Nitrile rubber known as NBR, Buna-N, acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, is a synthetic rubber copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene. Trade names include Perbunan, Nipol and Europrene. Nitrile butadiene rubber is a family of unsaturated copolymers of 2-propenenitrile and various butadiene monomers. Although its physical and chemical properties vary depending on the polymer’s composition of nitrile, this form of synthetic rubber is unusual in being resistant to oil and other chemicals, it is used in the automotive and aeronautical industry to make fuel and oil handling hoses, seals and self-sealing fuel tanks, since ordinary rubbers cannot be used. It is used in the nuclear industry to make protective gloves. NBR's ability to withstand a range of temperatures from −40 to 108 °C makes it an ideal material for aeronautical applications. Nitrile butadiene is used to create moulded goods, adhesives, sponges, expanded foams, floor mats, its resilience makes NBR a useful material for disposable lab and examination gloves.
Nitrile rubber is more resistant than natural rubber to oils and acids, has superior strength, but has inferior flexibility. Nitrile gloves are therefore more puncture-resistant than natural rubber gloves if the latter are degraded by exposure to chemicals or ozone. Nitrile rubber is less to cause an allergic reaction than natural rubber. Nitrile rubber is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. Nitrile, like natural rubber, can be attacked by ozone, ketones and aldehydes. Emulsifier, 2-propenenitrile, various butadiene monomers, radical generating activators, a catalyst are added to polymerization vessels in the production of hot NBR. Water serves as the reaction medium within the vessel; the tanks are heated to 30–40 °C to facilitate the polymerization reaction and to promote branch formation in the polymer. Because several monomers capable of propagating the reaction are involved in the production of nitrile rubber the composition of each polymer can vary. One repeating unit found throughout the entire polymer may not exist.
For this reason there is no IUPAC name for the general polymer. The reaction for one possible portion of the polymer is shown below: 1,3-butadiene + 1,3-butadiene + 2-propenenitrile + 1,3-butadiene + 1,2-butadiene → nitrile butadiene rubberMonomers are permitted to react for 5 to 12 hours. Polymerization is allowed to proceed to ~70% conversion before a “shortstop” agent is added to react with the remaining free radicals. Once the resultant latex has “shortstopped”, the unreacted monomers are removed through a steam in a slurry stripper. Recovery of unreacted monomers is close to 100%. After monomer recovery, latex is sent through a series of filters to remove unwanted solids and sent to the blending tanks where it is stabilized with an antioxidant; the yielded polymer latex is coagulated using calcium nitrate, aluminium sulfate, other coagulating agents in an aluminium tank. The coagulated substance is washed and dried into crumb rubber; the process for the production of cold NBR is similar to that of hot NBR.
Polymerization tanks are heated to 5–15 °C instead of 30–40 °C. Under lower temperature conditions, less branching will form on polymers; the raw material is yellow, though it can be red tinted, depending on the manufacturer. Its elongation at break is ≥ 300% and possesses a tensile strength of ≥ 10 N/mm2. NBR has good resistance to mineral oils, vegetable oils, benzene/petrol, ordinary diluted acids and alkalines. An important factor in the properties of NBR is the ratio of acrylonitrile groups to butadiene groups in the polymer backbone, referred to as the ACN content; the lower the ACN content, the lower the glass transition temperature. Most applications requiring both solvent resistance and low temperature flexibility require an ACN content of 33%; the uses of nitrile rubber include disposable non-latex gloves, automotive transmission belts, hoses, O-rings, oil seals, V belts, synthetic leather, printer's form rollers, as cable jacketing. Unlike polymers meant for ingestion, where small inconsistencies in chemical composition/structure can have a pronounced effect on the body, the general properties of NBR are not altered by minor structural/compositional differences.
The production process. The necessary apparatus is easy to obtain. For these reasons, the substance is produced in poorer countries where labor is cheap. Among the highest producers of NBR are mainland Taiwan. In January 2008, the European Commission imposed fines totaling €34,230,000 on the Bayer and Zeon groups for fixing prices for nitrile butadiene rubber, in violation of the EU ban on cartels and restrictive business practices. Nitric acid penetrates nitrile gloves in a few minutes. Hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber k
The Cincinnati Enquirer
The Cincinnati Enquirer is a morning daily newspaper published by Gannett Company in Cincinnati, United States. First published in 1841, the Enquirer is the last remaining daily newspaper in Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky, although the daily Journal-News competes with the Enquirer in the northern suburbs; the Enquirer has the highest circulation of any print publication in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. A daily local edition for Northern Kentucky is published as The Kentucky Enquirer; the Enquirer won the 2018 Pulitzer Prize for local reporting for its project titled "Seven Days of Heroin."In addition to the Cincinnati Enquirer and Kentucky Enquirer, Gannett publishes a variety of print and electronic periodicals in the Cincinnati area, including 16 Community Press weekly newspapers, 10 Community Recorder weekly newspapers, OurTown magazine. The Enquirer is available online at the Cincinnati.com website. The Enquirer is regarded as a conservative, Republican-leaning newspaper, in contrast to The Cincinnati Post, a former competing daily.
From 1920 to 2012, the editorial board endorsed every Republican candidate for United States president. By contrast, the current editorial board claims to take a pragmatic editorial stance. According to editor Peter Bhatia, "It is made up of pragmatic, solution-driven members who, don’t have much use for extreme ideologies from the right or the left.... The board’s mantra in our editorials has been about problem-solving and improving the quality of life for everyone in greater Cincinnati." On September 24, 2016, the Enquirer endorsed Hillary Clinton for president, its first endorsement of a Democrat for president since Woodrow Wilson in 1916. The Kentucky Enquirer consists of an additional section wrapped around the Cincinnati Enquirer and a remade Local section; the front page is remade from the Ohio edition. Reader-submitted content is featured in six zoned editions of Your HomeTown Enquirer, a local news insert published twice-weekly on Thursdays and Saturdays in Hamilton, Butler and Clermont counties.
Since September 2015, the Enquirer and local Fox affiliate WXIX-TV have partnered on news gathering and have shared news coverage and video among the paper and online media. In 2016, the Enquirer launched a true crime podcast called Accused that reached the top of iTunes' podcasts chart. Under then-editor Peter Bhatia, the Enquirer became the first newsroom in the nation to dedicate a reporter to covering the heroin epidemic full time; that reporter, Terry DeMio, reporter Dan Horn helped lead a staff of about 60 journalists to report the heroin project that won the newspaper its second Pulitzer Prize. The award was the first the newsroom won for its reporting; the first Pulitzer win was awarded to Jim Borgman for editorial cartoons in 1991. The Enquirer's predecessor was the Phoenix, edited by Moses Dawson as early as 1828, it became the Commercial Advertiser and in 1838 the Cincinnati Advertiser and Journal. By the time John and Charles Brough purchased it and renamed it the Daily Cincinnati Enquirer, it was considered a newspaper of record for the city.
The Enquirer's first issue, on April 10, 1841, consisted of "just four pages of squint-inducing text that was, at times, as ugly in tone as it was in appearance". It declared its staunch support for the Democratic Party, in contrast to the three Whig papers and two ostensibly independent papers in circulation. A weekly digest edition for regional farmers, the Weekly Cincinnati Enquirer, began publishing on April 14 and would continue until November 25, 1843, as The Cincinnati Weekly Enquirer. In November 1843, the Enquirer merged with the Daily Morning Message to become the Enquirer and Message. In January 1845, the paper dropped the Message name. In May 1849, the paper became The Cincinnati Enquirer. On April 20, 1848, the Enquirer became one of the first newspapers in the United States to publish a Sunday edition. In 1844, James J. Faran took an interest in the Enquirer. In 1848, Washington McLean and his brother S. B. Wiley McLean acquired an interest in the Enquirer. On March 22, 1866, a gas leak caused Pike's Opera House to explode, taking with it the Enquirer offices next door.
A competitor, the Cincinnati Daily Times, allowed the Enquirer to print on its presses in the wake of the disaster. As a result, the Enquirer missed only one day of publication. However, archives of the paper's first 25 years were lost. Washington McLean was a leading Copperhead whose editorial policies led to the suppression of the paper by the United States government during the Civil War. After the war, McLean pursued an anti-Republican stance. One of his star writers was Lafcadio Hearn, who wrote for the paper from 1872 to 1875. James W. Faulkner served as the paper's political correspondent, covering the Ohio State Legislature and Statehouse, from 1887 until his death in 1923; the Faulkner Letter was a well-known column carried in regional newspapers. In the 1860s, Washington McLean bought out Faran's interest in the Enquirer. In 1872, he sold a half interest in the newspaper to his son, John Roll McLean, who assumed full ownership of the paper in 1881, he owned the paper until his death in 1916.
Having little faith in his only child, John Roll McLean put the Enquirer and another paper he owned, The Washington Post, in trust with the American Security and Trust Company of Washington, D. C. as trustee. Ned broke the trust regarding The Post, an action that led to its bankruptcy and eventual sale to Eugene Meyer in 1933; the Enquirer, continued to be held in trust until 1952. In the 1910s, the Enquirer was known for an attention-getting style of headlin
Emergency management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies. The aim is to reduce the harmful effects including disasters; the World Health Organization defines an emergency as the state in which normal procedures are interrupted, immediate measures need to be taken to prevent that state turning into a disaster. Thus, emergency management is crucial to avoid the disruption transforming into a disaster, harder to recover from. Emergency management should not be equated to disaster management. Emergency planning, a discipline of urban planning and design, first aims to prevent emergencies from occurring, failing that, should develop a good action plan to mitigate the results and effects of any emergencies; as time goes on, more data become available through the study of emergencies as they occur, a plan should evolve. The development of emergency plans is a cyclical process, common to many risk management disciplines, such as business continuity and security risk management, as set out below: Recognition or identification of risks Ranking or evaluation of risks Responding to significant risks Tolerating Treating Transferring Terminating Resourcing controls and planning Reaction planning Reporting and monitoring risk performance Reviewing the risk management frameworkThere are a number of guidelines and publications regarding emergency planning, published by professional organizations such as ASIS, National Fire Protection Association, the International Association of Emergency Managers.
There are few emergency management specific standards, emergency management as a discipline tends to fall under business resilience standards. In order to avoid or reduce significant losses to a business, emergency managers should work to identify and anticipate potential risks. In the event that an emergency does occur, managers should have a plan prepared to mitigate the effects of that emergency, as well as to ensure business continuity of critical operations after the incident, it is essential for an organization to include procedures for determining whether an emergency situation has occurred and at what point an emergency management plan should be activated. An emergency plan must be maintained, in a structured and methodical manner, to ensure it is up-to-date in the event of an emergency. Emergency managers follow a common process to anticipate, prevent, prepare and recover from an incident. Cleanup during disaster recovery involves many occupational hazards; these hazards are exacerbated by the conditions of the local environment as a result of the natural disaster.
While individual workers should be aware of these potential hazards, employers are responsible for minimizing exposure to these hazards and protecting workers, when possible. This includes identification and thorough assessment of potential hazards, application of appropriate personal protective equipment, the distribution of other relevant information in order to enable safe performance of the work. Maintaining a safe and healthy environment for these workers ensures that the effectiveness of the disaster recovery is unaffected. Flood-associated injuries: Flooding disasters expose workers to trauma from sharp and blunt objects hidden under murky waters causing lacerations, as well as open and closed fractures; these injuries are further exacerbated with exposure to the contaminated waters, leading to increased risk for infection. When working around water, there is always the risk of drowning. In addition, the risk of hypothermia increases with prolonged exposure to water temperatures less than 75 degrees Fahrenheit.
Non-infectious skin conditions may occur including miliaria, immersion foot syndrome, contact dermatitis. Earthquake-associated injuries: The predominant injuries are related to building structural components, including falling debris with possible crush injury, trapped under rubble and electric shock. Chemicals can pose a risk to human health. After a natural disaster, certain chemicals can be more prominent in the environment; these hazardous materials can be released indirectly. Chemical hazards directly released after a natural disaster occur concurrent with the event so little to no mitigation actions can take place for mitigation. For example, airborne magnesium, chloride and ammonia can be generated by droughts. Dioxins can be produced by forest fires, silica can be emitted by forest fires. Indirect release of hazardous chemicals can be unintentionally released. An example of intentional release is insecticides used after a flood or chlorine treatment of water after a flood. Unintentional release is.
The chemical released is toxic and serves beneficial purpose when released to the environment. These chemicals can be controlled through engineering to minimize their release when a natural disaster strikes. An example of this is agrochemicals from inundated storehouses or manufacturing facilities poisoning the floodwaters or asbestos fibers released from a building collapse during a hurricane; the flowchart to the right has been adopted from research performed by Stacy Young, et al. and can be found here. Exposure limits Below are TLV-TWA, PEL, IDLH values for common chemicals workers are exposed to after a natural disaster. Direct release Magnesium Phosphorus Ammonia SilicaIntentional release Insecticides Chlorine dioxideUnintentional release Crude oil components Benzene, N-hexane, hydrogen sulfi
Chemical Biological Incident Response Force
The Chemical Biological Incident Response Force is a unit in the United States Marine Corps responsible for countering the effects of a chemical, radiological, nuclear, or high-yield explosive incident. They were activated in April 1996 by General Charles C. Krulak Commandant of the Marine Corps; the unit is based at Naval Support Facility Indian Head in Indian Head and falls under the command of the United States Marine Corps Forces Command. When directed, a CBIRF unit will forward-deploy and/or respond to a credible threat of a chemical, radiological, nuclear, or high-yield explosive incident in order to assist local, state, or federal agencies and Unified Combat Commanders in the conduct of consequence management operations. CBIRF accomplishes this mission by providing capabilities for CBRN agent detection and identification, casualty search and extraction, technical rescue, personnel decontamination, emergency medical care and stabilization of contaminated victims. All CBIRF Marines and sailors are trained to perform both casualty extraction and decontamination.
The lifesaving competencies required of personnel serving at CBIRF are taught during CBIRF Basic Operations Course. By completing CBOC, the Marines and Sailors earn their CBIRF unit patch and may begin wearing it on their flight suits and search and rescue vests. Since its inception CBIRF has trained many local agencies, it has had a presence at the following: 1996 Summer Olympic Games 1997 Presidential Inaugural Ceremony 1997 Denver Summit of the Eight 1997-2011 Presidential State of the Union Addresses 1999 Pope Visit to St Louis, MO 1999 NATO Summit 2001 Presidential Inaugural Ceremony 2001 Cleaned Anthrax out of the Longworth House Office Bldg in Washington, DC 2004 Ricin Incident Attack on Dirksen Senate Building 2004 Dedication of World War II Memorial 2004 Lying In State of President Ronald W. Reagan 2005 Presidential Inaugural Ceremony 2008 Republican National Convention in St. Paul, MN 2009 Presidential Inaugural Ceremony 2011 Operation Tomodachi 2012 NATO Summit 2012 2013 Presidential Inaugural Ceremony 2016 State of the Union Address 2016 Republican and Democratic National Conventions 2017 Presidential Inaugural Ceremony MERITORIOUS UNIT COMMENDATION STREAMER WITH ONE BRONZE STAR 2001 - 2002 2001 - 2004 2015 - 2016 NATIONAL DEFENSE SERVICE STREAMER WITH ONE BRONZE STAR 2001–Present GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM SERVICE STREAMER 2001–Present 2001 anthrax attacks 2003 ricin letters Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster History of the United States Marine Corps Organization of the United States Marine Corps This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps.
CBIRF's official website
Drug Enforcement Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and distribution within the United States. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act, sharing concurrent jurisdiction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Customs Enforcement, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, the Department of Homeland Security, it has sole responsibility for coordinating and pursuing US drug investigations both domestic and abroad. The Drug Enforcement Administration was established on July 1, 1973, by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1973, signed by President Richard Nixon on July 28. It proposed the creation of a single federal agency to enforce the federal drug laws as well as consolidate and coordinate the government's drug control activities. Congress accepted the proposal; as a result, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement.
From the early 1970s, DEA headquarters was located at 1405 I Street NW in downtown Washington, D. C. With the overall growth of the agency in the 1980s and a concurrent growth in the headquarters staff, DEA began to search for a new headquarters location. However, then-Attorney General Edwin Meese determined that the headquarters had to be located in close proximity to the Attorney General's office. Thus, in 1989, the headquarters relocated to 600–700 Army-Navy Drive in the Pentagon City area of Arlington, near the Metro station with the same name. On April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh attacked the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City because it housed regional offices for the FBI, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, DEA, all of which had carried out raids that he viewed as unjustified intrusions on the rights of the people. Subsequently, the DEA headquarters complex was classified as a Level IV installation under United States federal building security standards, meaning it was to be considered a high-risk law enforcement target for terrorists.
Security measures include hydraulic steel roadplates to enforce standoff distance from the building, metal detectors, guard stations. In February 2003, the DEA established a Digital Evidence Laboratory within its Office of Forensic Sciences; the DEA is headed by an Administrator of Drug Enforcement appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the U. S. Senate; the Administrator reports to the Attorney General through the Deputy Attorney General. The Administrator is assisted by a Deputy Administrator, the Chief of Operations, the Chief Inspector, three Assistant Administrators. Other senior staff include the Chief Counsel; the Administrator and Deputy Administrator are the only presidentially-appointed personnel in the DEA. DEA's headquarters is located in Virginia across from the Pentagon, it maintains its own DEA Academy located on the Marine Corps Base Quantico at Quantico, Virginia along with the FBI Academy. It maintains 21 domestic field divisions with 221 field offices and 92 foreign offices in 70 countries.
With a budget exceeding $2 billion, DEA employs over 10,800 people, including over 4,600 Special Agents and 800 Intelligence Analysts. Becoming a Special Agent or Intelligence Analyst with the DEA is a competitive process. Administrator Deputy Administrator Human Resource Division Career Board Board of Professional Conduct Office of Training Operations Division Aviation Division Office of Operations Management Special Operations Division Office of Diversion Control Office of Global Enforcement Office of Financial Operations Intelligence Division Office of National Security Intelligence Office of Strategic Intelligence Office of Special Intelligence El Paso Intelligence Center OCDETF Fusion Center Financial Management Division Office of Acquisition and Relocation Management Office of Finance Office of Resource Management Operational Support Division Office of Administration Office of Information System Office of Forensic Science Office of Investigative Technology Inspection Division Office of Inspections Office of Professional Responsibility Office of Security Programs Field Divisions and Offices As of 2017 there were 4,650 special agents employed by the Drug Enforcement Administration.
DEA agents' starting salary is $49,746–$55,483. After four years working as an agent, the salary jumps to above $92,592. After receiving a conditional offer of employment, recruits must complete a 18-week rigorous training which includes lessons in firearms proficiency, weapons safety, tactical shooting, deadly-force decision training. In order to graduate, students must maintain an academic average of 80 percent on academic examinations, pass the firearms-qualification test demonstrate leadership and sound decision-making in practical scenarios, pass rigorous physical-task tests. Upon graduation, recruits earn the title of DEA Special Agent; the DEA excludes from consideration job applicants who have a history of any use of narcotics or illicit drugs. Investigation incl
In physics, a vapor or vapour is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature, which means that the vapor can be condensed to a liquid by increasing the pressure on it without reducing the temperature. A vapor is different from an aerosol. An aerosol is a suspension of tiny particles of both within a gas. For example, water has a critical temperature of 647 K, the highest temperature at which liquid water can exist. In the atmosphere at ordinary temperatures, gaseous water will condense into a liquid if its partial pressure is increased sufficiently. A vapor may co-exist with a liquid; when this is true, the two phases will be in equilibrium, the gas-partial pressure will be equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid. Vapor refers to a gas phase at a temperature where the same substance can exist in the liquid or solid state, below the critical temperature of the substance. If the vapor is in contact with a liquid or solid phase, the two phases will be in a state of equilibrium.
The term gas refers to a compressible fluid phase. Fixed gases are gases for which no liquid or solid can form at the temperature of the gas, such as air at typical ambient temperatures. A liquid or solid does not have to boil to release a vapor. Vapor is responsible for the familiar processes of cloud condensation, it is employed to carry out the physical processes of distillation and headspace extraction from a liquid sample prior to gas chromatography. The constituent molecules of a vapor possess vibrational and translational motion; these motions are considered in the kinetic theory of gases. The vapor pressure is a solid at a specific temperature; the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid or solid is not affected by the amount of contact with the liquid or solid interface. The normal boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to normal atmospheric pressure. For two-phase systems, the vapor pressure of the individual phases are equal. In the absence of stronger inter-species attractions between like-like or like-unlike molecules, the vapor pressure follows Raoult's law, which states that the partial pressure of each component is the product of the vapor pressure of the pure component and its mole fraction in the mixture.
The total vapor pressure is the sum of the component partial pressures. Perfumes contain chemicals that vaporize at different temperatures and at different rate in scent accords, known as notes. Atmospheric water vapor is found near the earth's surface, may condense into small liquid droplets and form meteorological phenomena, such as fog and haar. Mercury-vapor lamps and sodium vapor lamps produce light from atoms in excited states. Flammable liquids do not burn, it is the vapor cloud above the liquid that will burn if the vapor's concentration is between the lower flammable limit and upper flammable limit, of the flammable liquid. E-Cigarettes allow users to inhale "e-liquid" aerosol/vapor, rather than cigarette smoke. Since it is in the gas phase, the amount of vapor present is quantified by the partial pressure of the gas. Vapors obey the barometric formula in a gravitational field, just as conventional atmospheric gases do. Dilution Evaporation – Type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from its surface.
A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research and measurement may be performed. Laboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength. A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist's laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those used by computer scientists, computers are used for either simulations or the analysis of data. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Engineers use laboratories as well to design and test technological devices. Scientific laboratories can be found as research room and learning spaces in schools and universities, government, or military facilities, aboard ships and spacecraft.
Despite the underlying notion of the lab as a confined space for experts, the term "laboratory" is increasingly applied to workshop spaces such as Living Labs, Fab Labs, or Hackerspaces, in which people meet to work on societal problems or make prototypes, working collaboratively or sharing resources. This development is inspired by new, participatory approaches to science and innovation and relies on user-centred design methods and concepts like Open innovation or User innovation. One distinctive feature of work in Open Labs is phenomena of translation, driven by the different backgrounds and levels of expertise of the people involved. Early instances of "laboratories" recorded in English involved alchemy and the preparation of medicines; the emergence of Big Science during World War II increased the size of laboratories and scientific equipment, introducing particle accelerators and similar devices. The earliest laboratory according to the present evidence is a home laboratory of Pythagoras of Samos, the well-known Greek philosopher and scientist.
This laboratory was created when Pythagoras conducted an experiment about tones of sound and vibration of string. In the painting of Louis Pasteur by Albert Edelfelt in 1885, Louis Pasteur is shown comparing a note in his left hand with a bottle filled with a solid in his right hand, not wearing any personal protective equipment. Researching in teams started in the 19th century, many new kinds of equipment were developed in the 20th century. A 16th century underground alchemical laboratory was accidentally discovered in the year 2002. Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor was believed to be the owner; the laboratory is preserved as a museum in Prague. Laboratory techniques are the set of procedures used on natural sciences such as chemistry, physics to conduct an experiment, all of them follow the scientific method. Laboratory equipment refers to the various tools and equipment used by scientists working in a laboratory: The classical equipment includes tools such as Bunsen burners and microscopes as well as specialty equipment such as operant conditioning chambers, spectrophotometers and calorimeters.
Chemical laboratorieslaboratory glassware such as the beaker or reagent bottle Analytical devices as HPLC or spectrophotometersMolecular biology laboratories + Life science laboratoriesAutoclave Microscope Centrifuges Shakers & mixers Pipette Thermal cyclers Photometer Refrigerators and Freezers Universal testing machine ULT Freezers Incubators Bioreactor Biological safety cabinets Sequencing instruments Fume hoods Environmental chamber Humidifier Weighing scale Reagents Pipettes tips Polymer consumables for small volumes sterileLaboratory equipment is used to either perform an experiment or to take measurements and gather data. Larger or more sophisticated equipment is called a scientific instrument; the title of laboratory is used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories. These notably include: Film laboratory or Darkroom Clandestine lab for the production of illegal drugs Computer lab Crime lab used to process crime scene evidence Language laboratory Medical laboratory Public health laboratory Industrial laboratory In many laboratories, hazards are present.
Laboratory hazards might include poisons. Therefore, safety precautions are vitally important. Rules exist to minimize the individual's risk, safety equipment is used to protect the lab users from injury or to assist in responding to an emergency; the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the United States, recognizing the unique characteristics of the laboratory workplace, has tailored a standard for occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. This standard is referred to as the "Laboratory Standard". Under this standard, a laboratory is required to produce a Chemical Hygiene Plan which addresses the specific hazards found in its location, its approach to them. In determining the proper Chemical Hygiene Plan for a particular business or laboratory, it is necessary to understand the requirements of the standard, evaluation of the current safety and environmental practi