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Hashemites

The Hashemites House of Hashim, are the royal family of Jordan, which they have ruled since 1921, were the royal family of the kingdoms of Hejaz and Iraq. The family belongs to the Dhawu Awn, one of the branches of the Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca referred to as Hashemites, who ruled Mecca continuously from the 10th century until its conquest by the House of Saud in 1924, their eponymous ancestor is traditionally considered to be Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. The Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca, including the Hashemites' ancestor Qatadah ibn Idris, were Zaydi Shias until the late Mamluk or early Ottoman period when they converted to Shafi'i Sunni Islam; the current dynasty was founded by Sharif Hussein ibn Ali, appointed as Sharif and Emir of Mecca by Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1908 in 1916 was proclaimed King of Arab countries after initiating the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire. His sons Abdullah and Faisal assumed the thrones of Jordan and Iraq in 1921.

According to historians Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Hazm, in c.968 CE Ja'far ibn Muhammad al-Hasani came from Medina and conquered Mecca in the name of the Fatimid caliph al-Mu'izz after the latter had conquered Egypt from the Ikhshidids. Jafar was from the wider Banu Hashim clan, albeit a different branch to the modern dynasty; the Banu Hashim claim to trace their ancestry from Hashim ibn'Abd Manaf, the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, although the definition today refers to the descendants of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. Control of Mecca remained with the clan; the Sultan confirmed Abu Numayy in their positions as co-rulers of the Hejaz. Before World War I, Hussein bin Ali of the Hashemite Dhawu-'Awn clan ruled the Hejaz on behalf of the Ottoman sultan. For some time it had been the practice of the Sublime Porte to appoint the Emir of Mecca from among a select group of candidates. In 1908, Hussein bin Ali was appointed to the Sharifate of Mecca, he found himself at odds with the Young Turks in control at Istanbul, while he strove to secure his family's position as hereditary emirs.

Hussein bin Ali's lineage and destined position as the Sharif of Mecca helped foster the ambition for an independent Arab kingdom and caliphate. These pretensions came to the Ottoman rulers' attention and caused them to "invite" Hussein to Constantinople as the guest of the sultan in order to keep him under direct supervision. Hussein brought his four sons, Abdullah and Zeid, with him, it was not until after the Young Turk Revolution that he was able to return to the Hijaz and was appointed the Sharif. Of Hussein's four sons, Abdullah was the most politically ambitious and became the planner and driving force behind the Arab revolt. Abdullah received military training in both the Constantinople, he was the deputy for Mecca in the Ottoman Parliament between 1912 and 1914. During this period, Abdullah developed deep interest in Arab nationalism and linked his father's interest for autonomous rule in the Hijaz to complete Arab emancipation. In 1914 he met the British high commissioner, Lord Kitchener, in Cairo to discuss the possibility of the British supporting an Arab uprising against the Turks.

The possibility of co-operation was raised but no commitment was made by either side. Shortly after Abdullah returned to Mecca, he became his father's foreign minister, political advisor, one of the commanders of the Arab Revolt. Faisal, Hussein's third son, played an active role in the revolt as commander of the Arab army while the overall leadership was placed in the hands of his father; the idea of an Arab uprising against the Ottoman Empire was first conceived by Abdullah. Only after gradual and persistent nudging did Abdullah convince his father, the conservative Sharif of Mecca, to move from the idea of home rule of a portion of Arabia within the Ottoman Empire to complete and total independence of the entire Empire's Arab provinces. Hussein recognized the necessity of breaking away from the Empire in the beginning of 1914 when he realized that he would not be able to complete his political objectives within the framework of the Ottomans. To have any success with the Arab revolt, the backing of another great power was crucial.

Hussein regarded Arab unity as synonymous with his own kingship, he aspired to have the entire Arab peninsula, Greater Syria, Iraq under his and his descendants' rule. After a year of fruitless negotiation, Sir Henry McMahon conveyed the British government's agreement to recognize Arab independence over an area, much more limited than what Hussein had aspired for; the Arab revolt, an Anglo-Hashemite plot in its essence, broke out in June 1916. Britain financed the revolt and supplied arms, direct artillery support, experts in desert warfare including the soon to be famous T. E. Lawrence; the Hashemites promised more than they were able to deliver, their ambitious plan collapsed. There were only a small number of Syrian and Iraqi nationalists who joined under the Sharifan banner while others remained loyal to the Ottoman sultan. Sharif Hussein bin Ali rebelled against the rule of the Ottomans during the Arab Revolt of 1916. For Hashemite contribution to the Allied forces effort to bring down the Ottoman Empire, Britain promised its support for Arab independence.

However, the McMahon–Hussein correspondence left territorial limits governing this

2013 Suruga Bank Championship

The 2013 Suruga Bank Championship was the sixth edition of the Suruga Bank Championship, the club football match co-organized by the Japan Football Association, the football governing body of Japan, CONMEBOL, the football governing body of South America, J. League, the professional football league of Japan, between the winners of the previous season's J. League Cup and Copa Sudamericana; the match was contested between Japanese team Kashima Antlers, the 2012 J. League Cup champion, Brazilian team São Paulo, the 2012 Copa Sudamericana champion, it was hosted by Kashima Antlers at the Kashima Soccer Stadium in Kashima on August 7, 2013. Kashima Antlers won 3–2 with Yuya Osako scoring a hat-trick, to win their second Suruga Bank Championship title in a row; the Suruga Bank Championship was played as a single match, with the J. League Cup champion hosting the match. If the score was tied at the end of regulation, the penalty shoot-out was used to determine the winner. A maximum of seven substitutions may be made during the match.

スルガ銀行チャンピオンシップ, Japan Football Association スルガ銀行チャンピオンシップ, J. League Copa Suruga Bank, CONMEBOL.com

Cornelio Reyna

Cornelio Reyna Cisneros, better known as Cornelio Reyna, was a Regional Mexican singer and actor. He made over 60 recordings of Mariachi music, he was the lead vocal for the group, "Los Relámpagos del Norte". Reyna was considered a native of the city of Reynosa Tamaulipas due to his great affection for the city and the fact his career grew there; as an actor, Reyna appeared in some 30 films about Mexican popular culture. Reyna was born in a area of Mexico called Reynosa, in the north of the state of Tamaulipas, his parents were Román Medellín Reyna. As a teenager, Reyna lived in the city of Monterrey, Nuevo León, shortly thereafter, moved to Houston, where he worked as a bricklayer. In Saltillo, Reyna began his musical career by writing songs and playing the bajo sexto.. In 1957, along with Juan Peña, Cornelio formed the duet Dueto Carta Blanca, frequenting the Cadillac Bar, where many musicians from the region of northern Tamaulipas and southern Texas met. From there, they went out to play at different nightclubs in Reynosa, but Cornelio's goal was to do it professionally, taking advantage of his great ability to perform the bajo sexto.

In 1961, into the same Cadillac Bar walked in a young man named Ramón Covarrubias, who would become famous as Ramón Ayala. He had arrived seeking work as a shoe shiner. Over time, Ramón demonstrated his masterful talent as an accordionist. One day, when Juan Peña decided to take leave from the Dueto Carta Blanca, they invited Ramón to join and present himself as the new companion to Cornelio. Cornelio and Ramón changed their name to Los Relámpagos del Norte, Ramón excelling with his accordion and Cornelio with his Bajo Sexto. In addition, Cornelio gained recognition as the fine songwriter-composer of many of the songs they played; the new duet toured the bars of Reynosa, until in 1963, a representative of Bego Records offered to record their first album, which produced what would be their first big hit: "Ya No Llores". From there, their new-found fame spread over northern Mexico and southern Texas with songs like: "Mil Noches", "Tu Traición", "Me Caí de la Nube", "Lágrimas de mi Barrio", "Mil Besos", "Si Tu Supieras", among many others.

The peculiar vocal quality of Cornelio's delivery and the speed with which Ramón played the accordion marked a new style in Norteña music, where to this day groups and soloists continue to emerge, utilizing as a musical foundation the particular rhythms and style initiated by "Los Relámpagos"…The Lightning Bolts from The North. In 1971, Cornelio and Ramón decided to go their separate ways. Cornelio moved to Mexico City, recording an LP with mariachi, which at that point represented one of his most ambitious projects, he began to parlay his prosperous musical career with the cinema, where he performed as an actor and interpreted the songs he created, such as: "Lágrimas de mi barrio", "Me Sacaron del Tenampa", "Me Caíste del Cielo", among others. Cornelio recorded 60 albums and appeared in some 30 films, many of which included his songs, under the production and direction of Rubén Galindo, he a good measure of success in his recordings with mariachi, but his affection by the Norteña music never waned and he alternated his recordings between these two styles.

Throughout his life he maintained contact with his former musical partner, Ramón Ayala, who had formed the group Los Bravos del Norte. There were many occasions when Cornelio appeared on stage to once again perform with Ramón the well-known hits of their Lightning Bolts From the North years; the last tour he made was in 1996, appearing in several cities in the United States from June to December 24, 1996. He died less than a month later. Cornelio Reyna died on January 1997 in Mexico City, due to complications from a stomach ulcer, his body was moved to the Plaza Garibaldi. His remains were transported to Reynosa, where a large and profoundly sad crowd awaited his arrival. Cornelio was still young, although his fame was no longer the same as it had been a few years prior, in the southern region of Texas and northeast of Mexico he continued to have a large and faithful following. Although Reyna died at a young age, he was able to produce many lasting, now iconic hits. All this success had begun with Los Relámpagos del Norte in 1963, with their eponymous hit song, "Ya No Llores".

More Ramon Ayala included it in his latest CD titled "Ya No Llores". Cornelio Reyna and Ramon Ayala - interview Cornelio Reyna on AllMusic.com Texas State Historical Association