Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
Twenty-cent piece (United States coin)
The American twenty-cent piece is a coin struck from 1875 to 1878, but only for collectors in the final two years. Proposed by Nevada Senator John P. Jones, it proved a failure due to confusion with the quarter, to which it was close in both size and value. In 1874, the newly elected Jones began pressing for a twenty-cent piece, which he stated would alleviate the shortage of small change in the Far West; the bill passed Congress, mint director Henry Linderman ordered pattern coins struck. Linderman decided on an obverse and reverse similar to that of other silver coins. Although the coins have a smooth edge, rather than reeded as with other silver coins, the new piece was close to the size of, confused with, the quarter. Adding to the bewilderment, the obverse, or "heads", sides of both coins were identical. After the first year, in which over a million were minted, there was little demand, the denomination was abolished in 1878. At least a third of the total mintage was melted by the government.
Numismatist Mark Benvenuto called the twenty-cent piece "a chapter of U. S. coinage history that closed before it began". A twenty-cent piece had been proposed as early as 1791, again in 1806, but had been rejected; the 1806 bill, introduced by Connecticut Senator Uriah Tracy, sought both a two-cent piece and a "double dime". It was opposed by mint director Robert Patterson, though his opposition was more to the two-cent piece, which Tracy proposed be struck in billon, low-grade silver that would be difficult to recover when melting the coins; the bill did not pass the House of Representatives. No twenty-cent piece was issued prior to the 1870s, but Americans were familiar with the denomination as the two reales piece struck in Spain, known as a "pistareen" in the United States, passed for twenty cents. Several factors converged to make possible a twenty-cent piece in the 1870s; the first was a shortage of small change in the far West. Government payments in silver and gold had been suspended during the economic chaos caused by the civil war—coins containing precious metal were hoarded except on the Pacific Coast, did not pass at face value in trade.
Although the base-metal nickel was not accepted in the far West, the silver half dime had been struck in increasing numbers at the San Francisco Mint until the silver coin, which did not circulate in the East, was abolished by Congress in 1873. A shortage of small change resulted as half dimes were used in the jewelry trade. Prices in the West were sometimes in bits, adding to the change problem. Numismatist David Lange states that a shipment of nickels out West could have solved everything, but that they might not have been accepted due to the prejudice against money which did not contain precious metal. A second factor was the anxiety of Congress to see more silver made into coin; this was due to pressure from mining and other interests. The Coinage Act of 1873 ended the practice of allowing silver producers to have their bullion struck into silver dollars and returned to them. Although producers had not deposited much silver in the years before 1873 due to high market prices, former mint director Henry Linderman foresaw that those prices would fall as mines became accessible due to the completion of the transcontinental railroad across the United States, that the resultant coinage would inflate the currency.
He urged Congress to end the practice, which it did. Within a year, silver prices had dropped, producers tried vainly to deposit bullion at the mints for conversion into legal tender. Mining interests sought other means of selling silver to the government; the third was American interest in aligning its currency with the Latin Monetary Union and to bring its weights for coinage into the metric system. Several times in the 1860s and 1870s, the United States Mint struck pattern coins that were to be used if America joined, in some cases with the equivalent in foreign money struck as part of the design; the twenty-cent piece was to be equivalent to one French franc in that system, if in proportion to the smaller silver coins being struck, would weigh five grams, a fact which appealed to advocates of the metric system in Congress. Another purpose for a large issue of silver coins, regardless of denomination, was to retire the fractional currency—low-value paper money or "shinplasters". Congress passed legislation in 1876 for large quantities of silver coins for this purpose.
The father of the twenty-cent piece was Nevada Senator John P. Jones. Part-owner of the Crown Point Mine, he had been elected to the Senate in 1873. In advocating for the proposal, he cited the lack of small change in the West, it was endorsed by mint director Linderman. The bill was signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 3, 1875. Like other denominations of silver coin, the twenty-cent piece was made legal tender up to five dollars. In anticipation of the approval of the legislation, Linderman had pattern coins prepared. In August 1874, Philadelphia Mint superintendent James Pollock sent him patterns with an obverse showing a seated Liberty by Philadelphia sculptor Joseph A. Bailly with a reverse by chief engraver William Barber. Pollock did n
United States five-dollar bill
The United States five-dollar bill is a denomination of United States currency. The current $5 bill features the 16th U. S. President, Abraham Lincoln's portrait on the front and the Lincoln Memorial on the back. All $5 bills issued today are Federal Reserve Notes; the $5 bill is sometimes nicknamed a "fin". The term has German/Yiddish roots and is remotely related to the English "five", but it is far less common today than it was in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the average life of a $5 bill in circulation is 5.5 years before it is replaced due to wear. 6% of all paper currency produced by the U. S. Treasury's Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 2009 were $5 bills; the redesigned $5 bill was unveiled on September 20, 2007, was issued on March 13, 2008 during a ceremony at President Lincoln's Cottage. New and enhanced security features make it easier to check the new $5 bill and more difficult for potential counterfeiters to reproduce; the redesigned $5 bill has: Watermarks: There are now two watermarks.
A large numeral "5" watermark is located in a blank space to the right of the portrait, replacing the watermark portrait of President Lincoln found on previous bills. A second watermark — a new column of three smaller "5"s — has been added and is positioned to the left of the portrait. Security thread: The embedded security thread runs vertically and is now located to the right of the portrait; the letters "USA" followed by the number "5" in an alternating pattern are visible along the thread from both sides of the bill. The thread glows blue. Microprinting: The redesigned $5 bill features microprinting, the engraving of tiny text, on the front of the bill in three areas: the words "FIVE DOLLARS" can be found repeated inside the left and right borders of the bill. On the back of the bill the words "USA FIVE" appear along one edge of the large purple "5"; because they are so small, these microprinted words are hard to replicate. Red and Blue Threads: Some small red and blue threads are embedded into the paper to reveal if a higher denomination counterfeit bill has been printed on the bleached paper of a genuine lower denomination bill.
Infrared Ink: The back of the five-dollar bill features sections of the bill that are blanked out when viewed in the infrared spectrum. This is consistent with other high-value US bills, which all feature patterns of infrared-visible stripes unique to the given denomination. Bills of other world currencies, such as the Euro feature unique patterns visible only when viewed in this spectrum. Anti-Photocopy Circle Pattern: Small yellow "05"s are printed to the left of the portrait on the front of the bill and to the right of the Lincoln Memorial vignette on the back; the zeros in the "05"s form a "EURion constellation" to prevent photocopying of the bill. Photocopy machines refuse to make a copy; some machines make a record of the illegal photocopy attempt, which a repair technician may report to law enforcement. The five dollar bill lacks the Optically variable ink of higher denomination US bills; the new $5 bills use the same -- but enhanced -- portraits and historical images. The most noticeable difference is the light-purple coloring of the center of the bill, which blends into gray near the edges.
Similar to the redesigned $10, $20, $50, $100 bills, the new $5 bill features an American symbol of freedom printed in the background: The Great Seal of the United States, featuring an eagle and shield, is printed in purple to the right of the portrait and an arc of purple stars surround both it and the portrait. When the Lincoln Memorial was constructed the names of 48 states were engraved on it; the picture of the Lincoln Memorial on the $5 bill only contains the names of 26 states. These are the 26 states that can be seen on the front side of the Lincoln memorial, what is pictured on the $5 bill. On the back of the bill, a larger, purple numeral "5" appears in the lower right corner to help those with visual impairments to distinguish the denomination; this large "5" includes the words "USA FIVE" in tiny white letters. The oval borders around President Lincoln's portrait on the front, the Lincoln Memorial vignette on the back have been removed. Both engravings have been enhanced. On April 20, 2016, Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew announced that the $5, $10, $20 would all undergo redesign prior to 2020.
The changes would add new features to combat counterfeiting and make them easier for blind citizens to distinguish. Lew said that while Lincoln would remain on the obverse, the reverse would be redesigned to depict various historical events that had occurred at the Lincoln Memorial. Among the planned designs are images from the Martin Luther King, Jr. I Have the 1939 concert by opera singer Marian Anderson. 1861: The first $5 bill was issued as a Demand Note with a small portrait of Alexander Hamilton on the right and an allegorical statue representing freedom on the left side of the obverse. 1862: The first $5 United States Note was issued with a face design similar to the previous Demand Note and a revised reverse. 1869: A new $5 United States Note was issued with a small portrait of Andrew Jackson on the left and a vignette of a pioneer family in the middle. 1870: National Gold Bank Notes were issued for payment in gold coin by participating banks. The obverse featured vignettes of Christopher Columbus sighting land and Columbus with an Indian Princess.
United States twenty-dollar bill
The United States twenty-dollar bill is a denomination of U. S. currency. The seventh U. S. President, Andrew Jackson, has been featured on the front side of the bill since 1928; as of December 2013, the average circulation life of a $20 bill is 7.9 years before it is replaced due to wear. About 11% of all notes printed in 2009 were $20 bills. Twenty-dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in violet straps. 1861: A demand note with Lady Liberty holding a sword and shield on the front, an abstract design on the back. The back is printed green. 1862: A note, similar, the first $20 United States note. The back is different, with several small variations extant. 1863: A gold certificate $20 note with an Eagle vignette on the face. The reverse has various abstract elements; the back is orange. 1865: A national bank note with "The Battle of Lexington" and Pocahontas's marriage to John Rolfe in black, a green border. 1869: A new United States note design, with Alexander Hamilton on the left side of the front and Victory holding a shield and sword.
The back design is green. 1875: As above, except with a different reverse. 1878: A silver certificate $20 note with a portrait of Stephen Decatur on the right side of the face. The back design is black. 1882: A new gold certificate, with a portrait of James Garfield on the right of the face. The back features an eagle. 1882: A new national bank note. The front is similar. 1886: A new silver certificate $20 note, with Daniel Manning on the center of the face. 1890: A treasury note with John Marshall on the left of the face. Two different backs exist both with abstract designs. 1902: A new national bank note. The front features Hugh McCulloch, the back has a vignette of an allegorical America. 1905: A new gold certificate $20 note, with George Washington on the center of the face. The back design is orange. Andrew Jackson first appeared on the $20 bill in 1928. Although 1928 coincides with the 100th anniversary of Jackson's election as president, it is not clear why the portrait on the bill was switched from Grover Cleveland to Jackson..
According to the U. S. Treasury, "Treasury Department records do not reveal the reason that portraits of these particular statesmen were chosen in preference to those of other persons of equal importance and prominence."The placement of Jackson on the $20 bill may be a historical irony. In his farewell address to the nation, he cautioned the public about paper money. 1914: Began as a large-sized note, a portrait of Grover Cleveland on the face, and, on the back, a steam locomotive and an automobile approaching from the left, a steamship approaching from the right. 1918: A federal reserve banknote with Grover Cleveland on the front, a back design similar to the 1914 Federal Reserve Note. 1928: Switched to a small-sized note with a portrait of Andrew Jackson on the face and the south view of the White House on the reverse. The banknote is redeemable in silver at any Federal Reserve Bank. 1933: With the U. S. having abandoned the gold standard, the bill is no longer redeemable in gold, but rather in "lawful money", meaning silver.
1942: A special emergency series, with brown serial numbers and "HAWAII" overprinted on both the front and the back, is issued. These notes are designed to circulate on the islands and be deemed invalid in the event of a Japanese invasion. 1948: The White House picture was updated to reflect renovations to the building itself, including the addition of the Truman Balcony, as well as the passage of time. Most notably, the trees are larger; the change occurred during production of Series 1934C. 1950: Design elements like the serial numbers are reduced in size and moved around subtly for aesthetic reasons. 1963: "Will Pay To The Bearer On Demand" is removed from the front of the bill below the portrait, the legal tender designation is shortened to "This note is legal tender for all debts and private" Also, "In God We Trust" is added above the White House on the reverse. These two acts are coincidental if their combined result is implemented in one redesign. Several design elements are rearranged, less perceptibly than the change in 1950 to make room for the rearranged obligations.
1969: The new treasury seal appears on all denominations, including the $20. 1977: A new type of serial-number press results in a different font. The old presses are retired, old-style serial numbers appear as late as 1981 for this denomination. 1992: Anti-counterfeiting features are added: microprinting around the portrait, a plastic strip embedded in the paper. Though the bills read Series 1990, the first bills were printed in April 1992. 1994: The first notes at the Western Currency Facility are printed in January late during production of Series 1990. September 24, 1998: Received a new appearance to further deter counterfeiting. A larger, off-center portrait of Jackson was used on the front, several anti-counterfeiting features were added, including color-shifting ink, a watermark; the plastic strip now glows green under a black light. The bills were first printed in Jun
A sugar refinery is a refinery which processes raw sugar into white refined sugar or that processes sugar beet to refined sugar. Many cane sugar mills produce raw sugar, sugar that still contains molasses, giving it more colour than the white sugar, consumed in households and used as an ingredient in soft drinks and foods. While cane sugar does not need refining to be palatable, sugar from sugar beet is always refined to remove the strong always unwanted, taste of beets from it; the refined sugar produced is more than 99 percent pure sucrose. Whereas many sugar mills only operate during a limited time of the year during the cane harvesting period, many cane sugar refineries work the whole year round. Sugar beet refineries tend to have shorter periods when they process beet but may store intermediate product and process that in the off-season. Raw sugar is either processed into white refined sugar in local refineries, sold to the local industry and consumers, or it is exported and refined in the country of destination.
Sugar refineries are located in heavy sugar-consuming regions such as North America and Japan. Since the 1990s many state-of-the art sugar refineries have been built in the Middle East and North Africa region, e.g. in Dubai, Saudi Arabia and Algeria. The world´s largest sugar refinery company is American Sugar Refining with facilities in North America and Europe; the raw sugar is stored in large warehouses and transported into the sugar refinery by means of transport belts. In the traditional refining process, the raw sugar is first mixed with heavy syrup and centrifuged to wash away the outer coating of the raw sugar crystals, less pure than the crystal interior. Many sugar refineries today buy high pol sugar and can do without the affination process; the remaining sugar is dissolved to make a syrup, clarified by the addition of phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide that combine to precipitate calcium phosphate. The calcium phosphate particles entrap some impurities and absorb others, float to the top of the tank, where they are skimmed off.
After any remaining solids are filtered out, the clarified syrup is decolorized by filtration through the use of bone char, made from the bones of cattle, a bed of activated carbon or, in more modern plants, ion-exchange resin. The purified syrup is concentrated to supersaturation and crystallized under vacuum to produce white refined sugar; as in a sugar mill, the sugar crystals are separated from the mother liquor by centrifuging. To produce granulated sugar, in which the individual sugar grains do not clump together, sugar must be dried. Drying is accomplished first by drying the sugar in a hot rotary dryer, by blowing cool air through Centrifugal Blower/fan it for several days in so-called conditioning silos; the finished product is stored in large concrete or steel silos. It is shipped in bulk, big bags or 25 – 50 kg bags to industrial customers or packed in consumer-size packages to retailers; the dried sugar must be handled with caution, as sugar dust explosions are possible. For example, a sugar dust explosion which led to 13 fatalities was the 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion in Port Wentworth, GA.
Molasses Bagasse Press Mud As in many other industries factory automation has been promoted in sugar refineries in recent decades. The production process is controlled by a central process control system, which directly controls most of the machines and components. Only for certain special machines such as the centrifuges in the sugar house decentralized PLCs are used for security reasons. Onses, Richard. Continuous dissolution process for sugar, in Alimentacion Equipos y Tecnologio, Editorial Alcion, May 1987. Barcelona. Sugar related online glossary. Sugar refining. Centrifugal control and the quality of white sugar by Barbara Rogé et. al. retrieved on 27 June, 2010
Half cent (United States coin)
The half cent is the smallest denomination of United States coin minted. It was first minted in 1793 and last minted in 1857, it was minted with five different designs. First authorized by the Coinage Act of 1792 on April 2, 1792, the coin was produced in the United States from 1793 to 1857; the half-cent piece was made of 100% copper and was valued at five milles, or one two-hundredth of a dollar. It was smaller than a modern U. S. quarter with diameters 22 mm, 23.5 mm and 23 mm. Coinage was discontinued by the Coinage Act of February 21, 1857, they were all produced at the Philadelphia Mint. There are several different types of half cents: Liberty Cap, Left - issued 1793 Liberty Cap, Right - issued 1794 to 1797 Draped Bust - issued 1800 to 1808 Classic Head - issued 1809 to 1836 Braided Hair - issued 1840 to 1857There are no mint marks on any of the coins and the edges are plain on most half cents. On the 1793, 1794 and some 1795 coins and a variety of the 1797 coin, it was lettered TWO HUNDRED FOR A DOLLAR and another 1797 variety had a gripped, or milled, edge.
Liberty Cap, Left 1793 - 35,334Liberty Cap, Right 1794 - 81,601 1795 - 139,690 1796 - 1,390 1797 - 127,840Draped Bust 1800 - 202,908 1802 - 20,266 1803 - 92,000 1804 - 1,055,312 1805 - 814,464 1806 - 356,000 1807 - 476,000 1808 - 400,000Classic Head 1809 - 1,154,572 1810 - 215,000 1811 - 63,140 1825 - 63,000 1826 - 234,000 1828 - 606,000 1829 - 487,000 1831 - 2,200 1832 - 51,000 1833 - 103,000 1834 - 141,000 1835 - 398,000 1836 - proof only, restrikes were made 1837 - No half cents were struck by the United States government. Braided Hair 1840 through 1849 were proof-only issues. There were restrikes made. 1849 - 39,864 1850 - 39,812 1851 - 147,672 1852 - proof only. Restrikes were made. 1853 - 129,694 1854 - 55,358 1855 - 56,500 1856 - 40,430 1857 - 35,180 Penny, the second smallest denomination of United States coin minted Half Cent information by year and type. Histories, mintages, metal contents, edge designs and more. Half Cent Pictures This half cent was the first coin donated to the American Numismatic Society The Half Cent Die State Book 1793-1857 by Ronald P. Manley, Ph.
D. 1998. American Half Cents - The "Little Half Sisters" by Roger S. Cohen, Jr. 1982. Walter Breen's Encyclopedia of United States Half Cents 1793-1857 by Walter Breen, 1983; the Half Cent, 1793-1857 The Story of American's Greatest Little Coin by William R. Eckberg, 2019