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Heat pump

A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to what is called a thermal reservoir. Heat pumps move thermal energy in the opposite direction of spontaneous heat transfer, by absorbing heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one. A heat pump uses external power to accomplish the work of transferring energy from the heat source to the heat sink; the most common design of a heat pump involves four main components – a condenser, an expansion valve, an evaporator and a compressor. The heat transfer medium circulated through these components is called refrigerant. While air conditioners and freezers are familiar examples of heat pumps, the term "heat pump" is more general and applies to many heating and air conditioning devices used for space heating or space cooling. Heat pumps can be used either in heating mode or cooling mode, as required by the user; when a heat pump is used for heating, it employs the same basic refrigeration-type cycle used by an air conditioner or a refrigerator, but in the opposite direction – releasing heat into the conditioned space rather than the surrounding environment.

In this use, heat pumps draw heat from the cooler external air or from the ground. Heat pumps are increasingly used to heat domestic hot water, the hot water used for kitchens, clothes washers, etc. In heating mode, heat pumps are more energy efficient than simple electrical resistance heaters but only at certain temperatures; as the temperatures goes down the efficiency of the heat pump in heating mode, becomes marginal The typical cost of installing a heat pump is higher than that of a resistance heater. When discussing heat pump efficiencies, the following terms are used: coefficient of performance, seasonal coefficient of performance and seasonal performance factor; the higher the number, the more efficient a heat pump is, the less energy it consumes, the more cost-effective it is to operate. There are several factors that will affect the efficiency of a heat pump, such as auxiliary equipment, technology and control system, but temperature and humidity conditions: the efficiency drops when the temperature difference increases or when freezing can occur.

Heat energy transfers from warmer places to colder spaces. However, a heat pump can reverse this process, by absorbing heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one; this process requires some amount such as electricity. In heating and air conditioning systems, the term heat pump refers to vapor-compression refrigeration devices optimized for high efficiency in both directions of thermal energy transfer; that is, heat pumps able to provide cooling to the internal space as required. Heat pumps are more efficient for heating than resistance heaters because most of the energy they release comes from the ambient environment, only a fraction from the externally-supplied energy required to run the device. In electrically-powered heat pumps, the heat transferred can be three or four times larger than the electrical power consumed, giving the system a coefficient of performance of 3 or 4, as opposed to a COP of 1 for a conventional electrical resistance heater, in which all heat is produced from input electrical energy.

Heat pumps work like inside-out. They use a refrigerant as an intermediate fluid to absorb heat where it vaporizes, in the evaporator, to release heat where the refrigerant condenses, in the condenser; the refrigerant flows through insulated pipes between the evaporator and the condenser, allowing for efficient thermal energy transfer at long distances. The simpler heat pumps tap the atmosphere as heat source; the heat can be released directly into the air, or through the water plumbing of central heating or to provide domestic hot water. Heat pumps take advantage of low temperature underfloor heating, because COP can be higher when the temperature difference is lower. Reversible heat pumps work in either direction to provide cooling to the internal space, they employ a reversing valve to reverse the flow of refrigerant from the compressor through the condenser and evaporation coils. In heating mode, the outdoor coil is an evaporator; the refrigerant flowing from the evaporator carries the thermal energy from outside air indoors.

Vapor temperature is augmented within the pump by compressing it. The indoor coil transfers thermal energy to the indoor air, moved around the inside of the building by an air handler. Alternatively, thermal energy is transferred to water, used to heat the building via radiators or underfloor heating; the heated water may be used for domestic hot water consumption. The refrigerant is allowed to expand, hence cool, absorb heat from the outdoor temperature in the outside evaporator, the cycle repeats; this is a standard refrigeration cycle, save that the "cold" side of the refrigerator is positioned so it is outdoors where the environment is colder. In cold weather, the outdoor unit of an air source heat pump needs to be intermittently defrosted; this will cause the auxiliary or emergency heating elements to be activated. At the same time, the frost on the outdoor coil will be melted due to the warm refrigerant; the condenser/evaporator fan will not run during defrost mode

Riga Central Market

Riga Central Market is Europe's largest market and bazaar in Riga, Latvia. It is one of the most notable structures from 20th century in Latvia and has been included in UNESCO World Heritage Site list together with Old Riga in 1998, it was planned from 1922 and built from 1924 to 1930. The main structures of the market are five pavilions constructed by reusing old German Zeppelin hangars and incorporating Neoclassicism and Art Deco styles; the market is 72,300 square metres wide with more than 3,000 trade stands. The joint stock company Rīgas Centrāltirgus is owned by the Riga municipality and the Chairman of the Board since 2010 is Anatolijs Abramovs. Due to the rise of supermarkets, the market is showing similar trends and is seen as a cheap shopping place in Riga, however Riga City Council has expressed priority of preserving the market's mission and cultural value; the main goal of the company's Board of Directors is increase of customer flow throughout the market. They noted that among the problems is petty theft, customer deceit, homeless people.

Administration has determined to take tough measures on sellers. In 2009 market renovation plans were proposed and plans conceived in 2010. There are future plans to join nearby train and bus station into a single complex as well as increase selling of national produce. Produce has been sold on the banks of Daugava since 1571 and in 1863 trade stand rows were built. On December 18, 1922, Riga City Council decided to move the crowded and unsanitary Daugavmala Market to a new enclosed location in conformity with hygienic and economic requirements; the market's plan was selected in an international competition. One of the highest prizes was received by Riga's architect Pāvils Dreijmanis and engineer S. Žitkovs collaborative proposal to reuse metal frameworks from World War I German Zeppelin hangars Walhalla and Walther used in Vaiņode Air Base. The initial large structure design was impractical due to their size and weather conditions and the new buildings only used the top parts of the hangar design.

The buildings themselves reinforced concrete. The construction started in June 1924 and finished in autumn 1930, taking seven years instead of planned five as construction halted during 1926–1928 due to financial problems; the development was overseen by the city council's marketing department head Klāvs Lorencs. The overseeing architects were Pāvils Dreijmanis and P. Pavlovs together with engineers V. Isajevs and G. Tolstojs; the construction was carried out by stock company "Construction" and market's construction office under the supervision of V. Isajevs. Riga paid nearly 5 million Latvian rublis to the state property commission; this was at the time the biggest project in Europe spanning 57,000 square metres. Five pavilions were envisioned with the largest 5,000 square metres hangar for wholesale and meat processing and smaller ones for retail. Four of them are located side by side and the biggest, was built perpendicular to them. All buildings had electric lighting; the complex was built in Art Deco style.

A wide basement was built under the hangars for storage. Up to 310,000 kilograms of goods could be stored in the 27 freezers in 1938. In 1961, during Soviet time 700 metric tons of goods could be stored; the products were moved topside with cranes without disturbing traffic and sellers. The basement has three tunnels connecting to the adjacent river bank. Retail sales began November 10, 1930, the same day Daugavmala Market closed. Before the opening, hangars were used for various expositions and shows during the first half of the year. Although the Central Market was three times the size of the Daugavmala Market, the majority of space was occupied by offices and basements; the rent per square meters exceeded that of other locations. Retail sellers could not afford the rent and wholesale merchants could not place their workers; this gave rise to high prices. This was solved by making an open-air 1,370 square metres roofed porch, with a 170 horse team capacity. In 1938 a separate horse stable opened.

In 1936 the most modern bird slaughterhouse in the state opened. Juris Dambis, head of the State Inspection for Heritage Protection, says "When Riga Central Market was first opened on November 2, 1930, it was the largest and the most progressive marketplace on earth." During the 1930s the market pavilions were one of the main tourist attractions. A wide and cheap array of produce was available for degustation. Tourists from Germany and England appreciated the butter and bacon; the fish pavilion was attractive with large, colourful aquariums. The large number of tourists furthered the Central Markets reputation as one of the more grandiose buildings in Europe; the market was not affected by the first Soviet occupation in 1940. However, the Nazi German occupation lasted for three and a half years. Farmers were not allowed to sell their produce and were forced to supply the German Army and the market sold only limited amounts. Beginning September 1, 1941, food cards were required for purchase. During these years first roof repairs were carried out on May 30, 1942.

The market's territory was readjusted to be suitable for war times. The two pavilions closest to the Daugava were converted into housing the German 726th supply unit's vehicle engine repair shop. A fire hazardous lumber storage was set nearby to necessitate Opel. Three repair shop office barracks were planned, but only one was active prior to the 1944 Soviet Union occupation. During the Soviet occupation, the market was renamed Central Kolkhoz

Miami Science Barge

The Miami Science Barge is a floating marine laboratory and education platform docked in Museum Park, Miami, FL since 2016. The Barge, designed to help support a more sustainable city, has three main areas of focus: marine ecology and conservation and alternative agriculture, it is off-grid and off-pipe and provides enough energy and food production to support an average American family. In its first year, over 3000 students came aboard to learn about the innovative technology on the Barge; the vessel is open to the public on Saturday. The Miami Science Barge was designed by Manzano and Ted Caplow, they were inspired by the Science Barge built in 2006 by New York Sun Works, designed by Caplow. The vessels are of similar size and both have a sustainable technology focus, but they respond to different local environmentsand house differing technology and unique public education programs; the Miami Science Barge emphasizes aquaculture. The Miami Science Barge was donated in April 2017 to the brand-new Philip and Patricia Frost Museum of Science, which owns and operates it.

In 2015, Nathalie Manzano and Ted Caplow of CappSci won the Knight Cities Challenge grant competition from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation with a proposal to build the Miami Science Barge; the Barge was a 120x30 steel construction barge from Grady Marine retrofitted with 2nd-hand shipping containers in 2015. With the generosity of Beau Payne of P & L Towing, the staff of CappSci were able to design and build the power system and exhibits of the Barge on the Miami River prior to moving it to its official location in Museum Park in downtown Miami, FL; the Miami Science Barge opened on Earth Day, April 22, 2016. The following April, the Barge was gifted to Patricia Frost Museum of Science; the Miami Science Barge has three main areas of focus: The Barge is off-grid. It utilizes 48 solar panels to generate enough power to run all of its systems; these panels are set into five arrays including a solar tracking system. Power is stored into two sets of batteries: lead-acid batteries, experimental Aquion M-Line battery modules.

The panels provide about 75Kwh. It is off-pipe, meaning that all of its fresh water comes from a rainwater catchment system located about the classroom area; the water is stored in a 900-gallon cistern. The salt water comes directly from Biscayne Bay. No discharge is released from the Barge. Waste water is collected in constructed wetland troughs where the water is filtered or in some cases may evaporate. Furthermore, the Barge aimed to utilize only sustainable material in construction, i.e. the Kebony deck throughout the farm area. Kebony is an eco-friendly alternative to tropical hardwoods, using a bio-based seal instead of a synthetic one; the staff on the Barge follow strict habits of sustainability, including prohibiting single-use plastics from being used on board for events and by diligently cleaning debris found in the notch. On board are a variety of sustainable and unconventional agriculture systems including hydroponics, aeroponics and aquaponics. Hydroponics and aeroponics are forms of growing produce that utilizes water and nutrients most efficiently.

Aquaculture systems grow fish and other marine creature for consumption so as not to harm the balance in the ocean and aquaponics is a combination of aquaculture and aquaponics, where marine life produce waste, consumed by plants. On board is a vertically integrated greenhouse. Along with the aquaponic and aquaculture tanks, there are multiple tanks showcasing marine life. Towards the entrance of the Barge, there is a coral tank, developed with the help of Dr. Diego Lirman at the University of Miami and Rescue a Reef, it is the only tank in South Florida representing. Other exhibit tanks show sea life from Biscayne Bay, including sea horses, a giant hermit crab, erosion-preventing sea grasses, a myriad of local fish; these tanks are used to educate about the importance of diversity in Miami’s local ecology. Guest scientists are invited most weekends and on the 3rd Wednesday of every month for Sip of Science to promote the conservation of the environment; the Miami Science Barge opened on Earth Day, April 22, 2016 and was attended by dignitary speakers including City of Miami Commissioner Frank Carollo, who in his remarks called the Barge "a symbol of Miami's diversity not only in people, but in ideas, as well as, a symbol of our community's commitment to environmental education," Miami Dade County Public Schools Superintendent Alberto Carvalho, Knight Foundation’s Miami Program Director Matt Haggman, Children Trust’s Founding Board Chair David Lawrence, Jr.

In December 2016, Miami Science Barge was named one of “The Ten Best Things to Do in Downtown Miami” by Miami New Times

Modular connector

A modular connector is a type of electrical connector for cords and cables of electronic devices and appliances, such in computer networking, telecommunication equipment, audio headsets. Modular connectors were developed for use on specific Bell System telephone sets in the 1960s, similar types found use for simple interconnection of customer-provided telephone subscriber premises equipment to the telephone network; the Federal Communications Commission mandated in 1976 an interface registration system, in which they became known as registered jacks. The convenience of prior existence for designers and ease of use led to a proliferation of modular connectors for many other applications. Many applications that used a bulkier, more expensive connector have converted to modular connectors; the best known applications of modular connectors are for telephone and Ethernet. Accordingly, various electronic interface specifications exist for applications using modular connectors, which prescribe physical characteristics and assign electrical signals to their contacts.

Modular connectors are referred to as modular phone jack and plug, RJ connector, Western jack and plug. The term modular connector arose from its original use in modular wiring components of telephone equipment by the Western Electric Company in the 1960s; this includes 4P4C used for handset connectors. Registered jack designations describe the signals and wiring used for voice and data communication at customer-facing interfaces of the public switched telephone network, it is common to use a registered jack number to refer to the physical connector itself. A common use of 8P8C connectors is Ethernet over twisted pair; the 4P4C connector is sometimes erroneously called RJ9 or RJ22—no such official designations exist—and various six-position modular connectors may be incorrectly called RJ11. The first types of small modular telephone connectors were created by AT&T in the mid-1960s for the plug-in handset and line cords of the Trimline telephone. Driven by demand for multiple sets in residences with various lengths of cords, the Bell System introduced customer-connectable part kits and telephones, sold through PhoneCenter stores in the early 1970s.

For this purpose, Illinois Bell started installing modular telephone sets on a limited scale in June 1972. The patents by Edwin C. Hardesty and coworkers, US 3699498 and US 3860316, followed by other improvements, were the basis for the modular molded-plastic connectors that became commonplace for telephone cords by the 1980s. In 1976, these connectors were standardized nationally in the United States by the Registration Interface program of the Federal Communications Commission, which designated a series of Registered Jack specifications for interconnection of customer-premises equipment to the public switched telephone network. Modular connectors have gender: plugs are considered to be male, while jacks or sockets are considered to be female. Plugs are used to terminate cables and cords, while jacks are used for fixed locations on surfaces of walls and equipment. Other than telephone extension cables, cables with a modular plug on one end and a jack on the other are rare. Instead, cables are connected using a female-to-female coupler, having two jacks wired back-to-back.

Modular connectors are designed to latch together. As a plug is inserted into a jack, a plastic tab on the plug locks so that the plug cannot be pulled out. To remove the plug, the latching tab must be depressed against the plug to clear the locking edge; the standard orientation for installing a jack in a wall or panel is with the tab down. The latching tab may snag on other cables and break off resulting in loss of the secure latching feature. To prevent this, tabs are protected with a boot over the plug, or a special tab design, on snagless cords. Most protective boots must be installed onto a cable; this means. However, protective boots or rigid protective ramp adapters are available which can be snapped over an installed unprotected modular plug. Modular connectors are designated using two numbers that represent the maximum number of contact positions and the number of installed contacts, with each number followed by P and C, respectively. For example, 6P2C is a connector having two installed contacts.

Alternate designations omit the letters while separating the position and contact quantities with either an x or a slash. When not installed, contacts are omitted from the outer positions inward, such that the number of contacts is always even; the connector body positions with omitted or unconnected contacts are unused for the electrical connection but ensure that the plug fits correctly. For instance, RJ11 cables have connectors with six positions and four contacts, to which are attached just two wires; the contact positions are numbered sequentially starting from 1. When viewed head-on with the retention mechanism on the bottom, jacks will have contact position number 1 on the left and plugs will have it on the right. Contacts are numbered by the contact position. For example, on a six-position, two-contact plug, where the outermost four positions do not have contacts, the innermost two contacts are numbered 3 and 4. Modular connectors are manufactured in four sizes, with 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-positions.

The insulating plastic bodies of 4P and 6P connectors have different widths, whereas 8P or 10P connectors share an l

Jimmy Dawson (basketball, born 1945)

James C. Dawson is an American former professional basketball point guard who played one season in the American Basketball Association as a member of the Indiana Pacers during the 1967–68 season, he attended University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign where he was drafted by the Chicago Bulls during the 16th round of the 1967 NBA draft, but he did not play for them. A native of Oak Park, Dawson attended York Community High School from 1959–60 to 1962–63 and led the Dukes to the "Elite 8" of the Illinois High School Association state basketball tournament, losing to Jim Burns and the McLeansboro Foxes in the IHSA quarterfinals of the 1962 tournament. In his two state tournament games, Dawson scored 36 points, 18 in the victory versus Harvey and an additional 18 in the loss to McLeansboro. Dawson led York to consecutive regional championships in 1962 and 1963; as a junior Dawson's team would finish the season with an overall record of 25 wins and only 4 losses and finish in second place in the West Suburban Conference behind Lyons Township High School.

As a senior, in 1963, Dawson's team would win the conference as well as win the IHSA regional, with an overall record of 19 wins and 7 losses. Dawson chose to play college basketball at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign after high school and was a member of the freshman basketball team for the 1963-64 season, he played in 70 of the teams 72 games during his three-years on the varsity team and was the starting point guard for all three, replacing Jim Vopicka. As a sophomore during the 1964-65 season, Dawson joined All-American seniors, Tal Brody and future Illini All-Century team member, Skip Thoren, on an Illini team that finished the season with an 18 and 6 record and a third-place finish in the Big Ten with a 10 and 4 record, losing twice to top-ranked Michigan. During the season the team would win the Kentucky Invitational Tournament and finish the year with a Coaches ranking of number 16; the loss of 999 offensive points occurred with the graduation of Brody and Thoren, leaving Dawson's junior season of 1965–66, needing to find a new identity.

The Fighting Illini would struggle all season, losing games by less than three points to Princeton, Northwestern, Michigan State and Minnesota, leaving the team with an overall record of 12 wins and 12 losses and a conference record of 8 wins and 6 losses, placing them tied for third in the conference. This season marked only the second time in Harry Combes tenure that the Illini finished with a.500 record. For Dawson, his best asset was delivering the ball to Donnie Freeman, who would set the all-time single season scoring record of 668 points during the course of the year. After the season, Dawson was named as captain for the following year. A dark cloud loomed over Dawson's 1966-67 senior season as an investigation revolving around a "slush-fund" program which provided funds to athletes within the basketball and football programs had come to a conclusion; the investigation found that many integral parts of the administration, coaching staff, as well as athletes, were culpable and should be punished.

The basketball team was the first to feel the brunt of sanctions caused by the "slush fund". For the first few weeks of the season, the team was proving to be one of the elite teams in college basketball, they had defeated Kentucky 98-97 at Memorial Coliseum in early December, a feat the Illini had done only one other time in their history. Prior to the revelations, the team's only loss was by 2 points at the hands of West Virginia on their home court in Morgantown. Just two days before Christmas, while the team awaited its Chicago Stadium game with California, three fifths of the starting lineup were declared ineligible. Rich Jones, Ron Dunlap and Steve Kuberski never again played for Illinois, Harry Combes was forced to resign at the end of the season as well as his assistant Howie Braun. Dawson was the only remaining starter and took over the scoring load from that point on, but the real surprise for the remainder of the season was Dave Scholz. Dawson and Scholz combined for 992 points by the seasons end and the team would finish in eighth place in the Big Ten with a 6-8 record and a 12-12 record overall.

After the season, Dawson would be named an Academic All-American, Most Valuable Player of the team as well as the Big Ten and was awarded the Chicago Tribune's Silver Basketball. Dawson played one season as a member of the Indiana Pacers, he averaged 5.6 points per game and 1.0 rebounds per game and 1.5 assists per game, in his 21 game career. 1966 - Honorable Mention All-Big Ten 1967 - Team Captain 1967 - Team MVP 1967 - 1st Team All-Big Ten 1967 - Earned the Chicago Tribune's Silver Basketball award 1967 - Honorable Mention Academic All-American 1967 - Honorable Mention All American 1967 - University of Illinois Athlete of the Year 1974 - Inducted into the Illinois Basketball Coaches Association's Hall of Fame as a player. 2008 - Honored as one of the thirty-three honored jerseys which hang in the State Farm Center to show regard for being the most decorated basketball players in the University of Illinois' history. Career statistics and player information from

2002 African Cup Winners' Cup

The 2002 African Cup Winners' Cup football club tournament was won by Wydad Casablanca in two-legged final victory against Asante Kotoko This was the twenty-eighth season that the tournament took place for the winners of each African country's domestic cup. Thirty-seven sides entered the competition. Three teams were disqualified for not showing up during the different stages of the competition, starting with Togolese side Sara Sport who failed to arrive for the 1st leg of the preliminary round South Africans Kaizer Chiefs who failed to arrive for the 2nd leg of the first round and the Réunion representative Jeanne d'Arc who failed to show up for their 2nd leg match of the second round; the last two teams both failed to show up for their 2nd leg match against the Malagasy side US Transfoot. Notes 1 Sara Sport failed to arrive for 1st leg. Notes 1 Kaizer Chiefs did not arrive for 2nd leg in Tamatave, claiming transport problems, were disqualified. 2 AS Vita Club arrived late for 1st leg scheduled for Mar 9, claiming not to have been aware it was not on Mar 10.

Notes 1 SS Jeanne d'Arc were disqualified. Results available on CAF Official Website Results available on RSSSF