscope and studying sugar chemistry. Upon his return to Purdue, Wiley was asked by the Indiana State Board of Health to analyze the sugars and syrups on sale in the state to detect any adulteration, he spent his last years at Purdue studying sorghum culture and sugar chemistry, working to help develop a strong domestic sugar industry. His first published paper in 1881 discussed the adulteration of sugar with glucose.

Wiley was offered the position of Chief Chemist in the United States Department of Agriculture by George Loring, the Commissioner of Agriculture, in 1882. Loring was seeking to replace his chemist with someone who would employ a more objective approach to the study of sorghum, whose potential as a sugar source was far from proven. Wiley accepted the offer after being passed over for the presidency of Purdue because he was "too young and too jovial", unorthodox in his religious belief, a bachelor. Wiley brought to Washington a practical knowledge of agriculture, a sympathetic approach to the problems of agricultural industry and an untapped talent for public relations. After assisting Congress in their earliest questions regarding the safety of the chemical preservatives being employed in foods, Wiley was appropriated $5,000 in 1902 to study the effects of a diet including various preservatives, on human volunteers; these "poison squad" studies drew national attention to the need for a federal drug law.

Wiley soon became a coalition builder in support of national food and drug regulation. His work, that of Alice Lakey, spurred one million American women to write to the White House in support of the Pure Food and Drug Act. Wiley was nicknamed the "Father of the Pure Food and Drugs Act" when it became law in 1906, he wrote two editions of Foods and Their Adulteration, which described for an audience of non-specialists the history and subsequent adulteration of basic foodstuffs. He was a founding father of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, left a broad and substantial legacy to the American pure food movement as its "crusading chemist"; the enforcement of the federal Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was assigned to the Bureau of Chemistry, instead of the Department of Commerce or the Department of the Interior, a tribute to the scientific qualifications that the Bureau of Chemistry brought to its studies of food and drug adulteration, misbranding. The first food and drug inspectors were hired to complement the work of the laboratory scientists, an inspection program was launched which revolutionized the country's food supply within the first decade under the new federal law.

Wiley's tenure generated controversy over his administration of the 1906 statute. Concerns over chemical preservatives, which had not been addressed in the law, continued to be problematic; the Secretary of Agriculture appointed a Referee Board of Consulting Scientists, headed by Ira Remsen of Johns Hopkins University, to repeat Wiley's human trials of preservatives. The use of saccharin, bleached flour and benzoate of soda were all important issues which had to be settled by the courts in the early days under the new law. Under Wiley's leadership, the Bureau of Chemistry grew in strength and stature after assuming responsibility for enforcement of the 1906 Act. Between 1906 and 1912, Wiley's staff expanded from 110 to 146. Appropriations, $155,000 in 1906, were $963,780 in 1912; the Bureau moved into its own building and used the healing symbol of Aesculapius's staff, or Ophiuchus. In 1911, his enemies urged his dismissal from the Department of Agriculture over the technicality that an expert in his department had been paid above the legal rate.

But in the year, President William Howard Taft wrote a letter that exonerated Wiley. On March 15, 1912, Wiley resigned his leadership of the Chemistry Bureau because, from nearly the beginning, he had been antagonized in the enforcement of the Pure Food And Drugs Act, he had seen the fundamental principles of that act eith

Scott Willis (news producer)

Scott Willis is an American television news Producer who has worked overseas as well as in the United States. He is best known for working on Nightline during the height of the program's success, has had over thirty years News experience. Willis, the youngest of three children was born on February 20, 1952 in Munich, where his father was on assignment with the National Security Agency, his father was stationed in England, where he received much of is early schooling. In 1965, he attended high school at Cranbrook in the suburbs of Detroit. After graduating he traveled. Arriving back in Washington, DC, in 1976, he got himself a job in the graphics department of ABC, where he worked for three years until becoming a Senior Producer at CNN during the channel's first year, he remained there until 1981. While there he covered the Siege of Beirut as a Producer. In 1984, two years after the birth of his daughter, Camille Willis, he moved to the London Bureau of ABC where he was given the job of General Assignment Producer, specializing in Terrorism.

In 1989 he moved to New York City to work at Nightline. After having worked in the New York office of Nightline for three years he came to the Washington, D. C. office after the departure of Jeff Greenfield. He continued to work there for another nine years, winning Eleven News and Documentary Emmies, Two DuPont awards and the National Press Club Edwin M. Hood Award. Scott Willis opened up his own Independent Documentary Production company called C. Scott Films which has produced documentaries for New York Times Television, PBS NOVA and the Discovery Channel, he is in partnership with author Jim Bamford, working on his latest documentary Astro Spies. Battle Plan Under Fire Director-Producer: Examining the influence of technology on the battle for Iraq.. Mortal Enemies Senior Producer: On the intertwined lives of Yasser Arafat and Ariel Sharon. Awarded two Emmy awards for distinction in writing and graphic design.. Brave New World Executive Producer: An 8-hour series of primetime documentaries on ABC, with subjects ranging from advances in brain surgery to new developments in string theory.

Revolution in a Box Senior Producer: A 14-part series broadcast on Nightline looking at the influence of emerging technologies. Subjects ranged from the prospect of ubiquitous computing to a profile of Frank Gehry and the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. Scott Willis has won: Two DuPont Awards 1987–1988 Nightline Town Meeting: In the Holy Land 1991–1992 Nightline: Coverage of the L. A. Riots The National Press Club Edwin M. Hood Award for diplomatic correspondence in 1992 as a producer for Prime Time Live. Eleven News and Documentary Emmies 1988 Nightline "Town Meeting: In the Holy Land" 1991 Prime Time Live "Gorbachev: The Final Hours" 1992 Nightline "72 Hours to Victory: Behind the Scenes with Bill Clinton" 1993 Nightline "Children of War" 1994' Nightline "The End of the Search for OJ Simpson" 1995 Nightline "Oklahoma City Bombing: Moment of Crisis" 1996 Nightline "Anatomy of the Unabomber Suspect Arrest" 1996 Nightline "Dole: The Home Stretch Part 1" 1996 Nightline: "Dole: The Home Stretch Part 2" 1996 Nightline "The Avengers" 2002 New York Times TV and The Discovery Channel: "Mortal Enemies" Scott Willis on IMDb

Heron Pike

Heron Pike is a fell in the English Lake District, two kilometres east of Grasmere. It is part of the Fairfield group in the Eastern Fells, it should not be confused with the Heron Pike that forms part of Sheffield Pike, although it appears that, by coincidence, both Heron Pikes are the same height. Not a fell of great significance, Heron Pike is a slight grassy rise on the long southern ridge of its parent fell Fairfield. Just cresting the 2,000 foot mark at 612 m, it is climbed as part of the Fairfield horseshoe walk and it lies between the adjoining fells of Nab Scar and Great Rigg. Heron Pike’s eastern side features Erne Crag and Blind Cove as it falls away quite steeply towards Rydal Beck. At the base of Erne Crag is an old quarry, the mouth of a cavern quite easy to locate; the fell's western flank drops towards Grasmere and has the small Alcock Tarn on its lower slopes at a height of 360 m. Alcock Tarn was known as Butter Crags Tarn and was enlarged by means of a stone and earth dam in the nineteenth century to a depth of about six feet.

The owner, a Mr Alcock of Grasmere stocked it with brown trout. Heron Pike has a "subsidiary" top, it is called Heron Pike North Top on the Nuttall lists, but is known as Rydal Fell in some guide books. It has a height of 621 m; the deliberate choice by Alfred Wainwright of the lower top to be the summit in his Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells is one of the many oddities which differentiate Wainwrights from more logical hill lists such as Nuttalls or Hewitts. The ridgeline exposes the dacitic welded lapilli-tuff of the Lincomb Tarns Formation. Ascents of the fell are commenced either from Grasmere. However, the majority of walkers who visit Heron Pike do so either on the way to or on the way back from the main fell of Fairfield; the south summit has flashes of quartz in the uppermost rock and by far the better view. This takes in a fine vista of the Coniston and Central Fells; the higher northern top bears the remains of a cross wall, some of this fashioned into a small cairn. A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells, Eastern Fells, Alfred Wainwright, ISBN 0-7112-2454-4 The Mountains of England and Wales and Anne Nuttall ISBN 1-85284-037-4 Lake District Walks - Alcock Tarn & Heron Pike Walks