Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
The Waldensians are an ascetic movement within Christianity, reputedly founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173. The Waldensian movement first appeared in Lyon in the late 1170s and spread to the Cottian Alps in what is today France and Italy. True to its historic roots, the Waldensian movement today is centred on Piedmont in Northern Italy, small communities are found in Southern Italy, Brazil, the United States, Uruguay. Today the two biggest Waldensian congregations are the Union of Waldensian and Methodist Churches and the Evangelical Waldensian Church of Río de la Plata; the movement originated in the late twelfth century as the Poor Men of Lyon, a band organized by Peter Waldo, a wealthy merchant who gave away his property around 1173, preaching apostolic poverty as the way to perfection. Waldensian teachings came into conflict with the Catholic Church. By 1215, the Waldensians were declared subject to intense persecution. In the era of the Reformation, the Waldensians influenced early Swiss reformer Heinrich Bullinger.
Upon finding the ideas of other reformers similar to their own, they merged into the larger Protestant movement. With the Resolutions of Chanforan on 12 September 1532, they formally became a part of the Calvinist tradition. In the 16th century, Waldensian leaders embraced the Protestant Reformation and joined various local Protestant regional entities; as early as 1631, Protestant scholars and Waldensian theologians themselves began to regard the Waldensians as early forerunners of the Reformation, who had maintained the apostolic faith in the face of Catholic oppression. Modern Waldensians share core tenets with Calvinists, including the priesthood of all believers, congregational polity and a "low" view of certain sacraments such as Communion and Baptism, they are members of the Community of Protestant Churches in its affiliates worldwide. The main denomination within the movement was the Waldensian Evangelical Church, the original church in Italy. In 1975, it merged with the Methodist Evangelical Church to form the Union of Methodist and Waldensian Churches—a majority Waldensian church, with a minority of Methodists.
Congregations continue to be active in Europe, South America, North America. Organizations such as the American Waldensian Society maintain the history of this movement and declare they take as their mission "proclaiming the Christian Gospel, serving the marginalized, promoting social justice, fostering inter-religious work, advocating respect for religious diversity and freedom of conscience." Most modern knowledge of the medieval history of the Waldensians originates exclusively from the records and writings of the Roman Catholic Church, the same body, condemning them as heretics. Because of "the documentary scarcity and unconnectedness from which we must draw the description of Waldensian beliefs," much of what is known about the early Waldensians comes from reports like the Profession of faith of Valdo of Lyon. Earlier documents that provide information about early Waldensian history include the Will of Stefano d'Anse. There are the two reports written for the Inquisition by Reinerius Saccho, a former Cathar who converted to Catholicism, published together in 1254 as Summa de Catharis et Pauperibus de Lugduno.
Waldensians preached a number of truths as they read from the Bible. These included: The atoning death and justifying righteousness of Christ The Godhead The fall of man The incarnation of the Son A denial of purgatory as the "invention of the Antichrist" The value of voluntary povertyThey rejected a number of concepts that were held in Christian Europe of the era. For example, the Waldensians held that temporal offices and dignities were not meant for preachers of the Gospel, they were accused, moreover, of having scoffed at the doctrine of transubstantiation, of having spoken blasphemously of the Catholic Church as the harlot of the Apocalypse. They rejected what they perceived as the idolatry of the Catholic Church and considered the Papacy as the Antichrist of Rome; the "La nobla leyczon", written in the Occitan language, gives a sample of the medieval Waldensian belief. It was believed that this poem dated between 1190 and 1240, but there is evidence that it was written in the first part of the fifteenth century The poem exists in four manuscripts: two are housed at University of Cambridge, one at Trinity College in Dublin, another in Geneva.
It was once held that the Waldenses were first taught by Paul the Apostle who visited Spain and allegedly traveled on to the Piedmont. As the Catholic Church indulged in excesses in the time of Constantine - the account tells - the Waldenses held true to their apostolic faith of poverty and piety; these claims were discounted in the nineteenth century. There were other claims that the Waldensians predated Peter Waldo's activities in the late 12th century. In his A History of the Vaudois C
Philip Melanchthon was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, an influential designer of educational systems. He stands next to Luther and John Calvin as a reformer and molder of Protestantism. Melanchthon along with Luther denounced what they believed was the exaggerated cult of the saints, asserted justification by faith, denounced the coercion of the conscience in the sacrament of penance by the Catholic Church, which they believed could not offer certainty of salvation. Both rejected the doctrine of transubstantiation, but not the belief that the body and blood of Christ are present with the elements of bread and wine in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper; the Lutheran view of sacramental union contrasts with the understanding of the Roman Church that the bread and wine cease to be bread and wine at their consecration. Melanchthon made the distinction between law and gospel the central formula for Lutheran evangelical insight.
By the "law", he meant God's requirements both in New Testament. He was born Philipp Schwartzerdt on 16 February 1497, at Bretten where his father Georg Schwarzerdt was armorer to Philip, Count Palatine of the Rhine, his birthplace, along with the whole city of Bretten, was burned in 1689 by French troops during the War of the Palatinate Succession. The town's Melanchthonhaus was built on its site in 1897. In 1507 he was sent to the Latin school at Pforzheim, where the rector, Georg Simler of Wimpfen, introduced him to the Latin and Greek poets and to Aristotle, he was influenced by a Renaissance humanist. Philipp was only eleven when in 1508 both father died within eleven days, he and a brother were brought to Pforzheim to live with his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth Reuter, sister of Reuchlin. The next year he entered the University of Heidelberg, where he studied philosophy and astronomy/astrology, became known as a scholar of Greek. Denied the master's degree in 1512 on the grounds of his youth, he went to Tübingen, where he continued humanistic studies but worked on jurisprudence and medicine.
While there he was taught the technical aspects of astrology by Johannes Stöffler. After gaining a master's degree in 1516 he began to study theology. Under the influence of Reuchlin and others, he became convinced that true Christianity was something different from the scholastic theology as taught at the university, he instructed younger scholars. He lectured on oratory, on Virgil and on Livy, his first publications were a number of poems in a collection edited by Jakob Wimpfeling, the preface to Reuchlin's Epistolae clarorum virorum, an edition of Terence, a Greek grammar. Opposed as a reformer at Tübingen, he accepted a call to the University of Wittenberg from Martin Luther on the recommendation of his great-uncle, became professor of Greek there at the age of 21, he studied the Scriptures of Paul, Evangelical doctrine. Attending the disputation of Leipzig as a spectator, he nonetheless participated with his comments. After his views were attacked by Johann Eck, Melanchthon replied based on the authority of Scripture in his Defensio contra Johannem Eckium.
Following lectures on the Gospel of Matthew and the Epistle to the Romans, together with his investigations into Pauline doctrine, he was granted the degree of bachelor of theology, transferred to the theological faculty. He married Katharina Krapp, daughter of Wittenberg's mayor, on 25 November 1520, they had four children: Anna, Philipp and Magdalen. In the beginning of 1521 in his Didymi Faventini versus Thomam Placentinum pro M. Luthero oratio, he defended Luther, he argued that Luther rejected only papal and ecclesiastical practises which were at variance with Scripture. But while Luther was absent at Wartburg Castle, during the disturbances caused by the Zwickau prophets, Melanchthon wavered; the appearance of Melanchthon's Loci communes rerum theologicarum seu hypotyposes theologicae was of subsequent importance for Reformation. Melanchthon presented the new doctrine of Christianity under the form of a discussion of the "leading thoughts" of the Epistle to the Romans. Loci communes began the gradual rise of the Lutheran scholastic tradition, the theologians Martin Chemnitz, Mathias Haffenreffer, Leonhard Hutter expanded upon it.
Melanchthon continued to lecture on the classics. On a journey in 1524 to his native town, he encountered the papal legate, Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio, who tried to draw him from Luther's cause. In his Unterricht der Visitatorn an die Pfarherrn im Kurfürstentum zu Sachssen Melanchthon presented the evangelical doctrine of salvation as well as regulations for churches and schools. In 1529 he accompanied the elector to the Diet of Speyer, his hopes of inducing the Imperial party to a recognition of the Reformation were not fulfilled. A friendly attitude towards the Swiss at the Diet was something he changed, calling Huldrych Zwingli's doctrine of the Lord's Supper "an i
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline in universities and seminaries. Theology is the study of deities or their scriptures in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves, it occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but especially with epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. Theology is derived from the Greek theologia, which derived from Τheos, meaning "God", -logia, meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie.
The English equivalent "theology" had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; the term can, however, be used for a variety of fields of study. Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, mental, or social realities, that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others; the study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments assume the existence of resolved questions, develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations; the study of theology may help a theologian more understand their own religious tradition, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge, or oppose a religious tradition or world-view. Theology might help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike and theologike, with the last corresponding to metaphysics, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical and civil. Theologos related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy; some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine used the term more to mean'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality.
Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage. In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition. In the Renaissance with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority, it is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching
Iconoclasm is the social belief in the importance of the destruction of icons and other images or monuments, most for religious or political reasons. People who engage in or support iconoclasm are called iconoclasts, a term that has come to be applied figuratively to any individual who challenges "cherished beliefs or venerated institutions on the grounds that they are erroneous or pernicious". Conversely, one who reveres or venerates religious images is called an iconolater; the term does not encompass the specific destruction of images of a ruler after his death or overthrow. Iconoclasm may be carried out by people of a different religion, but is the result of sectarian disputes between factions of the same religion. Within Christianity, iconoclasm has been motivated by those who adopt a strict interpretation of the Ten Commandments, which forbid the making and worshipping of "graven images or any likeness of anything"; the Church Fathers identified Jews, fundamental iconoclasts, with heresy and saw deviations from orthodox Christianity and opposition to the veneration of images as heresies that were "Jewish in spirit".
The degree of iconoclasm among Christian branches varies. Islam, in general, tends to be more iconoclastic than Christianity, with Sunni Islam being more iconoclastic than Shia Islam. In the Bronze Age, the most significant episode of iconoclasm occurred in Egypt during the Amarna Period, when Akhenaten, based in his new capital of Akhetaten, instituted a significant shift in Egyptian artistic styles alongside a campaign of intolerance towards the traditional gods and a new emphasis on a state monolatristic tradition focused on the god Aten, the Sun disk— many temples and monuments were destroyed as a result: In rebellion against the old religion and the powerful priests of Amun, Akhenaten ordered the eradication of all of Egypt's traditional gods, he sent royal officials to chisel out and destroy every reference to Amun and the names of other deities on tombs, temple walls, cartouches to instill in the people that the Aten was the one true god. Public references to Akhenaten were destroyed soon after his death.
Comparing the ancient Egyptians with the Israelites, Jan Assmann writes: For Egypt, the greatest horror was the destruction or abduction of the cult images. In the eyes of the Israelites, the erection of images meant the destruction of divine presence. In Egypt, iconoclasm was the most terrible religious crime. In this respect Osarseph alias Akhenaten, the iconoclast, the Golden Calf, the paragon of idolatry, correspond to each other inversely, it is strange that Aaron could so avoid the role of the religious criminal, it is more than probable. In this respect and Akhenaten became, after all related. Although widespread use of Christian iconography only began as Christianity spread among gentiles after the legalization of Christianity by Roman Emperor Constantine, scattered expressions of opposition to the use of images were reported; the period after the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian evidently saw a huge increase in the use of images, both in volume and quality, a gathering aniconic reaction.
In the Eastern Roman Empire, government-led iconoclasm began with Byzantine Emperor Leo III, following what seems to have been a long period of rising opposition to the use or misuse of images. The religious conflict created economic divisions in Byzantine society, it was supported by the Eastern, non-Greek peoples of the Empire who had to deal with raids from the new Muslim Empire. On the other hand, the wealthier Greeks of Constantinople, the peoples of the Balkan and Italian provinces opposed iconoclasm. Within the Byzantine Empire the government had been adopting Christian images more frequently. One notable change came in 695, when Justinian II's government added a full-face image of Christ on the obverse of imperial gold coins; the change caused the Caliph Abd al-Malik to stop his earlier adoption of Byzantine coin types. He started a purely Islamic coinage with lettering only. A letter by the Patriarch Germanus written before 726 to two Iconoclast bishops says that "now whole towns and multitudes of people are in considerable agitation over this matter" but there is little written evidence of the debate.
The first iconoclastic wave happened in Wittenberg in the early 1520s under reformers Thomas Müntzer and Andreas Karlstadt. It prompted Martin Luther concealing as Junker Jörg, to intervene. In contrast to the Lutherans who favoured sacred art in their churches and homes, the Reformed leaders, in particular Andreas Karlstadt, Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin, encouraged the removal of religious images by invoking the Decalogue's prohibition of idolatry and the manufacture of graven images of God; as a result, individuals attacked images. However, in most cases, civil authorities removed images in an orderly manner in the newly Reformed Protestant cities and territories of Europe. Calvinist Iconoclasm during the Reformation Significant iconoclastic riots took place in Basel, Copenhagen, Münster, Augsburg, Scotland and Saintes and La Rochelle. Calvinist iconoclasm in Europe "provoked reactive riots by Lutheran mobs" in Germany and "antagonized the neighbouring Eastern Orth
University of Cologne
The University of Cologne is a university in Cologne, Germany. It was the sixth university to be established in Central Europe and, although it closed in 1798 before being re-established in 1919, it is now one of the largest universities in Germany with more than 48,000 students; the University of Cologne is a German Excellence University, as of 2017 it ranks 145th globally according to Times Higher Education'.' The University of Cologne was established in 1388 as the fourth university in the Holy Roman Empire, after the Charles University of Prague, the University of Vienna and the Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg. The charter was signed by Pope Urban VI; the university began teaching on January 6, 1389. In 1798, the university was abolished by the French, who had invaded Cologne in 1794, because under the new French constitution, many universities were abolished all over France; the last rector Ferdinand Franz Wallraf was able to preserve the university's Great Seal, now once more in use.
In 1919, the Prussian government endorsed a decision by the Cologne City Council to re-establish the university. This was considered to be a replacement for the loss of the University of Strasbourg on the west bank of the Rhine, which contemporaneously reverted to France with the rest of Alsace. On May 29, 1919, the Cologne Mayor Konrad Adenauer signed the charter of the modern university. At that point, the new university was located in Neustadt-Süd, but relocated to its current campus in Lindenthal on 2 November 1934; the old premises are now being used for the Cologne University of Applied Sciences. The university was composed of the Faculty of Business and Social Sciences and the Faculty of Medicine. In 1920, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Arts were added, from which latter the School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences was split off in 1955 to form a separate Faculty. In 1980, the two Cologne departments of the Rhineland School of Education were attached to the university as the Faculties of Education and of Special Education.
In 1988, the university became a founding member of the Community of European Management Schools and International Companies, today's Global Alliance in Management Education. The University is a leader in the area of economics and is placed in top positions for law and business, both for national and international rankings; the University of Cologne is a statutory corporation, operated by the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. The university is divided into six faculties; the faculties are those of Management and Social Sciences, Medicine, Arts and Natural Sciences and Human Sciences. On November 24, 2004, the physicist Axel Freimuth was elected as Rector of the University, his term began on April 1, 2005. He succeeded Tassilo Küpper and was the 49th Rector since 1919, he was Dean of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. GeoMuseum: The only natural history museum in Cologne Theatre Collection in Schloss Wahn: images and text from European theater from the 16th century Max Bruch Archive of the Institute of Musicology: autographs and writings from and about Max Bruch The Kathy Acker Reading Room, the personal library of author Kathy Acker.
Musical Instrument Collection of the Musicology Institute Egyptian collection: Papyri and parchments and small sculptures Prehistoric collection artefacts from all periods of prehistoric and early history from foreign sites, from the Neanderthal fist to the bronze sword and iron weapons of the early Middle Ages Papyrus collection of the Institute of Antiquity: Barbarastollen: Under the main building, a mining gallery was built as part of a museum for trade and industry in 1932 In 2005, the University enrolled 47,203 students, including 3,718 graduate students. In 2003, the number of post-doctoral students was 670; the number of international students was 6,157 in the Summer Semester of 2005. This amounts to 13% of the total students; those from developing countries made up about 60 %. The largest contingents came from Bulgaria, Poland and Ukraine. There are 508 professors including 70 women. In addition, the university employs 1,549 research assistants, with an additional 765 at the clinic, 1,462 other assistants.
The University of Cologne maintains twenty official partnerships with universities from ten countries. Of these, the partnerships with Clermont-Ferrand I and Pennsylvania State are the oldest partnerships. In addition, Cologne has further cooperations with more than 260 other universities. Over the centuries, scholars from Cologne have been among the most prominent in their fields, beginning with Albertus Magnus and his pupil Thomas Aquinas. Notable alumni of the 20th century include among others Kurt Alder, Peter Grünberg, Heinrich Böll, Karl Carstens, Gustav Heinemann, Karolos Papoulias, Erich Gutenberg, Axel Ockenfels, Eberhard Voit. List of medieval universities Erich Meuthen: Kölner Universitätsgeschichte, Band I: Die alte Universität, 1988, ISBN 3-412-06287-1 Bernd Heimbüchel und Klaus Pabst: Kölner Universitätsgeschichte, Band II: Das 19
Second War of Kappel
The Second War of Kappel was an armed conflict in 1531 between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy during the Reformation in Switzerland. The tensions between the two parties had not been resolved by the peace concluded after the First War of Kappel two years earlier, provocations from both sides continued, fuelled in particular by the Augsburg Confession of 1530. Additionally, the Roman Catholic party accused Zürich of territorial ambitions; as the Catholic cantons refused to help the Three Leagues in the Grisons during the Musso war against the Duchy of Milan, Zürich promptly considered this a breach of contracts between the confederacy and the Three Leagues and declared an embargo against the five alpine Catholic cantons, in which Bern participated. While the Tagsatzung had mediated in 1529, on this occasion the attempt failed, not least because Zwingli, the Protestant leader, was eager for a military confrontation. Pressed by the food embargo, the Catholic cantons declared war on Zürich on 9 October 1531.
On 11 October 1531 a force of 7,000 soldiers from the five Catholic cantons met an army of only 2,000 men from Zürich at the Battle of Kappel. Zürich's army was unsupported by the other Protestant cantons and was led by Zwingli, while the combined Catholic army was led by Hans Jauch of Uri; the main Zürich force arrived at the battlefield in scattered groups and exhausted from a forced march. The Catholic forces attacked and after a brief resistance, the Protestant army broke around 4 in the afternoon. About 500 Protestants were killed in the while fleeing. Among the dead was Zwingli and twenty-four other pastors. Zwingli's body was burned as a heretic. After the defeat, the forces of Zürich regrouped and attempted to occupy the Zugerberg, some of them camped on the Gubel hill near Menzingen. Following the defeat at Kappel and other Reformed Cantons marched to rescue Zürich. Between 15–21 October, a large Reformed army marched up the Reuss valley to outside of Baar. At the same time, the Catholic army was now encamped on the slopes of the Zugerberg.
The combined Zürich-Bern army attempted to send 5,000 men over Sihlbrugg and Menzingen to encircle the army on the Zugerberg. However, the Reformed army marched due to poor discipline and looting. By the night of 23–24 October, they had only reached Gubel at Menzingen; that night they were driven off. About 600 Protestant soldiers died in the panicked retreat that followed; this defeat destroyed much of the combined Zürich-Bern army and, faced with increasing desertion, it retreated on 3 November back down the Reuss to Bremgarten. The retreat left much of Lake Zürich itself unprotected. Zürich now pushed for a rapid peace settlement. Heinrich Bullinger, a teacher at Kappel, since 1523 an outspoken supporter of Zwingli's, at the time of the battle was pastor at Bremgarten. Following the Battle of Kappel, Bremgarten was re-catholicized. On 21 October, Bullinger fled to Zürich with his father, on 9 December was declared Zwingli's successor; the peace that ended the war, the so-called Zweiter Landfrieden forced the dissolution of the Protestant alliance.
It gave Catholicism the priority in the common territories, but allowed communes or parishes that had converted to remain Protestant. Only strategically important places such as the Freiamt or those along the route from Schwyz to the Rhine valley at Sargans were forcibly re-catholicised. One result of the treaty—probably not anticipated by its signatories—was the long-term establishment of religious coexistence in several Swiss subject territories. In both the Thurgau and Aargau, for example and Protestant congregations began worshiping in the same churches, which led to further tensions and conflicts throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; the treaty confirmed each canton's right to practice either the Catholic or Reformed faith, thus defining the Swiss Confederation as a state with two religions, a relative novelty in Western Europe. The outcome of the war confirmed and cemented the Catholic majority among the thirteen full members of the Swiss Confederation: after settlements in Glarus and Appenzell, seven full and two half cantons remained Catholic, while four and two halves became Swiss Reformed Protestant.
An unsuccessful effort by the Protestant cantons Zürich, to change the terms of confessional coexistence in 1656, the First War of Villmergen, led to a reaffirmation of the status quo in the Dritter Landfrieden. A second religious civil war in 1712, the Second War of Vilmergen, ended in a decisive Protestant victory and major revisions in the fourth Landfrieden of 1712. First War of Kappel First War of Villmergen Toggenburg War or Second War of Villmergen Sonderbund War W. Schaufelberger, Kappel - Die Hintergründe einer militärschen Katastrophe, in SAVk 51, 1955, 34-61. Reformation in Switzerland Johannes Salat