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Trojan War

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the most important events in Greek mythology and has been narrated through many works of Greek literature, most notably Homer's Iliad; the core of the Iliad describes a period of four days and two nights in the tenth year of the decade-long siege of Troy. Other parts of the war are described in a cycle of epic poems, which have survived through fragments. Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, for Roman poets including Virgil and Ovid; the war originated from a quarrel between the goddesses Hera and Aphrodite, after Eris, the goddess of strife and discord, gave them a golden apple, sometimes known as the Apple of Discord, marked "for the fairest". Zeus sent the goddesses to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the "fairest", should receive the apple. In exchange, Aphrodite made Helen, the most beautiful of all women and wife of Menelaus, fall in love with Paris, who took her to Troy.

Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and the brother of Helen's husband Menelaus, led an expedition of Achaean troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years because of Paris' insult. After the deaths of many heroes, including the Achaeans Achilles and Ajax, the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse; the Achaeans desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods' wrath. Few of the Achaeans returned safely to their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores; the Romans traced their origin to Aeneas, Aphrodite's son and one of the Trojans, said to have led the surviving Trojans to modern-day Italy. The ancient Greeks believed that Troy was located near the Dardanelles and that the Trojan War was a historical event of the 13th or 12th century BC, but by the mid-19th century AD, both the war and the city were seen as non-historical. In 1868, the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann met Frank Calvert, who convinced Schliemann that Troy was a real city at what is now Hisarlik in Turkey.

On the basis of excavations conducted by Schliemann and others, this claim is now accepted by most scholars. Whether there is any historical reality behind the Trojan War remains an open question. Many scholars believe that there is a historical core to the tale, though this may mean that the Homeric stories are a fusion of various tales of sieges and expeditions by Mycenaean Greeks during the Bronze Age; those who believe that the stories of the Trojan War are derived from a specific historical conflict date it to the 12th or 11th century BC preferring the dates given by Eratosthenes, 1194–1184 BC, which corresponds with archaeological evidence of a catastrophic burning of Troy VII, the Late Bronze Age collapse. The events of the Trojan War are found in many works of Greek literature and depicted in numerous works of Greek art. There is no authoritative text which tells the entire events of the war. Instead, the story is assembled from a variety of sources, some of which report contradictory versions of the events.

The most important literary sources are the two epic poems traditionally credited to Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey, composed sometime between the 9th and 6th centuries BC. Each poem narrates only a part of the war; the Iliad covers a short period in the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey concerns Odysseus's return to his home island of Ithaca following the sack of Troy and contains several flashbacks to particular episodes in the war. Other parts of the Trojan War were told in the poems of the Epic Cycle known as the Cyclic Epics: the Cypria, Little Iliad, Iliou Persis and Telegony. Though these poems survive only in fragments, their content is known from a summary included in Proclus' Chrestomathy; the authorship of the Cyclic Epics is uncertain. It is thought that the poems were written down in the 7th and 6th century BC, after the composition of the Homeric poems, though it is believed that they were based on earlier traditions. Both the Homeric epics and the Epic Cycle take origin from oral tradition.

After the composition of the Iliad and the Cyclic Epics, the myths of the Trojan War were passed on orally in many genres of poetry and through non-poetic storytelling. Events and details of the story that are only found in authors may have been passed on through oral tradition and could be as old as the Homeric poems. Visual art, such as vase painting, was another medium. In ages playwrights and other intellectuals would create works inspired by the Trojan War; the three great tragedians of Athens—Aeschylus and Euripides—wrote a number of dramas that portray episodes from the Trojan War. Among Roman writers the most important is the 1st century BC poet Virgil. In Book 2 of the Aeneid, Aeneas narrates the sack of Troy; the following summary of the Trojan War follows the order of events as given in Proclus' summary, along with the Iliad and Aeneid, supplemented with details drawn from other authors. According to Greek mythology, Zeus had become king of the gods by overthrowing his father Cronus.

Zeus was not faithful to his wife and sister Hera, had many relationships from which many children were born. Since Zeus believed that there were too many people populating the earth, he envisioned Momus or T

Mathematical Optimization Society

The Mathematical Optimization Society, known as the Mathematical Programming Society until 2010, is an international association of researchers active in optimization. The MOS encourages the research and use of optimization—including mathematical theory, software implementation, practical applications. Founded in 1973, the MOS has several activities: Publishing journals and a newsletter and cosponsoring conferences, awarding prizes. In the 1960s, mathematical programming methods were gaining increasing importance both in mathematical theory and in industrial application. To provide a discussion forum for researchers in the field arose, the journal Mathematical Programming was founded in 1970. Based on activities by George Dantzig, Albert Tucker, Philip Wolfe and others, the MOS was founded in 1973, with George Dantzig as its first president. Several conferences are organized or co-organized by the Mathematical Optimization Society, for instance: The International Symposium on Mathematical Programming, organized every three years, is open to all fields of mathematical programming.

The Integer Programming and Combinatorial Optimization conference, in Integer programming, is held in those years when there is no ISMP. The International Conference on Continuous Optimization, the continuous analog of the IPCO conference, was first held in 2004; the International Conference on Stochastic Programming takes place every three years and is devoted to optimization using uncertain input data. The Nordic MOS conference is a biannual meeting of researchers from Scandinavia working in all fields of optimization. At the Université de Montréal, annual seminars on changing topics are organized by the MOS. There are several publications by the Mathematical Optimization Society: The journal Mathematical Programming: series A publishes articles from all fields of optimization; the journal Mathematical Programming Computation Optima, the newsletter of the MOS, contains articles on optimization, conference information and book reviews. MPS/SIAM Series on Optimization is a series of books, jointly published by the MOS and the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

It has published monographs, books collecting applications of optimization, tutorials. The MOS awards prizes in the field of optimization, including the Fulkerson Prize, the Dantzig Prize and the Tucker Prize. Homepage of the Mathematical Optimization Society

Lee Man-hee (director)

Lee Man-hee was a South Korean film director. His works include Assassin, his daughter Lee Hye-young is an actress. Kaleidoscope A Disobedient Son Call 112 Until I Die Don't Look Back The Marines Who Never Returned The Twelve Nyang Life Han Seok-bong Soldiers of YMS504 Where Can I Stand? The Evil Stairs The Intimidator Black Hair The Chaser Myohyang's Elegy Market Heukmaek The Seven Female POW's Heilong River A Hero without Serial Number Late Autumn Unforgettable Woman A Water Mill Swindler Mr. Heo Legend of Ssarigol Oblivion Horror of Triangle Coming Back A Spotted Man The Starting Point Heat and Cold Whistle Harimao in Bangkok Outing Living in the Sky A Journey A Day Off Assassin Life Confess of Woman Six Shadows Goboi gangui dari Break Up the Chain The Midnight Sun 4 o'clock, Nineteen Fifty Japanese Pirate Cheongnyeo The Wild Flowers in the Battle Field A Girl Who Looks Like the Sun A Triangular Trap The Road to Sampo Lee Man-hee at the Korean Movie Database Lee Man-hee on IMDb