The Garmin G3000 is the first touchscreen glass integrated avionics system designed for light turbine aircraft. It uses a variety of 14.1 inch integrated cockpit displays for ease of viewing and operation and 5.7 inch touchscreen controllers for intuitive control. The G3000 is capable of running Garmin's Synthetic Vision Technology, a graphical 3D rendering of terrain; the G3000 was unveiled at the NBAA Convention in 2009. Cessna Corvalis TTx Piper M600 Honda HA-420 HondaJet Cirrus Vision SF50 Embraer Phenom 300 Cessna Citation M2 Cessna Citation CJ3+ Daher TBM 930 Learjet 70/75 Cessna Citation Longitude Cessna Citation X Cessna Citation Latitude Cessna Citation Sovereign+ Hawker 400 Bell 525 Relentless
A business jet, private jet, or bizjet is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people. Business jets may be adapted for other roles, such as the evacuation of casualties or express parcel deliveries, some are used by public bodies, government officials or the armed forces; the Lockheed JetStar, seating ten passengers and two crew, first flew on 4 September 1957. A total of 204 aircraft were produced from 1957 to 1978 powered by several different engines; the smaller, 17,760 pounds MTOW North American Sabreliner first flew on 16 September 1958. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines Garrett TFE731s, more than 800 were produced from 1959 to 1982; the 25,000 pounds MTOW British Aerospace 125 first flew on 13 August 1962 as the de Havilland DH.125, powered by two 3,000 pounds-force Armstrong Siddeley Viper turbojets. Its engines were replaced by Garrett TFE731s Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 turbofans. 1,700 aircraft of all variants, including the Hawker 800, were produced between 1962 and 2013.
The Aero Commander 1121 Jet Commander, which became the IAI Westwind, first flew on 27 January 1963, powered by two General Electric CJ610 turbojets Garrett TFE731s. Production of Jet Commanders and Westwinds from 1965 to 1987 came to 442 aircraft; the 29,000 pounds MOTW Dassault Falcon 20 first flew on 4 May 1963, powered by two General Electric CF700s Garrett ATF3 turbofans and Garrett TFE731s. A total of 508 were built from 1963 to 1988, it is the basis of the Dassault Falcon family; the first light jet first flew on 7 October 1963: the Learjet 23. Powered by two 2,850 pounds-force General Electric CJ610s, its 12,500 pounds MTOW complies with FAR Part 23 regulations; the first member of the Learjet family, 104 were built between 1962 and 1966. The forward wing sweep, 20,280 pounds MOTW Hamburger Flugzeugbau HFB 320 Hansa Jet first flew on 21 April 1964, powered by two General Electric CJ610s; the joint Piaggo-Douglas, 18,000 pounds MOTW Piaggio PD.808 first flew on 29 August 1964, powered by two Armstrong Siddeley Vipers, 24 were built for the Italian Air Force.
On 2 October 1966 the first large business jet first flew, the 65,500 pounds MTOW Grumman Gulfstream II, powered by two 11,400 pounds-force Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans. From 1967 to the late 70s, 258 were built and it led to the ongoing Gulfstream Aerospace long range family; the 11,850 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation I first flew on 15 September 1969, powered by two 2,200 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D turbofans. Produced between 1969 and 1985 for a total of 689 examples, it is the first of the Cessna Citation family; the trijet Dassault Falcon 50 made its first flight on 7 November 1976. The 40,000 pounds MTOW airplane is powered by three 3,700 pounds-force TFE731 engines. With the cross-section of the Falcon 20, it is the basis of the larger Falcon 900. On 8 November 1978, the prototype Canadair Challenger took off; the 43,000–48,000 pounds MTOW craft powered by two 9,200 pounds-force General Electric CF34s, formed the basis of the long range Bombardier Global Express family and of the Bombardier CRJ regional airliners.
The 1000th Challenger entered service in 2015. On 30 May 1979 the clean-sheet 22,000 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation III took off for the first time, powered by two 3,650 pounds-force TFE731s; the Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond made its first flight on 29 August 1978. The 16,100 pounds MTOW jet was powered by two 2,900 pounds-force JT15D; the design was sold and was renamed Beechjet 400 Hawker 400, with a total of 950 produced of all variants. The 1980s only saw the introduction of no major new designs. There was an advent of fractional ownership in the late 1980s for business jets; the first flight of the clean-sheet Learjet 45 was on 7 October 1995. All of the 642 aircraft built since have been powered by two 3,500 pounds-force TFE731 engines. Powered by two 2,300 pounds-force Williams FJ44s, the 12,500 pounds Beechcraft Premier I light jet made its first flight on 22 December 1998. Nearly 300 had been made before production stopped in 2013. In the opposite way compared to Bombardier, which developed airliners from a business jet, Embraer derived the Legacy 600 from the Embraer ERJ family of regional jet airliners.
Powered by two 8,800 pounds-force Rolls-Royce AE 3007s, the first flight of the 50,000 pounds aircraft was on 31 March 2001. On 14 August 2001, the Bombardier Challenger 300 made its first flight; the 38,850 pounds aircraft is powered by two 6,825 pounds-force HTF7000s. The 500th example was delivered in 2015; the first light jet, the 5,950 pounds MTOW Eclipse 500, took off for the first time on 26 August 2002, powered by two 900 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600s. Between and the end of production in 2008, 260 were produced, it was followed by the 8,645 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation Mustang on 23 April 2005, powered by two 1,460 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600s and with more than 450 produced. The Embraer Phenom 100 made its maiden flight on 26 July 2007; the 10,500 pounds MTOW airplane is powered by two 1,600 pounds-force Whitney Canada PW600s. With its Phenom 300 development, nearly 600 have been built; the first flight of the midsize, fly-by-wire, 7,000 lbf Honeywell HTF700
Rockwell Collins was a multinational corporation company headquartered in Cedar Rapids, Iowa providing avionics and information technology systems and services to government agencies and aircraft manufacturers. The company was acquired by United Technologies Corporation on November 27, 2018, now operates as part of Collins Aerospace. Arthur A. Collins founded Collins Radio Company in 1933 in Iowa, it designed and produced both shortwave radio equipment and equipment for the burgeoning AM Broadcast industry. Collins was solicited by the military, the scientific community and by the larger AM radio stations for special equipment. Collins supplied the equipment to establish a communications link with the South Pole expedition of Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd in 1933. In 1936, Collins had begun production of the 12H audio console, 12X portable field announcers box, the 300E and 300F broadcast transmitters. Throughout World War II, the 212A1 and 212B1 replaced the 12H design. Collins became the principal supplier of radio and navigation equipment used in the military, where uncompromising performance was required.
In the post war years, the Collins Radio Company expanded its work in all phases of the communications field while broadening its technology. This moved Arthur Collins into a more active role as CEO guiding department leaders holding significant responsibilities. New developments such as flight control instruments, radio communication devices and satellite voice transmissions created great opportunities in the marketplace. Collins Radio Company provided communications for the United States' role in the Space Race, including equipment for astronauts to communicate with earth stations and equipment to track and communicate with spacecraft. Collins communications equipment was used for Projects Mercury and Apollo, providing voice communication for every American astronaut traveling through space. In 1973, the U. S. Skylab Program used Collins equipment to provide communication from the astronauts to earth. After facing financial difficulties, the Collins Radio Company was purchased by Rockwell International in 1973.
In 2001, the avionics division of Rockwell International was spun off to form the current Rockwell Collins, Inc. retaining its name. Rockwell Collins is concentrated in the defense and commercial avionics markets and no longer markets receivers to the public; the Collins mechanical filter is still in production and does, find consumer and commercial use. On April 28, 2000, Rockwell International Corp and its Rockwell Collins unit agreed to acquire Sony Corp's Sony Trans Com for undisclosed terms. Sony had purchased the business from Sundstrand Corp. in 1989. On December 20, 2000, Rockwell Collins expanded its services to commercial and executive aviation in Mercosur countries; the company has acquired several companies, including Hughes-Avicom's in-flight entertainment business, Sony Trans Com, Intertrade Ltd. Flight Dynamics, K Systems, Inc. Communication Solutions, Inc. Airshow, Inc. NLX in 2003, portions of Evans & Sutherland, TELDIX GmbH, IP Unwired, Anzus Inc. in 2006, Information Technology & Applications Corporation in 2007, Athena Technologies, Datapath Inc.
SEOS Displays Ltd. Air Routing International in 2010, Computing Technologies for Aviation in 2011, ARINC in 2014, BE Aerospace in 2017; the company is among the major suppliers of in-flight entertainment on board aircraft. Rockwell Collins' key competitors in this industry include Panasonic Avionics Corporation, Thales Group, JetBlue's IFE subsidiary LiveTV; as of 2010, the company employs over 20,000 people and has an annual turnover of 4.665 billion US dollars. Its non-executive chairman is Anthony Carbone following the retirement of Clayton M. Jones. In September 2012, Kelly Ortberg was appointed as president of the company. In August 2013, Kelly Ortberg was appointed CEO of Rockwell Collins. On September 4, 2017, United Technologies of Farmington, Connecticut agreed to acquire the company for $30 billion; the transaction closed on November 26, 2018. In the mid-1930s, the Collins Radio Company constructed and sold transmitters and audio mixing consoles to the broadcast industry. In 1939, the model 12 Speech Input Console, in addition to the 26C limiter amplifier, was licensed to Canadian Marconi Co. for both sales in Canada and His Majesties Service for the war effort.
Collins success in constructing broadcast transmitters continued to grow, selling well over a thousand up to the start of World War II. During World War II, Collins expertise grew in higher power transmitters producing designs which ran well over 15 kilowatts of RF power on a continuous basis. After the war a limited number of AM transmitters were produced called the 300G and remain the finest in low power AM transmitters produced. Collins remained an important manufacturer of AM and FM broadcast radio transmitters for the commercial market surviving the drastic cost cutting market of the 1960s and 1970s; the transmitter line was sold to Continental Electronics, which continued to produce a number of Collins designs under its own nameplate before phasing them out in the 1980s. Collins produced several shortwave transmitters to the commercial market. A "30" Series production catered to the growing need of state highway patrol agencies and Department of Commerce aviation needs. During World War II, Collins produced high power transmitters for aircraft, notably the ART-13 equipped with automatic tuning circuits, which represented an important enhancement for airborne radio communications.
After World War II, Collins supported the growing post-war amateur radio market. The United States Coast Guard Cutter USCGC Courier was employed as seagoing relay st
The wingspan of a bird or an airplane is the distance from one wingtip to the other wingtip. For example, the Boeing 777-200 has a wingspan of 60.93 metres, a wandering albatross caught in 1965 had a wingspan of 3.63 metres, the official record for a living bird. The term wingspan, more technically extent, is used for other winged animals such as pterosaurs, insects, etc. and other fixed-wing aircraft such as ornithopters. In humans, the term wingspan refers to the arm span, distance between the length from one end of an individual's arms to the other when raised parallel to the ground at shoulder height at a 90º angle. Former professional basketball player Manute Bol stands at 7 ft 7 in and owns one of the largest wingspans at 8 ft 6 in; the wingspan of an aircraft is always measured in a straight line, from wingtip to wingtip, independently of wing shape or sweep. The lift from wings is proportional to their area, so the heavier the animal or aircraft the bigger that area must be; the area is the product of the span times the width of the wing, so either a long, narrow wing or a shorter, broader wing will support the same mass.
For efficient steady flight, the ratio of span to chord, the aspect ratio, should be as high as possible because this lowers the lift-induced drag associated with the inevitable wingtip vortices. Long-ranging birds, like albatrosses, most commercial aircraft maximize aspect ratio. Alternatively and aircraft which depend on maneuverability need to be able to roll fast to turn, the high moment of inertia of long narrow wings produces lower roll rates. For them, short-span, broad wings are preferred; the highest aspect ratio man-made wings are aircraft propellers, in their most extreme form as helicopter rotors. To measure the wingspan of a bird, a live or freshly-dead specimen is placed flat on its back, the wings are grasped at the wrist joints and the distance is measured between the tips of the longest primary feathers on each wing; the wingspan of an insect refers to the wingspan of pinned specimens, may refer to the distance between the centre of the thorax to the apex of the wing doubled or to the width between the apices with the wings set with the trailing wing edge perpendicular to the body.
In basketball and gridiron football, a fingertip-to-fingertip measurement is used to determine the player's wingspan called armspan. This is called reach in boxing terminology; the wingspan of 16-year-old BeeJay Anya, a top basketball Junior Class of 2013 prospect who played for the NC State Wolfpack, was measured at 7 feet 9 inches across, one of the longest of all National Basketball Association draft prospects, the longest for a non-7-foot player, though Anya went undrafted in 2017. The wingspan of Manute Bol, at 8 feet 6 inches, is the longest in NBA history, his vertical reach was 10 feet 5 inches. Aircraft: Scaled Composites Stratolaunch — 117 m Aircraft: Hughes H-4 Hercules "Spruce Goose" – 97.51 m Aircraft Antonov An-225 Mriya - 88.4 m Bat: Large flying fox – 1.5 m Bird: Wandering albatross – 3.63 m Bird: Argentavis – Estimated 7 m Reptile: Quetzalcoatlus pterosaur – 10–11 m Insect: White witch moth – 28 cm Insect: Meganeuropsis – estimated up to 71 cm Aircraft: Starr Bumble Bee II – 1.68 m Aircraft: Bede BD-5 – 4.27 m Aircraft: Colomban Cri-cri – 4.9 m Bat: Bumblebee bat – 16 cm Bird: Bee hummingbird – 6.5 cm Insect: Tanzanian parasitic wasp – 0.2 mm
British Aerospace 125
The British Aerospace 125 is a twinjet mid-size business jet. Developed by de Havilland and designated as the DH125 Jet Dragon, it entered production as the Hawker Siddeley HS.125, the designation used until 1977. On, more recent variants of the type were marketed as the Hawker 800; the type proved quite popular overseas. It was used by the Royal Air Force as a navigation trainer, as the Hawker Siddeley Dominie T1, was operated by the United States Air Force as a calibration aircraft, under the designation C-29. In 1961, de Havilland began work upon a small business jet known as the DH.125 Jet Dragon, intended to replace the piston engined de Havilland Dove, a successful business aircraft and light transport. Prior to the start of the project, de Havilland had determined that a successful business jet would require several variables to be met, including a range of at least 1,000 miles, the speed and cost factors of a suitable jet engine to outperform turboprop-propelled competitors, an engineering philosophy that favored reliability and conventionality.
The design team settled on a twin-engine aircraft with the engines mounted on the rear fuselage. The Bristol Siddeley Viper turbojet powerplant was selected to power the type. On 13 August 1962, the first of two prototypes conducted its first flight, a second aircraft followed it on 12 December that year; the second prototype was more aerodynamically-representative of a production aircraft, was fitted out with more equipment than the first prototype. The first production-standard aircraft performed its first flight on 12 February 1963; the first delivery to a customer took place on 10 September 1964. The aircraft went through many designation changes during its service life. Hawker Siddeley had bought de Havilland the year before the project had started, but the legacy brand and "DH" designation was used throughout development. After the jet achieved full production, the name was changed to "HS.125" except for American exports which retained the DH.125 until it was replaced by BH.125 for Beechcraft-Hawker.
When Hawker Siddeley Aircraft merged with the British Aircraft Corporation to form British Aerospace in 1977, the name changed to BAe 125. When British Aerospace sold its Business Jets Division to Raytheon in 1993, the then-main variant of the jet became referred to as the Hawker 1000. While the two prototypes were assembled at de Havilland's Hatfield site, final assembly of all production aircraft would take place at the Broughton factory near Chester until the 1990s. By the 2000s, the fuselage and tailfin of the aircraft were still being assembled and equipped in the Broughton site, now being owned and managed by Airbus UK. From 1996 onwards, the assembled sections and components were shipped to Wichita, Kansas in the United States, to undergo final assembly. Writing in 1993, Flying Magazine said of the type "In numerical terms, the 125 series is the most successful British commercial aircraft built, the world's longest in-production business jet". Production of the aircraft came to an abrupt halt in 2013 due to the bankruptcy of owner Hawker Beechcraft, who has suffered during the Great Recession of the late 2000s in which demand for business jets had slumped for a number of years.
The type had been in production for more than 50 years when manufacturing stopped, during which time over 1,600 aircraft had been produced. In April 2013, the type certificate and support responsibility for all 125s built was transferred to the reformed Beechcraft Corporation; as of October 2012, Beechcraft does not intend to restart production of its business jet lines. The DH.125 is a low-winged monoplane, powered by two engines mounted on the rear fuselage. It features a swept wing, being based upon the larger de Havilland Comet's wing planform, employs large slotted flaps and airbrakes to better enable operations from small airfields; the type has a cylindrical fuselage with the one-piece wing mounted upon the underside of the fuselage. The wing houses integral fuel tanks which contain the majority of the aircraft's fuel. Early models of the aircraft were powered by several versions of the Bristol Siddeley Viper turbojet engine, while aircraft have adopted more recent turbofan powerplants such as the Garrett TFE731 and Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300.
As well as providing the propelling thrust of the aircraft, each engine's accessory gearbox drives electric generators for electrical power and fuel and hydraulic pumps. The design is redundant so that in the event of a single engine failing, all aircraft systems continue to operate normally. All control surfaces of the aircraft are aerodynamically balanced via set-back hinges and geared tabs; the flaps and airbrakes are operated using the aircraft's hydraulics, while the ailerons and rudder are manually-actuated. The design of the control circuits allows for an Collins-built A. P.103 autopilot to be incorporated. Each aircraft is equipped with a de-icing system, which uses a mixture of bleed air from the engines, TKS fluid for general airframe, AC electric windshield hea
Stall (fluid dynamics)
In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases. This occurs; the critical angle of attack is about 15 degrees, but it may vary depending on the fluid and Reynolds number. Stalls in fixed-wing flight are experienced as a sudden reduction in lift as the pilot increases the wing's angle of attack and exceeds its critical angle of attack. A stall does not mean that the engine have stopped working, or that the aircraft has stopped moving—the effect is the same in an unpowered glider aircraft. Vectored thrust in manned and unmanned aircraft is used to maintain altitude or controlled flight with wings stalled by replacing lost wing lift with engine or propeller thrust, thereby giving rise to post-stall technology; because stalls are most discussed in connection with aviation, this article discusses stalls as they relate to aircraft, in particular fixed-wing aircraft. The principles of stall discussed here translate to foils in other fluids as well.
A stall is a condition in aerodynamics and aviation such that if the angle of attack increases beyond a certain point lift begins to decrease. The angle at which this occurs is called the critical angle of attack; this critical angle is dependent upon the airfoil section or profile of the wing, its planform, its aspect ratio, other factors, but is in the range of 8 to 20 degrees relative to the incoming wind for most subsonic airfoils. The critical angle of attack is the angle of attack on the lift coefficient versus angle-of-attack curve at which the maximum lift coefficient occurs. Stalling is caused by flow separation which, in turn, is caused by the air flowing against a rising pressure. Whitford describes three types of stall, trailing-edge, leading-edge and thin-aerofoil, each with distinctive Cl~alpha features. For the trailing-edge stall separation begins at small angles of attack near the trailing edge of the wing while the rest of the flow over the wing remains attached; as angle of attack increases, the separated regions on the top of the wing increase in size as the flow separation moves forwards and this hinders the ability of the wing to create lift.
This is shown by the reduction in lift-slope on a Cl~alpha curve as the lift nears its maximum value. The separated flow causes buffeting. Beyond the critical angle of attack, separated flow is so dominant that additional increases in angle of attack cause the lift to fall from its peak value. Piston-engined and early jet transports had good stall behaviour with pre-stall buffet warning and, if ignored, a straight nose-drop for a natural recovery. Wing developments that came with the introduction of turbo-prop engines introduced unacceptable stall behaviour. Leading-edge developments on high-lift wings and the introduction of rear-mounted engines and high-set tailplanes on the next generation of jet transports introduced unacceptable stall behaviour; the probability of achieving the stall speed inadvertently, a hazardous event, had been calculated, in 1965, at about once in every 100,000 flights enough to justify the cost of development and incorporation of warning devices, such as stick shakers, devices to automatically provide an adequate nose-down pitch, such as stick pushers.
When the mean angle of attack of the wings is beyond the stall a spin, an autorotation of a stalled wing, may develop. A spin follows departures in roll and pitch from balanced flight. For example, a roll is damped with an unstalled wing but with wings stalled the damping moment is replaced with a propelling moment; the graph shows that the greatest amount of lift is produced as the critical angle of attack is reached. This angle is 17.5 degrees in this case. In particular, for aerodynamically thick airfoils, the critical angle is higher than with a thin airfoil of the same camber. Symmetric airfoils have lower critical angles; the graph shows that, as the angle of attack exceeds the critical angle, the lift produced by the airfoil decreases. The information in a graph of this kind is gathered using a model of the airfoil in a wind tunnel; because aircraft models are used, rather than full-size machines, special care is needed to make sure that data is taken in the same Reynolds number regime as in free flight.
The separation of flow from the upper wing surface at high angles of attack is quite different at low Reynolds number from that at the high Reynolds numbers of real aircraft. High-pressure wind tunnels are one solution to this problem. In general, steady operation of an aircraft at an angle of attack above the critical angle is not possible because, after exceeding the critical angle, the loss of lift from the wing causes the nose of the aircraft to fall, reducing the angle of attack again; this nose drop, independent of control inputs, indicates the pilot has stalled the aircraft. This graph shows the stall angle, yet in practice most pilot operating handbooks or generic flight manuals describe stalling in terms of airspeed; this is because all aircraft are equipped with an airspeed indicator, but fewer aircraft have an angle of attack indicator. An aircraft's stalling speed is published by the manufacturer for a range of weights and flap positions, but the stalling angle of attack is not published.
As speed reduces, angle of attack has to increase to keep lift
Japan Air Self-Defense Force
The Japan Air Self-Defense Force, JASDF referred to as the Japanese Air Force, is the air warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and for other aerospace operations. It is the de facto air force of Japan; the JASDF carries out combat air patrols around Japan, while maintaining a network of ground and air early-warning radar systems. The branch has an aerobatic team known as Blue Impulse and has provided air transport in UN peacekeeping missions; the JASDF had an estimated 50,324 personnel as of 2013, as of 2013 operated 777 aircraft 373 of them fighter aircraft. Japan did not have a separate air force before World War II. Aviation operations were carried out by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service. Following World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy were dissolved and replaced by the JSDF with the passing of the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Act, with the JASDF as the aviation branch; until 2015, women were banned from becoming fighter jet and reconnaissance aircraft pilots, with the first female pilot of a F-15s set to join the ranks, along with three other female pilots in training, in 2018.
Major units of the JASDF are the Air Defense Command, Air Support Command, Air Training Command, Air Development and Test Command, Air Materiel Command. The Air Support Command is responsible for direct support of operational forces in rescue, control, weather monitoring and inspection; the Air Training Command is responsible for technical training. The Air Development and Test Command, in addition to overseeing equipment research and development, is responsible for research and development in such areas as flight medicine; the Air Defense Command has northern and western regional headquarters located at Misawa and Kasuga and the Southwestern Composite Air Division based at Naha, Okinawa Prefecture. All four regional headquarters control surface-to-air missile units of both the JASDF and the JGSDF located in their respective areas. Prime Minister of Japan Minister of Defense JASDF Chief of Staff / Air Staff Office Air Defense Command: Yokota, Tokyo Northern Air Defense Force: Misawa, Aomori 2nd Air Wing 3rd Air Wing Northern Air Command Support Flight, Northern Aircraft Control & Warning Wing 3rd Air Defense Missile Group 6th Air Defense Missile Group Central Air Defense Force: Iruma, Saitama 6th Air Wing 7th Air Wing Central Air Command Support Squadron Central Aircraft Control & Warning Wing 1st Air Defense Missile Group 4th Air Defense Missile Group Iwo Jima Air Base Group Western Air Defense Force: Kasuga, Fukuoka 5th Air Wing 8th Air Wing Western Air Command Support Squadron, Western Aircraft Control & Warning Wing 2nd Air Defense Missile Group Southwestern Air Division: Naha, Okinawa 9th Air Wing Southwestern Aircraft Control & Warning Group 5th Air Defense Missile Group Airborne Early Warning Group: Hamamatsu Air Base Airborne Early Warning and Surveillance Group: Misawa Air Base, Naha Air Base Tactical Reconnaissance Group: Hyakuri Air Base Air Tactics Development Wing Tactical Fighter Training Group: Komatsu Air Base Electronic Warfare Squadron Iruma Air Base Electronic Intelligence Squadron Iruma Air Base Air Rescue Wing Detachments: Chitose, Ashiya, Hyakuri, Niigata, Naha, Komaki Helicopter Airlift Squadrons: Iruma, Misawa, Naha Air Defense Missile Training Group: Hamamatsu, Chitose Air Support Command: Fuchū Air Base, Tokyo 1st Tactical Airlift Group 2nd Tactical Airlift Group 3rd Tactical Airlift Group Air Traffic Control Service Group Air Weather Group Flight Check Squadron Special Airlift Group: Air Training Command: Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 1st Air Wing 4th Air Wing 11th Flying Training Wing 12th Flight Training Wing 13th Flight Training Wing Fighter Training Group 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 5th Technical School Air Basic Training Wing Air Training Aids Group Air Officer Candidate School Air Development and Test Command: Iruma Air Base, Saitama Air Development and Test Wing Electronics Development and Test Group Aeromedical Laboratory Air Material Command: Jujou, Tokyo 1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th Air Depot Air Staff College Air Communications and Systems Wing Aerosafety Service Group Central Air Base Group Others The JASDF maintains an integrated network of radar installations and air defense direction centers throughout the country known as the Basic Air Defense Ground Environment.
In the late 1980s, the system was modernized and augmente