Nouvelle cuisine is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine. In contrast to cuisine classique, an older form of haute cuisine, nouvelle cuisine is characterized by lighter, more delicate dishes and an increased emphasis on presentation, it was popularized in the 1960s by the food critics Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, his colleagues André Gayot and Christian Millau in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or Le Nouveau Guide. The term "nouvelle cuisine" has been used several times in the history of French cuisine, to mark a clean break with the past. In the 1730s and 1740s, several French writers emphasized their break with tradition, calling their cooking "modern" or "new". Vincent La Chapelle published his Cuisinier moderne in 1733–1735; the first volumes of Menon's Nouveau traité de la cuisine came out in 1739. And it was in 1742 that Menon introduced the term nouvelle cuisine as the title of the third volume of his Nouveau traité. François Marin worked in the same tradition.
In the 1880s and 1890s, the cooking of Georges Auguste Escoffier was sometimes described with the term. The modern usage is variously attributed to authors Henri Gault, Christian Millau, André Gayot, who used nouvelle cuisine to describe the cooking of Paul Bocuse, Alain Chapel and Pierre Troisgros, Michel Guérard, Roger Vergé, Raymond Oliver, many of whom were once students of Fernand Point. Paul Bocuse claimed that Gault first used the term to describe food prepared by Bocuse and other top chefs for the maiden flight of the Concorde airliner in 1969; the style Gault and Millau wrote about was a reaction to the French cuisine classique placed into "orthodoxy" by Escoffier. Calling for greater simplicity and elegance in creating dishes, nouvelle cuisine is not cuisine minceur, created by Michel Guérard as spa food, it has been speculated that the outbreak of World War II was a significant contributor to nouvelle cuisine's creation—the short supply of animal protein during the German occupation made it a natural development.
Gault and Millau "discovered the formula" contained in ten characteristics of this new style of cooking. The ten characteristics identified were: A rejection of excessive complication in cooking. Cooking times for most fish, game birds, green vegetables and pâtés were reduced in an attempt to preserve the natural flavours. Steaming was an important trend from this characteristic; the cuisine was made with the freshest possible ingredients. Large menus were abandoned in favour of shorter menus. Strong marinades for meat and game ceased to be used. Heavy sauces such as espagnole and béchamel were replaced by seasonings with fresh herbs, high-quality butter, lemon juice, vinegar. Regional dishes replaced as inspiration instead of cuisine classique New techniques were embraced and modern equipment was used; the chefs paid close attention to the dietary needs of their guests through their dishes. The chefs were inventive and created new combinations and pairings. There is a standing debate as to. Much of what it stood for—particularly its preference for presented, fresh flavours—has been assimilated into mainstream restaurant cooking.
By the mid-1980s, some food writers stated that the style of cuisine had reached exhaustion and many chefs began returning to the cuisine classique style of cooking, although much of the lighter presentations and new techniques remained. Hewitt, Nicholas; the Cambridge Companion to Modern French Culture. Cambridge: The Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-521-79465-7 Mennel, Stephan. All Manners of Food: eating and taste in England and France from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-252-06490-6 Patrick Rambourg, Histoire de la cuisine et de la gastronomie françaises, Paris, Ed. Perrin, 2010, 381 pages. ISBN 978-2-262-03318-7 The Nouvelle Cuisine Cookbook: The Complete International Guide to the World of Nouvelle Cuisine by Armand Aulicino. ISBN 0-448-14418-2 The Nouvelle Cuisine of Jean and Pierre Troisgros by Pierre Troisgros. ISBN 0-688-03331-8
Regional cuisine is cuisine based upon national, state or local regions. Regional cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade, varying climates, cooking traditions and practices, cultural differences. One noteworthy definition is based upon traditional cuisine: "A traditional cuisine is a coherent tradition of food preparation that rises from the daily lives and kitchens of a people over an extended period in a specific region of a country, or a specific country, which, when localized, has notable distinctions from the cuisine of the country as a whole." Regional food preparation traditions and ingredients combine to create dishes unique to a particular region. Regional cuisines are named after the geographic areas or regions that they originate from. Hawaii regional cuisine Japanese regional cuisine List of regional dishes of the United States List of street foods around the world Fusion cuisine National dish eNotes - Encyclopedia of Food and Culture The Global Gastronomer - Cuisines of the World
Alain Chapel was a French Michelin 3 starred chef, credited with being one of the originators of Nouvelle Cuisine. Chapel was born in the son of Maître d' Charles and his wife Eva. At the outbreak of World War II, the family moved to the village of Mionnay 12 miles outside the city, where his father opened a bistro called La Mere Charles in an old coaching inn surrounded by lush gardens. There Alain Chapel received his first training. Alain Chapel returned to the family bistro, upgraded to a restaurant. In 1967 it was awarded its first Michelin star. After taking over the restaurant in 1970 on the death of his father, he converted the inn to a hotel and renamed it in his own name. In 1973, Chapel gained his third Michelin star one of only 19 restaurants all in France which had then gained the honour. Chapel's signature dishes included stuffed calves' ears with fried parsley, truffle-stuffed chicken enveloped in a pork bladder and cooked in a rich chicken broth. Food critic Craig Claiborne writing for The New York Times in 1977 described Chapel's gateau de foies blonds as "his ultimate triumph" and "one of the absolute cooking glories of this generation".
According to the Gault Millau Guide to France: "A meal at Chapel's restaurant was like a symphony."Throughout the rest of his life, the establishment retained all three of its Michelin stars. The speed of transformation and the elaborate cuisine turned the village of Mionnay into a culinary landmark on any serious gastronomic tour of France; the attraction was as great for young chefs, who sought the opportunity to work with Chapel – these included Michel Roux Jr. Chapel died of a stroke in 1990, leaving his wife Suzanne, two sons and Romain. Under chef Philippe Jousse, Chapel's son Romain, the restaurant maintained two Michelin stars until closing in 2012, he is buried in Croix-Rousse cemetery in Lyon. Hotel Alain Chapel in French 2006 review of Hotel Alain Chapel Hotel Alain Chapel at Relais Chateaux In-depth profile assessing Alain Chapel's achievements and influence
Paul Bocuse was a French chef based in Lyon, known for the high quality of his restaurants and his innovative approaches to cuisine. A student of Eugénie Brazier, he was one of the most prominent chefs associated with the nouvelle cuisine, less opulent and calorific than the traditional cuisine classique, stresses the importance of fresh ingredients of the highest quality. Paul Bocuse claimed that Henri Gault first used the term, nouvelle cuisine, to describe food prepared by Bocuse and other top chefs for the maiden flight of the Concorde airliner in 1969. Bocuse made many contributions to French gastronomy both directly and indirectly, because he had numerous students, many of whom have become notable chefs themselves. One of his students was Austrian Eckart Witzigmann, one of four Chefs of the Century and chef at the first German restaurant to receive three Michelin stars. Since 1987, the Bocuse d'Or has been regarded as the most prestigious award for chefs in the world, is sometimes seen as the unofficial world championship for chefs.
Bocuse received numerous awards throughout his career, including the medal of Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur. The Culinary Institute of America honoured Bocuse in their Leadership Awards Gala on 30 March 2011, he received the "Chef of the Century" award. In July 2012 the Culinary Institute of America announced in the New York Times that they would change the name of their Escoffier Restaurant to the Bocuse Restaurant, after a year-long renovation. In 1975, he created soupe aux truffes for a presidential dinner at the Élysée Palace. Since the soup has been served in Bocuse's restaurant near Lyon as Soupe V. G. E. VGE being the initials of former president of France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. Bocuse's main restaurant, l'Auberge du Pont de Collonges, is a luxury establishment near Lyon, serving a traditional menu for decades, it is one of only 27 restaurants in France to receive a three-star rating in 2017 by the Michelin Guide. He operated a chain of brasseries in Lyon, named Le Nord, l'Est, Le Sud and l'Ouest, each of which specialize in a different aspect of French cuisine.
Paul Bocuse's son, Jérôme, manages the "Les Chefs de France" restaurant which the elder Bocuse co-founded with Roger Verge and Gaston Lenôtre and is located inside the French pavilion at Walt Disney World's EPCOT. Bocuse was considered an ambassador of modern French cuisine, he was honoured in 1961 with the title Meilleur Ouvrier de France. He had been apprenticed to a master of classic French cuisine. Bocuse dedicated his first book to him. In 2004 the Institut Paul Bocuse Worldwide Alliance was created. In 2014 the Alliance brought together students of 14 nationalities for a course in Lyon school and university. Bocuse died of Parkinson's disease on 20 January 2018 in Collonges-au-Mont-d'Or, he was 91. Paul Bocuse's French Cooking, translated by Colette Rossant Bocuse a la Carte, translated by Colette Rossant Fernand Point Official website
A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients and dishes, associated with a specific culture or geographic region. A cuisine is influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Religious food laws, such as Hindu and Jewish dietary laws, can exercise a strong influence on cuisine. Regional food preparation traditions and ingredients combine to create dishes unique to a particular region; some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the area's climate, the trade among different countries, religiousness or sumptuary laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a Tropical diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet might rely more on meat and fish; the area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods. In addition, climate influences food preservation. For example, foods preserved for winter consumption by smoking and pickling have remained significant in world cuisines for their altered gustatory properties.
The trade among different countries largely affects a region's cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as cinnamon, cardamom and turmeric were important items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade. Cinnamon and cassia found their way to the Middle East at least 4,000 years ago. Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as Islamic dietary laws and Jewish dietary laws. Culinary culture exchange is an important factor for cuisine in many regions: Japan’s first substantial and direct exposure to the West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and Portuguese game frying techniques with a Chinese method for cooking vegetables in oil led to the development of tempura, the popular Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables are coated with batter and deep fried. Cuisine dates back to the Antiquity.
As food began to require more planning, there was an emergence of meals that situated around culture. Cuisines evolve continually, new cuisines are created by innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is fusion cuisine, which combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorized per any one cuisine style, refers to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s. Nouvelle cuisine is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine, popularized in the 1960s by the food critics Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, his colleagues André Gayot and Christian Millau in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or Le Nouveau Guide. Molecular cuisine, is a modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines; the term was coined in 1999 by the French INRA chemist Hervé This because he wanted to distinguish it from the name Molecular cuisine, introduced by him and the late Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti.
It is named as multi sensory cooking, modernist cuisine, culinary physics, experimental cuisine by some chefs. Besides, international trade brings new foodstuffs including ingredients to existing cuisines and leads to changes; the introduction of hot pepper to China from South America around the end of the 17th century influencing Sichuan cuisine, which combines the original taste with the taste of introduced hot pepper and creates a unique flavor of both spicy and pungent. A global cuisine is a cuisine, practiced around the world, can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs, including grains and cooking fats. Regional cuisines can vary based on availability and usage of specific ingredients, local cooking traditions and practices, as well as overall cultural differences; such factors can be more-or-less uniform across wide swaths of territory, or vary intensely within individual regions. For example, in Central and South America, both fresh and dried, is a staple food, is used in many different ways.
In northern Europe, wheat and fats of animal origin predominate, while in southern Europe olive oil is ubiquitous and rice is more prevalent. In Italy, the cuisine of the north, featuring butter and rice, stands in contrast to that of the south, with its wheat pasta and olive oil. In some parts of China, rice is the staple, while in others this role is filled by noodles and bread. Throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean, common ingredients include lamb, olive oil, lemons and rice; the vegetarianism practiced in much of India has made pulses such as chickpeas and lentils as important as wheat or rice. From India to Indonesia, the extenive use of spices is characteristic. African cuisines use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk and whey products. In much of tropical Africa, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally; the continent's diverse demographic makeup is reflected in the many different eating and drinking habits and preparation techniques of its manifold populations.
Asian cuisines are many and varied. Ingredients common to many cultures in the east and Southeast regions of the continent include rice, garlic, sesame seeds, dried onions and tofu. Stir frying, steaming
Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French tyre company Michelin for more than a century. The term refers to the annually published Michelin Red Guide, the oldest European hotel and restaurant reference guide, which awards up to three Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments; the acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin publishes a series of general guides to cities and countries, the Green Guides. In 1900, there were fewer than 3,000 cars on the roads of France. To increase the demand for cars and, car tires, car tire manufacturers and brothers Édouard and André Michelin published a guide for French motorists in 1900, the Michelin Guide. Nearly 35,000 copies of this first, free edition of the guide were distributed. Four years in 1904, the brothers published a guide to Belgium similar to the Michelin Guide. Michelin subsequently introduced guides for Tunisia. In 1909, an English-language version of the guide to France was published.
During World War I, publication of the guide was suspended. After the war, revised editions of the guide continued to be given away until 1920, it is said that André Michelin, whilst visiting a tire merchant, noticed copies of the guide being used to prop up a workbench. Based on the principle that "man only respects what he pays for", Michelin decided to charge a price for the guide, about 750 francs or $2.15 in 1922. They made several changes, notably listing restaurants by specific categories, adding hotel listings, removing advertisements in the guide. Recognizing the growing popularity of the restaurant section of the guide, the brothers recruited a team of inspectors to visit and review restaurants, who were always anonymous. Following the usage of the Murray's and Baedeker guides, the guide began to award stars for fine dining establishments in 1926. There was only a single star awarded. In 1931, the hierarchy of zero, one and three stars was introduced. In 1936, the criteria for the starred rankings were published:: "A good restaurant in its category": "Excellent cooking, worth a detour": "Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey".
In 1931 the cover of the guide was changed from blue to red, has remained so in all subsequent editions. During World War II, publication was again suspended, but in 1944, at the request of the Allied Forces, the 1939 guide to France was specially reprinted for military use. Publication of the annual guide resumed on 16 May 1945, a week after VE Day. In the early post-war years the lingering effects of wartime shortages led Michelin to impose an upper limit of two stars; the first Michelin Guide to Italy was published in 1956. It awarded no stars in the first edition. In 1974, the first guide to Britain since 1931 was published. Twenty-five stars were awarded. In 2005, Michelin published its first American guide, covering 500 restaurants in the five boroughs of New York City and 50 hotels in Manhattan. In 2007, a Tokyo Michelin Guide was launched. In the same year, the guide introduced Étoile. In 2008, a Hong Kong and Macau volume was added; as of 2013, the guide is published in 14 editions covering 23 countries.
In 2008, the German restaurateur Juliane Caspar was appointed editor-in-chief of the French edition of the guide. She had been responsible for the Michelin guides to Germany and Austria, she became first non-French national to occupy the French position. The German newspaper Die Welt commented on the appointment, "In view of the fact German cuisine is regarded as a lethal weapon in most parts of France, this decision is like Mercedes announcing that its new director of product development is a Martian." Red Guides have listed many more restaurants than rival guides, relying on an extensive system of symbols to describe each one in as little as two lines. Reviews of starred restaurants include two to three culinary specialties. Short summaries were added in 2002/2003 to enhance descriptions of many establishments; these summaries are written in the language of the country for which the guide is published but the symbols are the same throughout all editions. Michelin reviewers are anonymous. Many of the company's top executives have never met an inspector.
The inspectors write reports that are distilled, in annual "stars meetings" at the guide's various national offices, into the r