SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hector

In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, Hector was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War. He acted as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defence of Troy, "killing 31,000 Greek fighters." He was killed by Achilles. In Greek, Héktōr is a derivative of the verb ἔχειν, ékhein, archaic form *ἕχειν, hékhein, from Proto-Indo-European *seĝh-. Héktōr, or Éktōr as found in Aeolic poetry, is an epithet of Zeus in his capacity as'he who holds'. Hector's name could thus be taken to mean'holding fast'; as the first-born son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, a descendant of Dardanus and Tros, the founder of Troy. In some accounts, his father was the god Apollo, he was the heir apparent to his father's throne. He was married with whom he had an infant son, Scamandrius. During the European Middle Ages, Hector figures as one of the Nine Worthies noted by Jacques de Longuyon, known not only for his courage but for his noble and courtly nature. Indeed, Homer places Hector as peace-loving, thoughtful as well as bold, a good son and father, without darker motives.

James Redfield describes Hector as a "martyr to loyalties, a witness to the things of this world, a hero ready to die for the precious imperfections of ordinary life." According to the Iliad, Hector did not approve of war between the Greeks and the Trojans. For ten years, the Achaeans their allies in the east. Hector commanded the Trojan army, with a number of subordinates including Polydamas, his brothers Deiphobus and Paris. By all accounts, Hector was the best warrior the Trojans and their allies could field, his fighting prowess was admired by Greeks and his own people alike. Diomedes and Odysseus, when faced with his attack, described him as what Robert Fagles translated as an'incredible dynamite' and a'maniac'. In the Iliad, Hector's exploits in the war prior to the events of the book are recapitulated, he had fought the Greek champion Protesilaus in single combat at the start of the war and killed him. A prophecy had stated. Thus, Protesilaus and Odysseus would not land. Odysseus threw his shield out and landed on that, Protesilaus jumped next from his own ship.

In the ensuing fight, Hector killed him. As described by Homer in the Iliad at the advice of Hector’s brother Helenus and being told by him that he was not destined to die yet, Hector managed to get both armies seated and challenged any one of the Greek warriors to single combat; the Argives were reluctant to accept the challenge. However, after Nestor's chiding, nine Greek heroes stepped up to the challenge and drew by lot to see, to face Hector. Ajax fought Hector. Hector was unable to pierce Ajax's famous shield, but Ajax crushed Hector's shield with a rock and stabbed through his armor with a spear, drawing blood, upon which the god Apollo intervened and the duel was ended as the sun was setting. Hector gave Ajax his sword, which Ajax used to kill himself. Ajax gave Hector his girdle that Achilles attached to his chariot to drag Hector's corpse around the walls of Troy; the Greeks and the Trojans made a truce to bury the dead. In the early dawn the next day, the Greeks took advantage of the truce to build a wall and ditch around the ships while Zeus watched in the distance.

Another mention of Hector's exploits in the early years of war was given in the Iliad in book IX. During the embassy to Achilles, Odysseus and Ajax all try to persuade Achilles to rejoin the fight. In his response, Achilles points out that while Hector was terrorizing the Greek forces now, that while he himself had fought in their front lines, Hector had'no wish' to take his force far beyond the walls and out from the Skiaian Gate and nearby oak tree, he claims,'There he stood up to me alone one day, he escaped my onslaught.' Another duel that took place, although Hector received help from Aeneas and Deiphobus, was when Hector rushed to try to save his brother Troilus from Achilles' hands. But he came too late and Troilus had perished. All Hector could do was to take the lifeless body of Troilus while Achilles escaped after he fought his way through from the Trojans reinforcement. In the tenth year of the war, observing Paris avoiding combat with Menelaus, Hector upbraids him with having brought trouble on his whole country and now refusing to fight.

Paris therefore proposes single combat between himself and Menelaus, with Helen to go to the victor, ending the war. The duel, leads to inconclusive results due to intervention by Aphrodite who leads Paris off the field. After Pandarus wounds Menelaus with an arrow the fight begins again; the Greeks drive the Trojans back. Hector must now go out to lead a counter-attack. According to Homer his wife Andromache, carrying in her arms her son Astyanax, intercepts Hector at the gate, pleading with him not to go out for her sake as well as his son's. Hector knows that Troy and the house of Priam are doomed to fall and that the gloomy fate of his wife and infant son will be to die or go into slavery in a foreign land. With understanding and tenderness he explains that he cannot refuse to fight, comforts her with the idea that no one can take him until it is his time to go; the gleaming bronze helmet makes him cry. Hector takes it off, embraces his wife and son, for his sake prays aloud to Zeus that his son might be chief after him, become more glorious in battle than he, to brin

Online Ceramics

Online Ceramics is a clothing company, founded in Los Angeles, California in 2016 by Alix Ross and Elijah Funk. Many of their designs are tie-dyed by hand, feature images and sayings associated with the musical act the Grateful Dead, it is located at 1500 S. Central Avenue; the founders met in their home state of Ohio before moving to Los Angeles to start the business. In particular, Ross noted that while studying at the Columbus College of Art & Design, he became a frequent consumer of LSD, referred to or visually featured in Online Ceramics' products, their products are sold internationally at a variety of streetwear outlets, including Union in Los Angeles, Dover Street Market in London, New York City, Los Angeles, GR8 in Tokyo, online. As covered by The New Yorker in 2018, the small batches of shirts and hoodies produced have become noteworthy in the streetwear community, observing: "The shirts sell out—which only makes them more attractive to style mavens seeking to distinguish themselves from their peers."The men's fashion and lifestyle magazine GQ interviewed Ross and Funk in 2017, noting that "their graphics are enormous and intricate, include their own characters—goblins, jesters—along with druggie iconography and phrases that channel a sort of cosmic mindfulness."Much of the brand's promotional work occurs through its official Instagram, which has 110,000 followers as of February 2020.

Online Ceramics has a partnership with the independent movie studio a24, producing promotional t-shirts and sweatshirts to promote its films. The partnership was established after Ross and Funk saw the film Hereditary and contacted its writer-director, Ari Aster, in the hopes of promoting his work on t-shirts; the duo produced t-shirts for two of Aster's films: Hereditary and the 2019 film Midsommar. This partnership extended to The VVitch, an earlier a24 film on its three-year anniversary, merchandise for the 2019 Adam Sandler/Safdie Brothers film Uncut Gems. Other collaborations included a capsule set featuring the guru Ram Dass and his Netflix documentary Becoming Nobody, they created merchandise for John Mayer on his 2017 Dead & Co. tour, promoting the music of the Grateful Dead. The Grateful Dead John Mayer Streetwear a24 Ari Aster Dover Street Market Hippie

Ancient Egyptian literature

Ancient Egyptian literature was written in the Egyptian language from ancient Egypt's pharaonic period until the end of Roman domination. It represents the oldest corpus of Egyptian literature. Along with Sumerian literature, it is considered the world's earliest literature. Writing in ancient Egypt—both hieroglyphic and hieratic—first appeared in the late 4th millennium BC during the late phase of predynastic Egypt. By the Old Kingdom, literary works included funerary texts and letters, hymns and poems, commemorative autobiographical texts recounting the careers of prominent administrative officials, it was not until the early Middle Kingdom. This was a "media revolution" which, according to Richard B. Parkinson, was the result of the rise of an intellectual class of scribes, new cultural sensibilities about individuality, unprecedented levels of literacy, mainstream access to written materials. However, it is possible that the overall literacy rate was less than one percent of the entire population.

The creation of literature was thus an elite exercise, monopolized by a scribal class attached to government offices and the royal court of the ruling pharaoh. However, there is no full consensus among modern scholars concerning the dependence of ancient Egyptian literature on the sociopolitical order of the royal courts. Middle Egyptian, the spoken language of the Middle Kingdom, became a classical language during the New Kingdom, when the vernacular language known as Late Egyptian first appeared in writing. Scribes of the New Kingdom canonized and copied many literary texts written in Middle Egyptian, which remained the language used for oral readings of sacred hieroglyphic texts; some genres of Middle Kingdom literature, such as "teachings" and fictional tales, remained popular in the New Kingdom, although the genre of prophetic texts was not revived until the Ptolemaic period. Popular tales included the Story of Sinuhe and The Eloquent Peasant, while important teaching texts include the Instructions of Amenemhat and The Loyalist Teaching.

By the New Kingdom period, the writing of commemorative graffiti on sacred temple and tomb walls flourished as a unique genre of literature, yet it employed formulaic phrases similar to other genres. The acknowledgment of rightful authorship remained important only in a few genres, while texts of the "teaching" genre were pseudonymous and falsely attributed to prominent historical figures. Ancient Egyptian literature has been preserved on a wide variety of media; this includes papyrus scrolls and packets, limestone or ceramic ostraca, wooden writing boards, monumental stone edifices and coffins. Texts preserved and unearthed by modern archaeologists represent a small fraction of ancient Egyptian literary material; the area of the floodplain of the Nile is under-represented because the moist environment is unsuitable for the preservation of papyri and ink inscriptions. On the other hand, hidden caches of literature, buried for thousands of years, have been discovered in settlements on the dry desert margins of Egyptian civilization.

By the Early Dynastic Period in the late 4th millennium BC, Egyptian hieroglyphs and their cursive form hieratic were well-established written scripts. Egyptian hieroglyphs are small artistic pictures of natural objects. For example, the hieroglyph for door-bolt, pronounced se, produced the s sound; the Narmer Palette, dated c. 3100 BC during the last phase of Predynastic Egypt, combines the hieroglyphs for catfish and chisel to produce the name of King Narmer. The Egyptians called their hieroglyphs "words of god" and reserved their use for exalted purposes, such as communicating with divinities and spirits of the dead through funerary texts; each hieroglyphic word represented both a specific object and embodied the essence of that object, recognizing it as divinely made and belonging within the greater cosmos. Through acts of priestly ritual, like burning incense, the priest allowed spirits and deities to read the hieroglyphs decorating the surfaces of temples. In funerary texts beginning in and following the Twelfth dynasty, the Egyptians believed that disfiguring, omitting certain hieroglyphs, brought consequences, either good or bad, for a deceased tomb occupant whose spirit relied on the texts as a source of nourishment in the afterlife.

Mutilating the hieroglyph of a venomous snake, or other dangerous animal, removed a potential threat. However, removing every instance of the hieroglyphs representing a deceased person's name would deprive his or her soul of the ability to read the funerary texts and condemn that soul to an inanimate existence. Hieratic is a simplified, cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphs. Like hieroglyphs, hieratic was used in religious texts. By the 1st millennium BC, calligraphic hieratic became the script predominantly used in funerary papyri and temple rolls. Whereas the writing of hieroglyphs required the utmost precision and care, cursive hieratic could be written much more and was therefore more practical for scribal record-keeping, its primary purpose was to serve as a shorthand script for non-royal, non-monumental, less formal writings such as private letters, legal documents, tax records, medical texts, mathematical treatises, instructional guides. Hieratic could be written in two different styles.

By the mid-1