A hate crime is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of their membership of a certain social group or race. Examples of such groups can include, are exclusively limited to: sex, disability, nationality, physical appearance, gender identity or sexual orientation. Non-criminal actions that are motivated by these reasons are called "bias incidents". "Hate crime" refers to criminal acts which are seen to have been motivated by bias against one or more of the social groups listed above, or by bias against their derivatives. Incidents may involve physical assault, damage to property, harassment, verbal abuse or insults, mate crime or offensive graffiti or letters. A hate crime law is a law intended to deter bias-motivated violence. Hate crime laws are distinct from laws against hate speech: hate crime laws enhance the penalties associated with conduct, criminal under other laws, while hate speech laws criminalize a category of speech. Hate speech laws exist in many countries.
In the United States, hate speech laws have been upheld by both the Supreme Court and lower courts in the case of'fighting' words and other violent speech, but are thought by some to be in conflict with the First Amendment right to freedom of speech. Hate crimes are only regulated through threats of death; the term "hate crime" came into common usage in the United States during the 1980s, but it is used retrospectively in order to describe events which occurred prior to that era. From the Roman persecution of Christians to the Nazi slaughter of Jews, hate crimes were committed by individuals as well as governments long before the term was used. A major part of defining crimes as hate crimes is determining that they have been committed against members of oppressed groups; as Europeans began to colonize the world from the 16th century onwards, indigenous peoples in the colonized areas, such as Native Americans became the targets of bias-motivated intimidation and violence. During the past two centuries, typical examples of hate crimes in the U.
S. include lynchings of African Americans in the South, lynchings of Mexicans and Chinese in the West. The verb "to lynch" is attributed to the actions of an 18th-century Virginia Quaker. Lynch, other militia officers, justices of the peace rounded up Tory sympathizers who were given a summary trial at an informal court; the term referred to the extrajudicial organized but unauthorized punishment of criminals. It evolved to describe executions which were committed outside "ordinary justice." It is associated with white suppression of African Americans in the South, periods of weak or nonexistent police authority, as in certain frontier areas of the Old West. Hate crimes can have significant and wide-ranging psychological consequences, not only for their direct victims but for others as well. A 1999 U. S. study of lesbian and gay victims of violent hate crimes documented that they experienced higher levels of psychological distress, including symptoms of depression and anxiety, than lesbian and gay victims of comparable crimes which were not motivated by antigay bias.
A manual issued by the Attorney-General of the Province of Ontario in Canada lists the following consequences: Impact on the individual victim psychological and affective disturbances. Effect on the targeted group generalized terror in the group to which the victim belongs, inspiring feelings of vulnerability among its other members, who could be the next hate crime victims. Effect on other vulnerable groups ominous effects on minority groups or on groups that identify themselves with the targeted group when the referred hate is based on an ideology or a doctrine that preaches against several groups. Effect on the community as a whole divisions and factionalism arising in response to hate crimes are damaging to multicultural societies. Hate crime victims can develop depression and psychological trauma. A review of European and American research indicates that terrorist bombings cause Islamophobia and hate crimes to flare up but, in calmer times, they subside again, although to a high level.
Terrorist's most persuasive message is that of fear and fear, a primary and strong emotion, increases risk estimates and has distortive effects on the perception of ordinary Muslims. Widespread Islamophobic prejudice seems to contribute to anti-Muslim hate crimes, but indirectly: terrorist attacks and intensified Islamophobic prejudice serve as a window of opportunity for extremist groups and networks; the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation conducted a study into the motives for hate crimes and found four motives: Thrill-seeking - perpetrators engage in hate crimes for excitement and drama. There is no greater purpose behind the crimes, with victims being vulnerable because they have an ethnic, sexual or gender background that differs from their attackers. While the actual animosity present
This multi-page article lists pharmaceutical drugs alphabetically by name. Many drugs have more than one name and, the same drug may be listed more than once. Brand names and generic names are differentiated by the use of capital initials for the former. See the list of the top 100 bestselling branded drugs, ranked by sales. Abbreviations are used in the list as follows: INN = International Nonproprietary Name BAN = British Approved Name USAN = United States Adopted Name Two-letter codes for countriesList of drugs1–9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z Fa | Fe | Fi | Fl | Fm–Ft | Fu–Fy febantel febarbamate febuprol febuverine febuxostat feclemine feclobuzone fedotozine fedrilate felbamate felbatol felbinac feldene felipyrine felodipine felvizumab felypressin femara femara femcet femhrt feminone femogen femoxetine fempatch femring femstat fenabutene fenacetinol fenaclon fenadiazole fenaftic acid fenalamide fenalcomine fenamifuril fenamisal fenamole fenaperone fenbendazole fenbenicillin fenbufen fenbutrazate fencamfamin fencarbamide fencibutirol fenclexonium metilsulfate fenclofenac fenclofos fenclonine fenclorac fenclozic acid fendiline fendosal feneritrol fenestrel fenethazine fenetradil fenetylline fenflumizol fenfluramine fenfluthrin fengabine fenharmane fenimide feniodium chloride fenipentol fenirofibrate fenisorex fenleuton fenmetozole fenmetramide fenobam fenocinol fenoctimine fenofibrate fenoldopam fenoprofen fenoterol fenoverine fenoxazoline fenoxedil fenoxypropazine fenozolone fenpentadiol fenperate fenpipalone fenpipramide fenpiprane fenpiverinium bromide fenprinast fenproporex fenprostalene fenquizone fenretinide fenspiride fentanyl fentiazac fenticlor fenticonazole fentonium bromide fenyramidol fenyripol fepentolic acid fepitrizol fepradinol feprazone fepromide feprosidnine feridex I.
V.®, discontinued by AMAG Pharma in November 2008 fermagate ferndex fernisolone-P fernisone ferpifosate sodium ferric citrate injection ferric carboxymaltose ferric fructose ferriseltz ferrlecit ferrocholinate ferropolimaler ferroquine ferrotrenine fertinex fertinorm HP fertirelin ferumoxytol fesoterodine fumarate fetoxilate fexicaine fexinidazole fexofenadine fezakinumab fezatione fezolamine
Marty Rosenbluth is an immigration lawyer and civil rights activist. Rosenbluth is a native of New York, he has said he lost many members of his family during The Holocaust. He volunteered for Amnesty International and spent seven years in the West Bank as an advocate for Palestinians who were prohibited by the government from working, he helped produce the award-winning documentary Jerusalem: An Occupation Set In Stone? in 1995, which detailed Israel's urban planning policies and the effects they had on Palestinians. He started the non-profit North Carolina Immigration Rights Project to help immigrants in the Durham, North Carolina area, he served as an associate of Polanco Law PC in North Carolina. He was part of a group of civil rights activists, including Rose Hamid, who protested Donald Trump campaign rallies in 2016 to protest Trump's treatment of Muslims, he designed the "Go Yellow Against Hate" star badges to accompany the protests. In 2016 he provided free legal services to Syrian refugees.
In 2017 following the inauguration of President Trump, he moved from Hillsborough, North Carolina to Lumpkin, Georgia. Lumpkin has a detention center near the Alabama border and Rosenbluth decided to help refugees being detained there because there were no other lawyers in town, the closest other lawyers were 140 miles away in Atlanta. According to a 2015 study, only about 6% of detainees had a lawyer to represent them. Rosenbluth unsuccessfully tried to lure other lawyers to town by offering a spare bedroom in his two bedroom house
Shuangcheng District is one of nine districts of the prefecture-level city of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, covering part of the southwestern suburbs. The district was approved to establish from the former Shuangcheng City by the Chinese State Council on May 2, 2014, it sits 42 kilometres south-southwest of downtown Harbin. A county-level city until 15 May 2014; the westernmost county-level division of Harbin City, it borders Daoli District to the north and Pingfang Districts to the northeast, Acheng District to the east, Wuchang to the southeast, as well as the Jilin prefecture-level divisions of Changchun to the south and Songyuan to the southwest
Thomas Aaron Crean is an American college basketball coach and the current head coach for the Georgia Bulldogs of University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia. Crean was the head coach of the Indiana Hoosiers men's basketball team. Prior to that, he served as head coach at Marquette University, where his team reached the 2003 NCAA Final Four. Crean's basketball philosophy emphasizes transition offense, his guidance of the Indiana program to success from "unthinkable depths" was regarded as one of the most remarkable rebuilding projects in NCAA basketball history. In 2012, he was named the mid-season Jim Phelan National Coach of the Year, the Sporting News Big Ten Coach of the Year, the ESPN.com National Coach of the Year. In 2016, Crean was named by the coaches and media the Big Ten Coach of the Year after coaching Indiana to their second outright Big Ten regular-season championship in four years. Crean was born and raised in Mount Pleasant, where he played basketball for four years. According to Crean, "I didn't play a lot, although my coach called me his biggest tool, but I knew I wanted to coach."
While a student at Central Michigan University, Crean was an assistant coach at Mount Pleasant High School for five seasons, at Alma College. Crean received his bachelor's degree in parks-and-recreation studies from Central Michigan in 1989. Crean is married to Joani Harbaugh, whom he met while an assistant to Ralph Willard at Western Kentucky University through a mutual friend, Ron Burns, at a gym where she was working as an aerobics instructor, her father, Jack Harbaugh, was the head football coach at WKU at the time Crean was an assistant basketball coach there. She is the sister of the first pair of brothers in NFL history to serve as head coaches: Baltimore Ravens head football coach John Harbaugh and former San Francisco 49ers head football coach and current University of Michigan Wolverines head football coach Jim Harbaugh. Crean and his wife have three children: Megan and Ainsley. Riley is a right handed pitcher for the Georgia Bulldogs baseball team. Crean is a Christian. Crean spent two stints at Michigan State, first during the 1989-1990 season as a graduate assistant under head coach Jud Heathcote at the behest of assistant coach Tom Izzo, whom Crean had befriended on the summer camp circuit.
From 1990 to 1994 Crean served as the associate head coach under Ralph Willard at Western Kentucky. When Willard left Western Kentucky to become head coach at Pittsburgh in 1994, Crean was considered to replace him as head coach. Crean followed Willard to Pittsburgh, serving as associate head coach for one year. In 1995, Crean returned to Michigan State as assistant coach under the leadership of Tom Izzo. Izzo and Crean became such good friends that Crean lived in Izzo's house and Izzo was an usher in Crean's wedding. According to Crean at the time, "It was a great opportunity for me to go back home. We've been friends a long time. I don't think I would have left Ralph for anything else." During this period Crean served at various times as recruiting coordinator and, for the last two seasons, associate head coach. In each of Crean's four seasons, Michigan State's win total increased, culminating with a 33-5 season and a 15-1 Big Ten ledger in 1999. Michigan State went on to honor Crean with a 2000 National Championship ring.
On March 30, 1999, Crean was named head coach at Marquette University. According to Crean, "Once Marquette became available, that's. I had unbelievable respect for the name; when I thought of Marquette, I thought of a true basketball school and to me that had a lot to do with it." Crean made a number of changes at Marquette, creating a new team image by increasing the significance of the team's media day and instituting a "Midnight Madness" event held by schools on the night teams are allowed to begin practice. Crean's first recruiting class was considered by experts to be among the top twenty in the country, Marquette's first in a long time. In his nine years with Marquette, Crean's teams earned five NCAA Tournament bids, one more than the previous four Marquette coaches had in the 16 years prior to his arrival. During his tenure there Crean recruited and coached a number of skilled players that made significant contributions in both the NCAA and NBA, including Dwyane Wade, Dominic James, Steve Novak, Travis Diener.
Over his final seven seasons at Marquette, Crean compiled an aggregate record of 160-68. The 2002-03 season was one of the best in Marquette history; the team made a Final Four appearance for the first time since winning the NCAA Championship in 1977. Crean has referred to the team's run as "one of the greatest four or five days of my life."Later that year, Marquette accepted an offer to leave Conference USA for the Big East Conference after the 2004–2005 season. Big East commissioner Mike Tranghese cited his friendship with Crean as contributing to the invitation, saying, "That, to me, was one of the great appeals, to get Tommy as well as Marquette into the league." On April 1, 2008, Crean was hired as head coach of the Indiana Hoosiers, succeeding interim head coach Dan Dakich. Dakich had replaced former coach Kelvin Sampson. Between Crean's hiring and the start of the 2008–09 season, freshman Eric Gordon opted to leave early for the NBA and star forward DJ White graduated. Two players kicked off the team by Dakich were not allowed back by Crean, one was dismissed by Crean and two transferred.
As a result, Crean began with a roster consisting only of two walk-ons who had scored a combined
Absalom Baird was a career United States Army officer who distinguished himself as a Union Army general in the American Civil War. Baird received the Medal of Honor for his military actions. Baird was born in Pennsylvania, he graduated from the preparatory department of Washington College in 1841. He enrolled in the United States Military Academy and graduated in 1849, ranked ninth in a class of 43. From 1852 to 1859, he was a mathematics instructor at West Point, where one of his students was James McNeill Whistler. From 1859 to 1861, he served in Virginia; when the Civil War broke out in 1861, Baird was promoted to brevet captain. He fought at the First Battle of Bull Run under Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler. On November 12, 1861, Baird was promoted to major in the Regular Army while serving as an assistant inspector general, he became chief of staff to Maj. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes during the first part of the Siege of Yorktown, where his service earned him a further promotion to brigadier general of U.
S. Volunteers on April 30, 1862, to rank from April 28, 1862. In April 1862, Baird took command of the 27th Brigade, 7th Division in the Army of the Ohio under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell. Baird helped secure the Cumberland Gap in June 1862 under George W. Morgan, he commanded the 3rd Division, Army of Kentucky where his troops fared poorly in the battle of Thompson's Station though Baird was not involved. His troops were present at the battle of the Harpeth River before being assimilated into the Army of the Cumberland. Baird's division became the 1st Division of Maj. Gen. George Henry Thomas's XIV Corps, it was in this post that he won fame for his heroic efforts at the Battle of Chickamauga and the Chattanooga Campaign. Baird won a brevet promotion to colonel in Regular Army for Chattanooga. In the Atlanta Campaign, Baird led a brigade charge in the Battle of Jonesborough which earned him the Medal of Honor, he led his division in Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's March to the Sea and Carolinas Campaign.
Baird led his division in the Battle of Bentonville in the latter campaign. On January 23, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln nominated Baird for appointment to the brevet grade of major general of volunteers, to rank from September 1, 1864, the U. S. Congress confirmed the award on February 14, 1865. On April 10, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Baird for appointment as brevet brigadier general in the Regular Army, to rank from March 13, 1865, the U. S. Senate confirmed the appointment on May 4, 1866. On July 17, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Baird for appointment as brevet major general in the regular U. S. Army, to rank from March 13, 1865, the U. S. Senate confirmed the appointment on July 23, 1866. Baird was mustered out of the volunteer service on September 1, 1866. Following the war, Baird served as commander of the department of Louisiana, he was appointed an assistant inspector general with the grade of lieutenant colonel on June 17, 1867. He was appointed Inspector General of the Army on March 11, 1885, was promoted to a full grade brigadier general on September 22, 1885.
In 1887, he traveled to France to observe military maneuvers, was named a Commander of the Légion d'honneur. Baird retired from the Army on August 20, 1888, having reached the mandatory retirement age of 64. On April 22, 1896, Baird was awarded the Medal of Honor for leading "an assault upon the enemy's works" at the Battle of Jonesborough on September 1, 1864, he was a veteran companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States and a member of the General Society of Colonial Wars. He died at Relay, Maryland near Baltimore, is buried in section 1, lot 55, at Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia. Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U. S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Jonesboro, September 1, 1864. Entered service at: Washington, Pennsylvania. Birth: Washington, Pennsylvania. Date of issue: April 22, 1896. Citation: Voluntarily led a detached brigade in an assault upon the enemy's works. List of Medal of Honor recipients List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: A–F List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands.
Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. "Absalom Baird". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved November 7, 2007. "Absalom Baird, Medal of Honor recipient". American Civil War. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved December 8, 2007. American National Biography, vol. 1, pp. 906–907. "Arlingtoncemetery.net profile, with gravestone photos". Retrieved September 24, 2010. "Photographs of Absalom Baird". Archived from the original on February 8, 2008. Retrieved September 24, 2010. "New York Times obituary". The New York Times. June 15, 1905. Retrieved September 24, 2010