Hashemites

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House of Hashim
الهاشميون
Hashemites
Coat of arms of Jordan.svg
Coat of arms of Jordan
Parent house Dhawu Awn, a branch of Banu Qatadah, of Banu Hasan, of Banu Hashim, of Quraysh
Country Hejaz (in present-day Saudi Arabia), Syria, Iraq, Jordan
Ethnicity Arab
Founded 1916 in Hejaz
1920 in Syria
1921 in Iraq and Jordan
Founder Hussein ibn Ali
Current head Jordan: Abdullah II
Iraq: Ra'ad bin Zeid
Final ruler Ali in Hejaz
Faisal I in Syria
Faisal II in Iraq
Titles
Deposition 1920 in Syria (Franco-Syrian War)
1925 in Hejaz (Saudi conquest)
1958 in Iraq (14 July Revolution)
The ceremonial Hashemite banner of the Kingdom of Jordan
Coat of arms of Jordan.svg
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The Hashemites (Arabic: الهاشميون‎, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashim) are the ruling royal family of Jordan. The House was also the royal family of Syria (1920), Hejaz (1916–1925) and Iraq (1921–1958). The family belongs to the Dhawu Awn, one of the branches of the Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca – also referred to as Hashemites – who ruled Mecca continuously from the 10th century until its conquest by the House of Saud in 1924. Their eponymous ancestor is Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.

The current dynasty was founded by Sharif Hussein ibn Ali, who was appointed as Sharif and Emir of Mecca by Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1908, then in 1916 was proclaimed King of the Arab Lands (but only recognized as King of the Hejaz) after initiating the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire. His sons Abdullah and Faisal assumed the thrones of Jordan and Iraq in 1921.

Members[edit]

Main branch[edit]

Queen Noor's family[edit]

Queen Noor (King Hussein's widow)

  • Prince Hamzah and Princess Basmah (The King's half-brother and half-sister-in-law)
    • Princess Haya (The King's niece)
    • Princess Zein (The King's niece)
    • Princess Noor (The King's niece)
    • Princess Badiya (The King's niece)
  • Prince Hashim and Princess Fahdah (The King's half-brother and half-sister-in-law)
    • Princess Haalah (The King's niece)
    • Princess Rayet (The King's niece)
    • Princess Fatima (The King's niece)
    • Prince Hussein (The King's nephew)
  • Princess Iman (The King's half-sister)
  • Princess Raiyah (The King's half-sister)

Queen Alia's family[edit]

  • Princess Haya (The King's half-sister)
  • Prince Ali and Princess Rym (The King's half-brother and half-sister-in-law)
    • Princess Jalila (The King's niece)
    • Prince Abdullah (The King's nephew)

Princess Muna's family[edit]

Princess Muna (The King's mother)

Princess Dina's family[edit]

Princess Dina (King Hussein's first wife)

Descendants of King Talal[edit]

Prince Muhammad and Princess Taghrid (The King's uncle and aunt)

  • Prince Talal and Princess Ghida (The King's cousin and cousin-in-law)
    • Prince Hussein (The King's first cousin once removed)
    • Prince Muhammad (The King's first cousin once removed)
    • Princess Rajaa (The King's first cousin once removed)
  • Prince Ghazi and Princess Areej (The King's cousin and cousin-in-law)
    • Princess Tasneem (The King's first cousin once removed)
    • Prince Abdullah (The King's first cousin once removed)
    • Princess Jennah (The King's first cousin once removed)
    • Princess Salsabil (The King's first cousin once removed)

Princess Firyal (The King's ex-aunt)

Prince Hassan and Princess Sarvath (The King's uncle and aunt)

Princess Basma (The King's aunt)

Descendants of King Abdullah I[edit]

Prince Ali and Princess Reema (King Hussein's cousin and cousin-in-law)

  • Prince Muhammad and Princess Sima (The King's second cousin and his wife)
  • Prince Hamzah (The King's second cousin)
  • Princess Rania (The King's second cousin)
  • Princess Karma (The King's second cousin)
  • Prince Haidar (The King's second cousin)
  • Princess Na'afa (The King's second cousin)
  • Princess Rajwa (The King's second cousin)
  • Princess Basma Fatima (The King's second cousin)

Prince Asem and Princess Sana (King Hussein's cousin and cousin-in-law)

History[edit]

Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca (1853-1931), the founder of the modern dynasty.

The Hashemites claim to trace their ancestry from Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf (died c. 497 AD), the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, although the definition today mainly refers to the descendants of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.[1] The early history of the Hashemites saw them in a continuous struggle against the Umayyads for control over who would be the caliph or successor to Muhammad, the Umayyads were of the same tribe as the Hashemites, but a different clan. After the overthrow of the Umayyads, the Abbasids would present themselves as representatives of the Hashemites, as they claimed descent from Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, an uncle of Muhammad. Muhammad's father had died before he was born, and his mother died while he was a child, so Muhammad was raised by his uncle Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, chief of the Hashemites.[2]

From the 10th century onwards, the sharif (religious leader) of Mecca and its Emir was, by traditional agreement, a Hashemite. Before World War I, Hussein bin Ali of the Hashemite Dhawu-'Awn clan ruled the Hejaz on behalf of the Ottoman sultan, for some time it had been the practice of the Sublime Porte to appoint the Emir of Mecca from among a select group of candidates. In 1908, Hussein bin Ali was appointed to the Emirate of Mecca, he found himself increasingly at odds with the Young Turks in control at Istanbul, while he strove to secure his family's position as hereditary Emirs.

During and after World War I[edit]

Sharif Hussein bin Ali rebelled against the rule of the Ottomans during the Arab Revolt of 1916.[3] Between 1917 and 1924, after the collapse of Ottoman power, Hussein bin Ali ruled an independent Hejaz, of which he proclaimed himself king, with the tacit support of the British Foreign Office, his supporters are sometimes referred to as "Sharifians" or the "Sharifian party". Hussein bin Ali's chief rival in the Arabian Peninsula, the king of the Najd (highlands), Ibn Saud, annexed the Hejaz in 1925 and established his own son, Faysal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, as governor. The region was later incorporated into Saudi Arabia.

Hussein bin Ali had five sons:

Family tree[edit]

[4][5]

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Hashim
(eponymous ancestor)
Abdul-Muttalib
Abu Talib Abdullah
Muhammad
(Islamic prophet)
Ali
(1st Imam)
Fatimah
Hasan
(2nd Imam)
Hasan Al-Mu'thanna
Abdullah
Musa Al-Djawn
Abdullah
Musa
Muhammad
Abdullah
Ali
Suleiman
Hussein
Issa
Abd Al-Karim
Muta'in
Idris
Qatada
(Sharif of Mecca)
Ali
Hassan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Abu Numayy I
(Sharif of Mecca)
Rumaythah
(Sharif of Mecca)
'Ajlan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Hassan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Barakat I
(Sharif of Mecca)
Muhammad
(Sharif of Mecca)
Barakat II
(Sharif of Mecca)
Abu Numayy II
(Sharif of Mecca)
Hassan
(Sharif of Mecca)
Abdullah
(Sharif of Mecca)
Hussein
Abdullah
Muhsin
Auon, Ra'i Al-Hadala
Abdul Mu'een
Muhammad
(Sharif of Mecca)
Ali
Monarch Hussein
(Sharif of Mecca King of Hejaz)
Monarch Ali
(King of Hejaz)
Monarch Abdullah I
(King of Jordan)
Monarch Faisal I
(King of Syria King of Iraq)
Zeid
(pretender to Iraq)
'Abd Al-Ilah
(Regent of Iraq)
Monarch Talal
(King of Jordan)
Monarch Ghazi
(King of Iraq)
Ra'ad
(pretender to Iraq)
Monarch Hussein
(King of Jordan)
Monarch Faisal II
(King of Iraq)
Zeid
Monarch Abdullah II
(King of Jordan)
Hussein
(Crown Prince of Jordan)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ T. E. Lawrence (1926), Seven Pillars of Wisdom, reprinted 2000 Penguin classics, p. 48
  2. ^ Time-Life Books, What Life Was Like: In the Land of the Prophet, p. 17
  3. ^ T. E. Lawrence (1926), Seven Pillars of Wisdom, reprinted 2000 Penguin classics, p. 53
  4. ^ Kamal Salibi (15 December 1998). The Modern History of Jordan. I.B.Tauris. Retrieved 7 February 2018. 
  5. ^ "Hashemite Ancestry". alhussein.gov. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2018. 

External links[edit]