click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Heavy metal subculture

Fans of heavy metal music have created their own subculture which encompasses more than just appreciation of the style of music. Fans affirm their membership in the subculture or scene by attending metal concerts – an activity seen as central to the subculture, buying albums, in some cases growing their hair long, wearing jackets or vests most denim adorned with band patches and studs and most by contributing to metal publications; some critics and musicians have suggested that the subculture is intolerant to other musical genres. The metal scene, like the rock scene in general, is associated with alcohol and drug use as well as riding motorcycles and having a lot of tattoos. While there are songs that celebrate drinking, smoking/dipping, drug use, having tattoos and partying, there are many songs that warn about the dangers of alcohol, gambling and drug addictions; the metal fan base was traditionally white and male in the 1970s, but since the 1980s, more female fans have developed an interest in the style the popularity and interest has grown among African Americans and other groups recently.

Heavy metal fans go by a number of different names, including metalhead, hesher and heavy, with the term thrasher being used only for fans of thrash metal music, which began to differentiate itself from other varieties of metal in the late 80's. These vary with time and regional divisions, but "headbanger" and "metalhead" are universally accepted to refer to fans or the subculture itself. Heavy metal fans have created a "subculture of alienation" with its own standards for achieving authenticity within the group. Deena Weinstein’s book Heavy Metal: The Music And Its Culture argues that heavy metal “…has persisted far longer than most genres of rock music” due to the growth of an intense “subculture which identified with the music”. Metal fans formed an “exclusionary youth community”, "distinctive and marginalized from the mainstream” society; the heavy metal scene developed a masculine “community with shared values and behaviors”. A “code of authenticity” is central to the heavy metal subculture.

The metal code includes “opposition to established authority, separateness from the rest of society”. Fans expect that the metal “…vocation includes total devotion to the music and deep loyalty to the youth subculture that grew up around it…”. While the audience for metal is “white, lower/middle class youth,” this group is “…tolerant of those outside its core demographic base who follow its codes of dress and behavior”; the activities in the metal subculture include the ritual of attending concerts, buying albums, most contributing to metal websites. Attending concerts affirms the solidarity of the subculture, as it is one of the ritual activities by which fans celebrate their music. Metal magazines help the members of the subculture to connect, find information and evaluations of bands and albums, “express their solidarity”; the long hair, leather jackets, band patches of heavy metal fashion help to encourage a sense of identification within the subculture. However, Weinstein notes that not all metal fans are “visible members” of the heavy metal subculture.

Some metal fans may have short dress in regular clothes. In the musical subcultures of heavy metal and punk, authenticity is a core value; the term poseur is used to describe "a person who habitually pretends to be something he/she is not," as in, adopting the appearance and clothing style of the metal scene without understanding the culture and its music. In a 1993 profile of heavy metal fans' "subculture of alienation," the author noted that the scene classified some members as "poseurs," that is, heavy metal performers or fans who pretended to be part of the subculture, but who were deemed to lack authenticity and sincerity. Jeffrey Arnett's 1996 book Metalheads: Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Alienation argues that the heavy metal subculture classifies members into two categories by giving "...acceptance as an authentic metalhead or rejection as a fake, a poseur."Heavy metal fans began using the term "sell out" in the 1980s to refer to bands who turned their heavy metal sound into radio-friendly rock music.

In metal, a sell out is "...someone dishonest who adopted the most rigorous pose, or identity-affirming lifestyle and opinions". The metal bands that earned this epithet are those "... who adopt the visible aspects of the orthodoxy without contributing to the underlying belief system."Ron Quintana's article on "Metallica Early History" argues that when Metallica was trying to find a place in the L. A. metal scene in the early 1980s, "American hard-rock scene was dominated by coiffed, smoothly-polished bands such as Styx, REO Speedwagon." He claims that this made it hard for Metallica to "...play their music and win over a crowd in a land where poseurs ruled and anything fast and heavy was ignored." In David Rocher's 1999 interview with Damian Montgomery, the frontman of Ritual Carnage, he praised Montgomery as "...an authentic, no-frills, poseur-bashing, nun-devouring kind of gentleman, an enthusiastic metalhead in love with the lifestyle he preaches... and unquestionably practises. In 2002, "etal guru Josh Wood" claimed that the "credibility of heavy metal" in North America is being destroyed by the genre's demotion to "...horror movie soundtracks, wrestling events and, worst of all, the so-called'Mall Core' groups like Limp Bizkit."

Wood claims that the

Anna of Saxony

Anna of Saxony was the heiress of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, Agnes, eldest daughter of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse. Maurice's only son, died in infancy. Anna was the second wife of William the Silent. Anna was died in Dresden, her wealth drew many suitors. She accepted the suit of William I of Orange, they were married on 25 August 1561. After the death of her younger brother Albert, Anna grew up as an only child, might have been spoiled by her parents her mother. There are indications that Anna suffered from a physical deformity and that she might have walked with a limp. After her father's death on 11 July 1553, his younger brother, succeeded him as Elector of Saxony, resulting in a loss of Anna's in rank. Shortly afterwards, Anna's mother married Duke Johann Friedrich II of Saxony. On 4 November 1555, six months after her second marriage, her mother died under mysterious circumstances; the 11-year-old orphan returned to her late father's Dresden court and was placed under the guardianship of her uncle August and his wife, Anne of Denmark and Norway.

Sources indicate that the young princess chafed under her aunt's regime, was unhappy and felt alone. At the same time, she was described as proud and stubborn as well as intelligent and passionate. Due to her late parents' legacies, Anna was considered the wealthiest heiress in Germany at the time. In 1556, son of the Swedish king Gustav Vasa, sought her hand in marriage, followed two years by William of Orange. A marriage with a rich heiress and relation to the important electoral houses of Germany for him seemed of great value. Money may have not been one of the main motives for the marriage, but was the furthest planned course of the marriage. Anna's maternal grandfather, Philip the Magnanimous of Hesse, was opposed to the marriage. First, he did not consider William of Orange having a male heir, as befitting for an elector's daughter, believing she could marry someone of higher rank. Secondly, there would have been too much debt incurred in the event of William's death. Philip's negative attitude delayed the marriage for a full year.

However, the decisive factor was that William was a valuable ally for Germany and his Dutch resources for the Protestant cause. On 2 June 1561 the marriage contract was signed in Torgau. Anna's dowry would be the large sum of 100,000 thalers; the wedding took place on 24 August 1561 in Leipzig. On 1 September 1561 William of Orange, along with his young wife, relocated to the Netherlands; the marriage produced five children. Anna, married on 25 November 1587 to William Louis, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. Maurice August Philip. Maurice Prince of Orange and Governor of the Netherlands. Emilia, married on 7 November 1597 to Manuel of Portugal. Just a few months after the wedding, in 1562 difficulties arose between her husband. Anna received letters from her uncle meant for William stating he should work more towards pleasing her. Both tried to end the rumours. By 1565, it was well known in all the courts of Germany and the Netherlands that the marriage was an unhappy one, her uncle August tried to save face by making claims that disputes arose due to his brother Louis antagonizing William.

In 1566 William complained about the "contentious" nature of his wife to her Saxon uncle August and her Hessian uncle Landgrave Wilhelm IV of Hesse-Kassel. After the death of her first son Maurice in 1566, Anna fell to severe depression and suicidal thoughts for the first time, she tried to drown her grief with excessive alcohol consumption. In 1567 William had to flee due to his opposition to the Habsburg Netherlands, went with his wife to Dillenburg, the German headquarters of the family. On 14 November 1567 she named him Maurice again. At the baptism of 11–19 January 1568 a message arrived for William in Burgundy stating that on 20 December 1567 all his Dutch lands and possessions had been confiscated; when Wilhelm on 15 August 1568 went back to Brabant to continue his war against the Spaniards, Anna decided on 20 October 1568 although pregnant again, to leave Dillenburg with her court, to escape the antipathies of his mother and to create a new home in Cologne. Their two children and Maurits, had been taken by her mother-in-law to Braunfels due to the risk of disease.

The next year, after a fierce battle with William's mother, she was able to bring her children back to him. Her daughter Emilia was born on 10 April 1569 in Cologne. On 4 March 1569 Anna met her husband in Mannheim. William's campaign against the Duke of Alba had failed, King Philip II of Spain had forced him out. After this, he went to support the Huguenots in France in their faith struggles. Since William could no longer provide for the family, Anna looked to other means of support, she considered either persuading the Duke of Alba returning their confiscated goods, or demanding payment from Wilhelm as specified in the contract of 12,000 guilders or the castles of Diez or Hadamar. This would have meant a severe financial burden to be borne for Nassau. Anna became a substantial risk to the family. To enforce their claims, they purchased the services of the successful lawyer Jan

The Devils (band)

The Devils is the name of an English electronic pop band, formed by Nick Rhodes and Stephen Duffy. The first incarnation of Duran Duran in 1978 included Rhodes as keyboardist, John Taylor on guitar and Duffy as songwriter/vocalist and bassist; this lineup performed live for a year before Duffy and Colley left the band. Duffy moved on to a solo career and The Lilac Time, Duran Duran went on to fame with drummer Roger Taylor, guitarist Andy Taylor and singer Simon Le Bon. In 1999, Duffy came across an old tape recording of a live Duran Duran concert from a 1979 show. Shortly afterwards and Duffy met by chance at a fashion show, began talking about the old music, they decided it might be fun to re-record some of those original, art-school, pre-Le Bon Duran Duran songs. A few months they took to the studio, using vintage analog instruments but modern production techniques to recreate the early Duran Duran sound; the lyrics remained unchanged. The band played live only two times, in London, Cologne, before both members returned to their normal careers.

In early June 2008, Rhodes and Duffy were interviewed by the music journalist Pete Paphides for BBC Radio 4, relived the whole Dark Circles experience. Duffy publicly stated through his website that a Devils DVD could be released later. "Memory Palaces" - 2:27 "Big Store" - 5:50 "Dark Circles" - 3:09 "Signals In Smoke" - 4:03 "Come Alive" - 4:10 "Hawks Do Not Share" - 4:51 "Newhaven-Dieppe" - 3:36 "World Exclusive" - 3:28 "Aztec Moon" - 4:26 "Lost Decade" - 4:09 "Barbarellas" - 4:49 "The Tinsel Ritual" - 3:14 "Memory Palaces" "Big Store" "Dark Circles" "Signals In Smoke" "Come Alive" "Hawks Do Not Share" "Newhaven-Dieppe" "World Exclusive" "Aztec Moon" "Lost Decade" "Barbarellas" "The Tinsel Ritual" "Come Alive" - 6:14Track 13 appeared on Headman Dance Modern, Eskimo Records, Belgium. "Memory Palaces" "Big Store" "Dark Circles" "Signals In Smoke" "Come Alive" "Hawks Do Not Share" "Newhaven-Dieppe" "World Exclusive" "Aztec Moon" "Lost Decade" "Barbarellas" "The Tinsel Ritual" "Dark Circles" "Dark Circles" "Dark Circles" "The Devils EPK" - produced by Stephen Duffy, edited by Gary Oldknow, graphics by Andrew Day "Dark Circles" - directed and produced by Gary Oldknow "Hawks Don't Share" - directed by Nick Rhodes, produced by Gary Oldknow "Big Store" - produced by Gary OldknowThe 6th gate is 9:11 long Nick Rhodes - keyboards and synthesizer Stephen Duffy - vocals, bass, keyboards & synthesizer Mark Tinley - additional programming, amorphic resonances Ben Georgiades - drums and assistance Sally Boyden - vocals Evie - vocals Also credited: Engineered by Andy Strange assisted by Adam Noble at Air Studios, London Mastered by Tony Cousins at Metropolis Art & design: Andrew Day Photograph of The Devils: Retts Wood Make up: Paola Recabarren Duran Duran official website Stephen Duffy & The Lilac Time official website Fullfill Music

José A. Santos

José Adeón Santos León is a retired Chilean thoroughbred jockey, honored by the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in the United States. Jose Santos first raced horses at the Club Hípico de Concepción in his native Chile, following in the footsteps of his father and three of his seven brothers, in Colombia before moving to the United States in 1984. There he was the top money-winning jockey four years in a row, from 1986 through 1989, winning the 1988 Eclipse Award for Outstanding Jockey in the United States, he won the 1999 Belmont Stakes aboard Lemon Drop Kid. He won the 2003 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes with Funny Cide but missed winning the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing after finishing third in the Belmont Stakes. More Santos has said that Funny Cide was not the greatest horse he rode but was his personal favorite. In 1999, Santos won the coveted George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award. Santos won the 2003 ESPY Awards as the foremost jockey in the United States, he has long been a favorite of aficionados of the sport and is one of the best-liked and most respected jockeys in it.

Santos and his first wife, from Roslyn Heights, were divorced in 1994. Daughter Sophia Santos was graduated from Roslyn High School in 2005 briefly attended the Fashion Institute of Technology. Son Jose Ricardo Santos was a graduated from the same high school in 2007 and now serves in the United States Marine Corps. In 2011 Jose Santos' biography, Above It All: The Turbulent Life of Jose Santos, was authored by award-winning author Bill Heller. In 2004, José Santos and Sackatoga Stable, owners of thoroughbred Funny Cide, filed a $48 million libel suit against The Miami Herald because of a story by freelance writer Frank Carlson and a photograph that appeared in its issue for May 10, 2003, seven days after Santos won the Kentucky Derby; the photograph, with accompanying comments, was posted highlighting what appeared to be a metallic object in Santos's right hand as he and Funny Cide crossed the finish line. Due to the angle from which the photograph was taken, it appeared that Santos was holding an object in his right hand, so raised suspicion that he had cheated to win the world-famous race.

Subsequent developments furthered the suspicion. When asked about what the photo appeared to show, Santos thought the reporter was asking about an object around his wrist and was quoted as identifying the object as a "cue ring", triggering an investigation; the Chilean-born jockey, whose only English is accented, tried to explain that he had called the object around his wrist a "Q ray,", a magnetic bracelet worn by athletes to ease joint pain. Santos hired attorney David Travis to defend him before the Kentucky Racing Commission. Experts were called in to examine the initial photograph and numerous others. At the conclusion of the investigation, Santos was cleared of all charges; the results of the investigation showed that in reality Santos did not have an object in his hand and it was the angle of the photograph that only made it appear otherwise. Other photographs and angles showed nothing in Santos's hand and revealed that it would have been impossible for him to be holding anything; the $48 million libel suit against The Miami Herald was settled in 2008.

Santos's Palm Beach attorney, litigator Bruce S. Rogow, told reporters his client was "pleased" with the confidential terms. José Santos was one of the first of five top jockeys to wear advertising patches in the Kentucky Derby, starting in 2004, they sued, with an argument grounded in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, to be allowed to wear such patches during the race. The ruling was issued on April 21, 2004, by U. S. District Judge John Heyburn in Louisville; the jockeys in question had been offered substantial endorsement contracts to wear the ad patches, with payments, in some cases, of $30,000 apiece. Wearing this advertising was legal in the other Triple Crown states, New York and Maryland, but the Kentucky Horse Racing Authority had maintained that such advertising violated racing tradition and might lead to corruption. On February 1, 2007, Santos 45 years old, was involved in a three-horse racing accident at Aqueduct Racetrack in New York, he suffered five broken vertebrae, a broken sternum, several broken ribs.

Santos planned to return to riding by late 2007. However, he did not recover from his spinal injuries. Advised by his doctors that it would be far too dangerous for him to return to riding and that he would end up paralyzed should he have another accident, along with his current wife and the support of his children, decided to retire. One week before his induction into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame, Santos announced his retirement in several press conferences at the Saratoga Race Course; the first was held in the press box at the racecourse. With his usual smile, though showing other emotion, Santos informed the press that he would retire, he received a standing ovation from all in attendance, with most members of the press waiting to shake his hand and wish him well. Another press conference was held in the joc

IT Leader Forum

The IT Leader Forum is held annually in Moscow, Russia. It brings together 200-300 Russian and international CIOs, business strategists to discuss IT issues and share expertise regarding the implementation of IT solutions and highlights the best ways to address business issues using IT. Participants of the IT Leader Forum have an opportunity to exchange opinions with representatives of global leading IT vendors, discuss business approaches with industry peers, establish new business contacts. Both Russian and international IT experts participate in the IT Leader Forum; the IT Leader Forum is organized as part of the annual IT Leader project, a series of events devoted to organizations and CIOs who have directly contributed to the promotion of innovative information technology which increases business performance and spurs development within Russia. The 12th IT Leader Forum was held on October 14, 2015, in the Digital October Center, with a key topic titled'Modeling the Future.'. The IT Leader Forum included a general plenary session followed by a case study session with a focus on Big Data and Building Information Modeling technology.

See details on the official webpage. The special guest of the forum was Josep Curto, CEO at Delfos Research and professor at IE Business School Madrid, ranked by the Financial Times, Wall Street Journal, Forbes as being among the top three business schools in Europe. Josep told attendees how a proper combination of Big Data, information models, technology can provide a competitive edge in an ever-changing world. In 2014, Kjell Nordström and Jonas Ridderstråle, professors at the Stockholm School of Economics and authors of the bestsellers Funky Business and Re-energizing the Corporation. Told the Forum audience about changes that executives and IT professionals can make in the current economic environment in order to address market restriction challenges. In 2013, Steve Wozniak, Apple co-founder and a legendary computer designer and engineer, had a Q&A session with the forum host — Mikhail Berger, Director General of RUMEDIA Group, discussed the ways of driving creativity and fostering entrepreneurial spirit in corporate culture and IT environment.

In 2012, the forum started with a presentation by Thomas Frey, the founder and senior futurist at the DaVinci Institute, who talked about how today's fantasies could become reality in the next decades and the new environment that businesses will have to adapt to. In 2011, Dean Nelson, Senior Director, Global Foundation Services - eBay Technical Operations, addressed attendees via a video interview, Matt Wood, Technology Evangelist for Amazon Web Services, joined the panel via video conferencing. In 2010, the Plenary Session included presentations by Peter Hinssen, Howard Polinski, Ed Toben. In 2009, among key speakers at the IT Leader Forum were: Roger McLoughlin, Ronald Loos, Max Corney, Graeme K. Hackland, Jim Tomaney, James Michael Ansley. In the preceding years, presentations were given by Diego Lo Giudice and Dr. Alexander Peters from Forrester Research, Robert Farish, Eija Holmstrom, Theo Zuijdwijk, Susan Johnson, Waldemar Klemm. 2013 - The 10th annual IT Leader Forum was held on October 10, 2013, in Moscow at Digital October Center, with the key topic being IT as a Source of Inspiration during Economic Uncertainty.

2012 - The IT Leader Forum was held on October 9, 2012, at Moscow International Performing Arts Centre, with the key topic being announced as "Global Industry Leaders' Vision of the Future" and discussed in a talk show format with two opposing sides. 2011 - The 2011 IT Leader Forum was held on October 5, 2011 at the Digital October Center. Key theme of the 8th IT Leader Forum was ‘Finding Hidden Opportunities for Business Growth and Retaining Efficiency Gains’; the IT Leader Forum was held in a talk show format based on three discussion sessions. 2010 - The IT Leader Forum ‘Competitive Breakthrough in the Post-Crisis Period: Ideas for Leaders’ was held in Moscow. The forum consisted of a Plenary Session followed by Breakout Sessions. 2009 — IT Leader Forum “Innovations During a Period of Cost-Cutting” was held in Moscow and included a Plenary Session and three Breakout Sessions with Russian and international experts and professionals in IT and enterprise-level management. Breakout Sessions were devoted to personal data protection, business continuity, innovations implementation during the financial downturn.

2008 — IT Leader Forum “IT as a Tool to Increase Business Efficiency in Key Segments of the Economy” was held in Moscow. After a Plenary Session, attendees discussed topical business issues in new conditions at round tables for the manufacturing and finance, oil and gas and logistics, energy industries. 2007 — IT Leader Forum “Information Technology as Business Process Reengineering Tool” was held in an open discussion format in Moscow. 2006 — IT Leader Forum “Key Business Aspects: Data Security and Availability” was held in

Hilary Kahn

Hilary J. Kahn was a British computer scientist who spent most of her career as a professor at the University of Manchester, where she worked on computer-aided design and information modelling. Kahn participated in the development of the Manchester MU5 computer, she became involved in standards development and was both the chair of the Technical Experts Group and a member of the Steering Committee for the development of the EDIF standard. Kahn retired from Manchester in 2006 and died in 2007. Kahn was moved in 1960 to England, she attended the University of London and studied classics, after which she attended a post-graduate diploma course in computing at the Newcastle University, where she was first exposed to working with the English Electric KDF9 computer and programming in ALGOL. She subsequently worked as a programmer at English Electric. Kahn joined the Computer Science Department at the University of Manchester in 1967, appointed as an assistant lecturer based on her ability to teach COBOL.

She has been cited as an example of how women with non-traditional backgrounds could enter early academic computer science by offering unusual specialised skills. Although Kahn never pursued a PhD, she was a faculty member, she wrote published several obituaries on him. Kahn was active in preserving the history of early computing at Manchester and in 1998 organised a large-scale celebration Computer 50 for the 50th anniversary of the Manchester Baby, the first stored-program computer, completed in 1948. Kahn retired from her faculty position in 2006. Kahn's husband Brian Napper was a Manchester faculty member; the couple had one child, a daughter, born in 1977. Kahn died in November 2007