A hatchback is a car with a hatch-type rear door that opens upwards and a shared volume for the passenger and cargo areas. When the body style of a car is described as a hatchback it is referring to a utilitarian small car. Compact hatchbacks are popular, midsize liftbacks popular, in Europe. Hatchbacks are popular throughout Asia in developing nations, it is the most common form for city cars and economy cars sold in Asia. The modern form of the hatchback body style was developed through the 1960s and rose in popularity through the 1970s; the distinguishing feature of a hatchback is a hatch-type rear door that opens upwards and is hinged at roof level. Most hatchbacks use a two-box design body style, where the cargo area and passenger areas are a single volume; the rear seats can be folded down to increase the available cargo area. Hatchbacks may have a removable rigid parcel shelf, or flexible roll-up tonneau cover to cover the cargo space behind the rear seats; when describing the body style, the hatch is counted as a door, therefore a hatchback with two passenger doors is called a three-door and a hatchback with four passenger doors is called a five-door.
Estates/station wagons and hatchbacks have in common a two-box design configuration, a shared interior volume for passengers and cargo and a rear door, hinged at roof level. An estate/wagon differs from a hatchback by being longer. Other potential differences of a station wagon include: steeper rake at the rear a third row of seats rear suspension designed for increased load capacity or to minimize intrusion into the cargo area the tailgate is more to be a multi-part design or extend all the way down to the bumper Liftback is a term for hatchback models in which the rear cargo door or hatch is more horizontally angled than on an average hatchback, as a result, the hatch is lifted more upwards than backwards, to open; the term was used among others, by Toyota, for example to distinguish between two 5-door versions of the Corolla E90 sold in Europe, one of, a conventional 5-door hatchback with a nearly vertical rear hatch while the other one was a 5-door liftback. The term "fastback" is sometimes used interchangeably with "liftback", but in a fastback the rear of the car should have a single slope from the roof to the rear bumper.
In Europe, the term "liftback" implies a three-box design with a profile similar to a sedan, although the length of the third box varies. It may be nonexistent short or vestigial or long enough for the vehicle to be confused with a conventional sedan body style which may be offered alongside it. While today many such cars feature smooth, curved lines making it difficult to tell where one "box" ends and another one starts, the same applies to sedans, which makes the two body styles more difficult to tell apart at first glance. Liftbacks were the mainstay of manufacturers' D-segment offerings in Europe in the 1990s and until the late 2000s, it was common for manufacturers to offer the same D-segment model in three different body styles: a 4-door sedan, a 5-door liftback and a 5-door station wagon. Such models included the Ford Mondeo, the Mazda 626/Mazda6, the Nissan Primera, the Opel Vectra/Insignia and the Toyota Carina/Avensis. There were models in this market segment available only as a 5-door liftback or a 4-door sedan, models available only as a 5-door liftback or a 5-door station wagon.
The liftback and the sedan shared the same wheelbase and the same overall length, the full rear overhang length of a conventional sedan trunk was retained on the five-door liftback version of the car. Audi, BMW and Mercedes were not part of this trend in the 1990s. However, starting around the year 2009, Audi and BMW started to roll out such liftbacks, referring to them as "Sportback" or "Gran Turismo"/"Gran Coupe". Interestingly, this occurred not long after some other manufacturers, although not all of them, started to drop D-segment liftbacks from their European lineup; the second-generation Skoda Superb is a car that blurs the line between sedans. It features an innovative "Twindoor" trunk lid, it can be opened like in a sedan, using the hinges located below the rear glass. In the USA, 5-door liftbacks are much less popular. Although the Tesla Model S is a liftback, the manufacturer prefers to refer to it as a sedan; the first production hatchback was released by Citroën in 1938: the Citroën 11CV Commerciale.
The tailgate has two pieces, a top section hinged from roof level and a bottom section hinged from below. When production of the Commerciale resumed after World War II, the tailgate became a one-piece design, hinged from roof level, as per the design used on most hatchbacks since. In 1949, Kaiser-Frazer introduced the Traveler hatchbacks; these models were styled much like a typical 1940s sedan retaining their three-box profile. The Vagabond and Traveler models had folding rea
Andrew S. Effron is the former Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, he took his judicial oath on August 1, 1996, became chief judge in 2006. His term expired September 30, 2011, he continues to serve as a Senior Judge on the court. Effron was born in Stamford and grew up in Poughkeepsie, New York, he earned degrees from Harvard College and from Harvard Law School, graduated from The Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School. He served as associate general counsel at the Department of Defense, served the Senate Armed Services Committee, before being appointed to federal court
Diving was first introduced in the official programme of the Summer Olympic Games at the 1904 Games of St. Louis and has been an Olympic sport since, it was known as "fancy diving" for the acrobatic stunts performed by divers during the dive. This discipline of Aquatics, along with swimming, synchronised swimming and water polo, is regulated and supervised by the International Swimming Federation, the international federation for aquatic sports; the first Olympic diving events were contested by men and consisted of a platform diving event and a plunge for distance event, which heralded victorious the diver who could reach the farthest underwater, while remaining motionless after a ground-level standing dive. At the 1908 Summer Olympics, men's springboard diving was added to the program replacing the plunge for distance, regarded as uninteresting. Women's diving debut happened at the 1912 Summer Olympics in the platform event and was expanded to springboard diving at the 1920 Summer Olympics.
A parallel platform diving event for men, called "plain high diving", was presented at the Games of the V Olympiad. No acrobatic moves were allowed, only a simple straight dive off the platform, it was last contested at the 1924 Summer Olympics after which it was merged with "fancy high diving" into one competition renamed "highboard diving". By the time of the 1996 Summer Olympics, the diving events were the same as in 1928. However, four years in Sydney, the inclusion of a synchronized diving variant for the springboard and platform events elevated the list up to eight events. Another important change to the sport occurred in the 1984 Summer Olympics, when China was first allowed to compete, ending the ban imposed upon them by FINA because of their nation's government. China has become one of the strongest diving nations since then. Total medal count 1904-2016: The numbers in each cell indicate the number of divers that nation sent to that Games. List of Olympic venues in diving "Olympic medal winners".