Headquarters of the United Nations

The United Nations is headquartered in New York City, in a complex designed by a board of architects led by Wallace Harrison, built by the architectural firm Harrison & Abramovitz. The complex has served as the official headquarters of the United Nations since its completion in 1952, it is located in the Turtle Bay neighborhood of Manhattan, on 17 to 18 acres of grounds overlooking the East River. Its borders are First Avenue on the west, East 42nd Street to the south, East 48th Street on the north and the East River to the east; the term "Turtle Bay" is used as a metonym for the UN headquarters or for the United Nations as a whole. The headquarters holds the seats of the principal organs of the UN, including the General Assembly and the Security Council, but excluding the International Court of Justice, seated in the Hague; the United Nations has three additional, regional headquarters, or headquarters districts. These were opened in Geneva in 1946, Vienna in 1980, Nairobi in 1996; these adjunct offices help represent UN interests, facilitate diplomatic activities, enjoy certain extraterritorial privileges, but do not contain the seats of major organs.

Although it is situated in New York City, the land occupied by the United Nations Headquarters and the spaces of buildings that it rents are under the sole administration of the United Nations and not the U. S. government. They are technically extraterritorial through a treaty agreement with the U. S. government. However, in exchange for local police, fire protection and other services, the United Nations agrees to acknowledge most local and federal laws. None of the United Nations' 15 specialized agencies are located at the headquarters. However, some "autonomous subsidiary organs", such as UNICEF, have their headquarters at the UNHQ; the headquarters of the United Nations occupies a site beside the East River, on between 17 and 18 acres of land purchased from the real estate developer William Zeckendorf Sr. At the time, the site was part of Turtle Bay, which contained slaughterhouses and tenement buildings, as well as the original Eberhard Faber Pencil Factory. By the 1910s, there was a pencil factory and a gas company building in Turtle Bay, on the site of the current UN headquarters.

The development of Sutton Place and Beekman Place, north of the current UN site, came in the 1920s. A yacht club on the site was proposed in 1925. In 1946, Zeckendorf purchased the land with the intention to create an "X City" on the site; this complex was to contain an office building and a hotel, each 57 stories tall, an entertainment complex between them. The X City would have had smaller apartment and office towers. However, the $8.5 million for X City never materialized, Nelson Rockefeller purchased an option for Zeckendorf's waterfront land in Turtle Bay. The purchase was funded by Nelson's father, John D. Rockefeller Jr.. The Rockefeller family owned the Tudor City Apartments across First Avenue from the Zeckendorf site; the city, in turn, spent $5 million on clearing the land. While the United Nations had dreamed of constructing an independent city for its new world capital, multiple obstacles soon forced the organization to downsize their plans, they decided to build on Rockefeller's East River plot, since the land was free and the land's owners were well known.

The diminutive site on the East River necessitated a Rockefeller Center-type vertical complex, thus, it was a given that the Secretariat would be housed in a tall office tower. During daily meetings from February to June 1947, the collaborative team produced at least 45 designs and variations. Rather than hold a competition for the design of the facilities for the headquarters, the UN decided to commission a multinational team of leading architects to collaborate on the design. Harrison was named as Director of Planning, a Board of Design Consultants was composed of architects and engineers nominated by member governments; the board consisted of N. D. Bassov of the Soviet Union, Gaston Brunfaut, Ernest Cormier, Le Corbusier, Liang Seu-cheng, Sven Markelius, Oscar Niemeyer, Howard Robertson, G. A. Soilleux, Julio Vilamajó. Niemeyer met with Corbusier at the latter's request shortly after the former arrived in New York City. Corbusier had been lobbying hard to promote his own scheme 23, thus, requested that Niemeyer not submit a design, lest he further confuse the contentious meetings of the Board of Design.

Instead, Corbusier asked the younger architect Niemeyer to assist him with his project. Niemeyer began to absent himself from the meetings. Only after Wallace Harrison and Max Abramovitz pressed him to participate did Niemeyer agree to submit his own project. Niemeyer's project 32 was chosen, but as opposed to Corbusier's project 23, which consisted of one building containing both the Assembly Hall and the councils in the center of the site, Niemeyer's plan split the councils from the Assembly Hall, locating the first alongside the river, the second on the right side of the secretariat; this would not split the site. After much discussion, who coordinated the meetings, determined that a design based on Niemeyer's project 32 and Le Corbusier's project 23 would be developed for the final project. Le Corbusier's project 23 consisted of a large block containing both the Assembly Hall and the Council Chambers near the center of the site with the Secretariat tower emerging as a slab from the south


Hédervár is a village in Győr-Moson-Sopron county, Hungary. The village settled in the Szigetköz in Győr-Moson-Sopron country halfway along the road connecting Győr and Mosonmagyaróvár, its emergence can be associated with the German Héder – the founder of the Héderváry family – moving to Hungary. It was first mentioned in a charter in 1210. In spite of the late written mention it is certain that it had been a village centuries before, it may have been the only village in the Szigetköz, which has survived at its original location in the Arpadian age. The Héderváry family established a family centre on the so-called “Jewish hill” as early as in the 13th century, it started to flourish at an early time, its castle was further extended, the “Boldogasszony” chapel, its family funeral place was built in the first half of the following century. A charter issued in 1443 recorded the settlement as on oppidum. Favourable development was halted by the appearance of the Turks in Hungary; the situation of the oppidum was further worsened by the borrowings of the Héderváry family, by the fact that Lőrinc, the Ban of Nándorfehérvár left the fortress during the Turkish siege of 1521.

This was coupled by the fact that the family did not recognize the political power structures in Western Transdanubia, during the pretenders’ struggle for the throne, trey supported the loser János Szapolyai against Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor. Their series of bad decisions resulted in the loss of their estates and Hédervár in Szigetköz, their propertys were given to the Bakics family from Serbia. The first thing the new owners did was to ruin the centre of the Héderváry family, to forcefully spread the new faith of the Protestant religion; the settlement suffered a terrible blow by the unsuccessful Siege of Vienna by the Turks in 1529. After their retreat, Lőrinc Héderváry, who supported the wrong side, was captured, could only regain his estates with the support of his lord, Ferdinánd I.. After he was freed in 1535, he set about reconstructing the Héderváry family's centre, the castle was completed in 1578. The resettlement of the estate could only become successful by the joint efforts of the Héderváry, Révay and Czobor families after 1600.

After the resettlement, the settlement was further afflicted by the plundering Haiduks, Germans, the second lost campaign of the Turks in the 1683 Battle of Vienna, the floods of the Danube, the epidemics. Its situation at the time was further aggravated by the forceful counter-reformation. István Héderváry strengthened the castle in 1643, the palatine once again endowed the privilege of an oppidum upon the settlement. After the extinction of the male line of the Héderváry family, Katalin Héderváry received the rights of a male heir, the estate fell into the hands of the Viczay-Héderváry family; the 18th century brought along reconstruction in the life of the oppidum. The castle was reconstructed intro a chateaux, a beautiful park was created around it; the number of the population increased. From 1983 till 1997 the chateaux gave home for artists creating house. At present, the building is the property of Hungarian Creative Artist Public Foundation, is functioning as a Hotel. Castle Hotel Hedervar is located between Györ and Mosonmagyarovar, only 50 Minutes from Vienna Airport, 45 Minutes from Bratislava and 1,5 hours from Budapest.

The castle hotel offers a renaissance atmosphere. The four-star castle hotel can be reached from Vienna and from Budapest on the M1 motorway. From the motorway you have to take Exit 142, it is only about 15 km drive on the country road to Hédervár. Hédervár Castle Hotel Hédervár Gallery Street map

Blurt, Master Constable

Blurt, Master Constable is a late Elizabethan comedy, interesting for the authorship problem it presents. The play is subtitled "The Spaniards' Night Walk," and an allusion to the Spanish in Ireland in the play's final scene — there was a Spanish raid on Ireland in September 1601 — helps to fix the date of the play to 1601-2. Blurt was entered into the Stationers' Register on 7 June 1602, published in that year in quarto, printed by Edward Allde for the bookseller Henry Rocket; the title page of the quarto states that the play was acted by the Children of Paul's, one of the troupes of boy actors performing at the time. There is no direct attribution of authorship in any contemporary source. Francis Kirkman, the Restoration era printer, attributed the play to Thomas Middleton in 1661. Thomas Dekker was first linked to the play by the scholar E. H. C. Oliphant in 1926. Since 20th-century scholars have looked at Blurt as the work of Middleton, or Dekker, or both; the majority view through much of the middle and 20th century tended to favor the hypothesis that Blurt is a Dekker/Middleton collaboration.

Yet David Lake, in his analysis of authorship problems in the Middleton canon, concludes that Middleton had nothing to do with the play and assigns the whole of it to Dekker with no collaborator. Camillo and Hippolito are young Venetian noblemen, just returned from the wars. Camillo turns his prisoner over to Hippolito's sister Violetta for safekeeping. Violetta is the object of Camillo's affections. Learning of this unwelcome development and Hippolito try to tempt Fontinelle to infidelity by sending his portrait to the courtesan Imperia, hoping to interest her in the Frenchman; the ploy fails, Camillio has Fontinelle thrown into prison. But Fontinelle and Violetta are secretly married. In the last act, the Venetians' plotting bears fruit: Fontinelle falls for Imperia, Violetta has to resort to the standard Elizabethan bed trick to consummate her marriage. Blurt has an obvious relationship with Juliet; the two lovers, partisans of opposing factions, meet at a ball and fall in love. Verbal echoes of Shakespeare's play occur in Blurt — though the latter play is bawdier.

A similar borrowing from Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing is evident in the play's comic subplot, which features the title character of Blurt the constable. Bly, Mary. "Bawdy Puns and Lustful Virgins: The Legacy of Juliet's Desire in Comedies of the 1600s." Shakespeare Survey 49. Chambers, E. K; the Elizabethan Stage. 4 Volumes, Clarendon Press, 1923. Desens, Marliss C; the Bed-Trick in English Renaissance Drama: Explorations in Gender and Power. Newrak, DE, University of Delaware Press, 1994. Lake, David J; the Canon of Thomas Middleton's Plays. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1975. Logan, Terence P. and Denzell S. Smith, eds; the Popular School: A Survey and Bibliography of Recent Studies in English Renaissance Drama. Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press, 1975; the play text online