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Protestant Reformers

Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. In the context of the Reformation, Martin Luther was the first reformer, followed by people like Andreas Karlstadt and Philip Melanchthon at Wittenberg, who promptly joined the new movement. In 1519, Huldrych Zwingli became the first reformer to express a form of the Reformed tradition. Listed are the most influential reformers only, they are listed by movement. For a full and detailed list of all known reformers, see List of Protestant Reformers. Throughout the Middle Ages, there were a number of Christian sects and movements that sought a return to the purity of the Apostolic church and whose teachings foreshadowed Protestant ideas; some of the main groups were: Paulicians. Some of those whose doctrines influenced Protestant movements were: Arnold of Brescia other early Arnoldist reformers Peter Waldo other early Waldensian reformers John Wycliffe other early Lollard reformers John Hus Jerome of Prague Petr Chelčický other early Hussite reformers Girolamo Savonarola Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného other early independent reformers There were a number of key reformers within the Magisterial Reformation, including: Martin Luther Philipp Melanchthon Justus Jonas Martin Chemnitz Georg Spalatin Joachim Westphal Andreas Osiander Johannes Brenz Johannes Bugenhagen Hans Tausen Mikael Agricola Primož Trubar Jiří Třanovský Huldrych Zwingli Martin Bucer John Calvin Heinrich Bullinger Theodore Beza William Farel John Knox Andreas Karlstadt a Radical Reformer Wolfgang Capito Johannes Oecolampadius Peter Martyr Vermigli Leo Jud Thomas Cranmer Thomas Cromwell Matthew Parker William Tyndale Hugh Latimer Jacobus Arminius Ferenc Dávid Important reformers of the Radical Reformation included: Thomas Müntzer Zwickau prophets John of Leiden Sebastian Franck Menno Simons Dirk Willems Kaspar Schwenkfeld There were a number of people who cooperated with the Radical Reformers, but separated from them to form a "Second Front", principally in objection to sacralism.

Among these were: Johannes Bünderlin Hans Denck Christian Entfelder Conrad Grebel Balthasar Hubmaier Felix Manz Roman Catholics who worked against the Protestant Reformation included: Girolamo Aleandro Augustine Alveld Thomas Cajetan Johann Cochlaeus Johann Eck Jerome Emser Pope Leo X John Tetzel Thomas More Ignatius Loyola Francis de Sales Pope Paul III Francis Xavier Peter Faber Diego Laynez List of Protestant Reformers George, Timothy. Theology of the Reformers. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman Press, 1988. N. B.: Comparative studies of the various leaders of the Magisterial and Radical movements of the 16th century Protestant Reformation


Solihull is a large town and administrative centre in England with a population of 123,187 in the 2011 Census. In Warwickshire, it is the largest town in, administrative centre of, the larger Metropolitan Borough of Solihull, which itself has a population of 214,909. Solihull is situated 7.5 miles southeast of Birmingham, 18 miles northwest of Warwick and 110 miles northwest of London. Solihull is the most affluent town of the West Midlands, one of the most affluent areas in the UK outside London. In November 2013, the uSwitch Quality of Life Index named Solihull the "best place to live" in the United Kingdom. Solihull's name is thought to have derived from the position of its parish church, St Alphege, on a'soily' hill; the church was built on a hill of stiff red marl. The town is noted for its historic architecture, which includes surviving examples of timber framed Tudor style houses and shops; the historic Solihull School dates from 1560. The red sandstone parish church of St. Alphege dates from a similar period and is a large and handsome example of English Gothic church architecture, with a traditional spire 168 feet high, making it visible from a great distance.

It is a Grade I listed building. It was founded in about 1220 by Hugh de Oddingsell. A chantry chapel was founded there by Sir William de Oddingsell in 1277 and the upper chapel in St Alphege was built for a chantry. Unlike Birmingham, the Industrial Revolution passed Solihull by and until the 20th century Solihull remained a small market town. World War II had minimal effect on Solihull. Neighbouring Coventry and Birmingham were damaged by repeated German bombing raids but apart from some attacks on what is now the Land Rover plant, the airport and the local railway lines, Solihull escaped intact. In 1901, the population of the town was just 7,500; this growth was due to a number of factors including a large slum clearance programme in Birmingham, the development of the Rover car plant, the expansion of what was Elmdon Airport into Birmingham International Airport and most the release of large tracts of land for housing development attracting inward migration of new residents from across the UK.

Until the early 1960s, the main high street remained much as it would have been in the late 19th century with several streets of Victorian terraced houses linking High Street with Warwick Road. The construction of the central shopping area known as Mell Square involved the demolition of properties in Mill Lane and Drury Lane, some of which were several hundred years old, together with that of the large Victorian Congregational Church that had stood on the corner of Union Street and Warwick Road. On the right along High Street from St Alphege's Church porch is one of the town's oldest landmarks, The George, which dates from the 16th century, it is now called the Ramada Jarvis Hotel. On 23 November 1981, an F0/T1 tornado touched down in nearby Shirley; the tornado moved over Solihull town centre, causing some damage to the town centre before dissipating. Arden Golf Club, was founded in 1891; the course was still appearing on maps into the 1930s. Due to its growth, Solihull was promoted from an urban district to a municipal borough, the honour being bestowed by Princess Margaret.

In 1964, Solihull on this occasion the Queen bestowed the honour. In 1974, the Solihull county borough was merged with the rural district surrounding Meriden to form the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull; this includes the districts known as Shirley, Dorridge, Balsall Common, Castle Bromwich and Chelmsley Wood. The member of parliament for the Solihull constituency is Conservative Julian Knight, who won his seat in 2015. There are 17 wards in Solihull; each ward is represented by three councillors at Solihull Metropolitan Borough Council, making a total of 51 councillors. The mayor is elected by the Council and is Stuart Davis of the Conservative Party. Solihull has no university. However, Solihull College known as the Solihull College of Technology, incorporates a University Centre which offers several foundation degree and full degree courses in technical subject areas such as computer sciences and engineering; as yet it has not applied to attain university college status. There is a sixth form college located on the outskirts of the town centre.

This is known as Solihull Sixth Form College. Solihull School is located on Warwick Road near the centre of the town, it was founded in 1560 and celebrated its 450th anniversary in 2010. Solihull had a'Wave 1' proposal of the Building Schools for the Future investment programme approved, they were awarded over £80 million to transform six schools in the north of the borough in December 2004. As a result of the funding, there will be six new schools constructed within seven years; the school curriculum will be redesigned as well as a further £6 million investment in managed ICT services. The six schools to be rebuilt are Park Hall, Smith's Wood, Archbishop Grimshaw, Lanchester Special School and Forest Oak and Merstone special schools. Forest Oak and Merstone have been rebuilt on one site. Lanchester, Park Hall and Smi


Extracellular superoxide dismutase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SOD3 gene. This gene encodes a member of the superoxide dismutase protein family. SODs are antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of two superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen; the product of this gene is thought to protect the brain and other tissues from oxidative stress. The protein is secreted into the extracellular space and forms a glycosylated homotetramer, anchored to the extracellular matrix and cell surfaces through an interaction with heparan sulfate proteoglycan and collagen. A fraction of the protein is cleaved near the C-terminus before secretion to generate circulating tetramers that do not interact with the ECM. Among black garden ants, the lifespan of queens is an order of magnitude greater than of workers despite no systematic nucleotide sequence difference between them; the SOD3 gene was found to be the most differentially over-expressed gene in the brains of queen vs worker ants.

This finding raises the possibility that SOD3 antioxidant activity plays a key role in the striking longevity of social insect queens

John Gary Evans

John Gary Evans was the 85th Governor of South Carolina from 1894 to 1897. Evans was born in South Carolina to an aristocratic and well-connected family, his father was Nathan George Evans, a Confederate general, after his father died in 1868, he went to live in Edgefield with his uncle Martin Witherspoon Gary. After completing his secondary education in Cokesbury, he enrolled at Union College in Schenectady, New York, his uncle's death in 1881 forced him to withdraw from college due to financial constraints, but he would graduate in 1883. Admitted to the bar in 1887, Evans began the practice of law in Aiken and became known for his representation of poor farmers which led to the development of ties with John Lawrence Manning and Benjamin Tillman, he was elected in 1888 to the South Carolina House of Representatives at the age of 25 and elevated four years in 1892 to the South Carolina Senate. His rapid political rise continued by being elected in 1894 as the 85th governor of South Carolina at the age of 31, youngest for a South Carolina governor.

During his time as governor, Evans continued the policies of Tillman and presided over the constitution convention of 1895. Pledging not to run for reelection as governor in 1896, Evans set his sights instead for the U. S. Senate race, he lost the election and his attempt for an open Senate seat in 1897 again proved unsuccessful. Frustrated, Evans volunteered as a major in the U. S. Army for the Spanish–American War in 1898 and helped create the civilian government of Havana. After the war, he resumed the practice of law in Spartanburg. Further attempts at an open Senate seat in 1902 and 1908 proved futile and henceforward he focused his energies on internal Democratic politics. Three times he served as a delegate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1900, 1912 and 1916. In 1914, he became the chairman of the South Carolina Democratic State Executive Committee and from 1918 to 1928 was the National Democratic Committeeman from South Carolina. Evans won a term to the South Carolina House of Representatives in 1922 from Spartanburg and served on the judiciary and rules committees.

On June 26, 1942, Evans died, was buried at Willowbrook Cemetery in Edgefield. His Spartanburg home was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007. SCIway Biography of John Gary Evans USC Biography of John Gary Evans Marion County Biography of John Gary Evans

P Henderson & Company

P Henderson & Company known as Paddy Henderson, was a ship owning and management company based in Glasgow and operating to Burma. Patrick Henderson started business in Glasgow as a merchant at the age of 25 in 1834, he had three brothers. Two were merchants working for an agent in the Italian port of Leghorn; the brothers together invested in their first ship, the Peter Senn, the business grew from there. Patrick died in 1841, the business was taken over by his brother, Captain George Henderson. In 1848, George took into partnership a young man of outstanding ability, James Galbraith, who expanded the business from merchants, to ship owners and ship managers; the Company started trading to New Zealand in 1854 with sailing ships carrying Scottish emigrants, the Royal Mail. In 1860, there being little cargo from New Zealand to Scotland, P Henderson & Co started to call at Burma with a regular service; this trade grew so that in order to raise further capital, several new partners came in to form the Albion Shipping Company Ltd as ship owners.

The vessels were managed by P. Co.. The Albion Shipping Company became the dominant British company in the New Zealand trade, holders of the mail contract. In 1869 the Suez Canal was opened, making steamships more economic on the Glasgow – Burma route, so in 1870 P. Henderson & Co. started a steamship service between Glasgow and Burma. No mail contract was available on this route. In 1874 the British and Burmese Steam Navigation Company Ltd was formed to increase the capital and spread the risk of the Burmese side of the business as it grew from the era of sailing ships into more expensive and much larger steamships. BBSN took over the fleet of steamships on the Burma route, appointed P Henderson and Co as managing agents. Most of the shares in the new company were taken up by their associates. Ships' Masters were encouraged to take shares. Peter Denny took about a fifth of the capital. 1882 saw P. Co. pioneer the first frozen meat shipment from New Zealand to London. It used refrigerated sailing ships, because as yet there were no coaling stations en route, without them a steamship would have to have such large coal bunkers that they would take up too much valuable cargo space.

Steam propulsion increased trading possibilities and capital requirements that were beyond the capabilities of P. Henderson or the Albion Shipping Company to fulfil on their own, so in 1882, the Albion Shipping Company amalgamated with Shaw and Company to form the Shaw and Albion Company Ltd. After the amalgamation, P. Henderson & Co remained as managers and loading brokers for the new company in Glasgow. British and Burmese Steam Navigation Company Ltd remained as a shipowning company along with another member of the group, the Burmah Steam Ship Company Ltd. James Galbraith, the driving force of P. Henderson & Co, died in 1884, his death marked the end of an era of private capital, of pioneering and of expansion into unknown countries and technologies. In 1905 a P Henderson steamship, the cargo ship Ava, ran aground and was wrecked 9 nautical miles off Maulmain in Burma. Henderson's replaced the ship with a new Ava built the following year, but the new ship's career was cut short in the First World War, when she disappeared in January 1917 with the loss of all 92 persons aboard.

There is no Imperial German Navy record of her sinking, but she is presumed to have been sunk off the south coast of Ireland. That year P Henderson lost one more ship to enemy action. On 8 July 1917 the U-boat SM U-57 torpedoed the passenger and cargo ship Pegu off the south coast of Ireland. All but one of those aboard survived. Just after the Armistice with Germany P Henderson lost another ship: on 19 December 1918 the passenger and cargo ship Tenasserim was destroyed by fire in Rangoon. In the 1920s and'30s P Henderson had a number of new ships built, including a new Pegu in 1921. P Henderson suffered greater losses in the Second World War. On 24 November 1939 the Pegu ran around in the area of the Crosby Channel off Liverpool, she was wrecked in separate bow and stern sections. On 13 July 1940 the German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis sank the passenger and cargo liner Kemmendine in the middle of the Indian Ocean by shellfire. On 9 April 1942 the passenger ship Sagaing was in Trincomalee in Ceylon when aircraft from a Japanese aircraft carrier attacked her and set her afire.

Her crew abandoned ship and she was sunk by shellfire. The Sagaing was raised by the Sri Lankan Eastern Naval Command unit in March 2018. On 1 August 1942 the cargo ship Kalewa collided with the Dutch liner Boringia off the coast of South Africa. Kalewa sank but Boringia rescued everyone aboard. P Henderson's heaviest losses were in 1943. On 2 April the German submarine U-124 sank the cargo ship Katha by torpedo off the coast of Portugal, killing six of her crew. On 9 May U-123 sank the cargo and passenger ship Kanbe by torpedo off the coast of West Africa, killing all 66 people aboard. On 17 June U-81 sank. Yoma had been converted into a troopship, the sinking killed 484 people. On 24 July U-199 sank the cargo ship Henzada by torpedo off the coast of Brazil, killing two members of the crew. Elder, Dempster Lines chartered P Henderson's fleet from 1947 and took over the company in 1952. Under Elder, Dempster modernisation of the P Henderson fleet continued, with new motor ships being delivered until at least 1961.

In 1965 Ocean Steamship Co acquired control of the Dempster group. In 1967 after the Six-Day War Egypt closed the Suez Canal, so Ocean SS Co discontinued the Burm

Engel (role-playing game)

Engel is a role-playing game. The original German version uses a rule system in which the gamemaster and players draw associative, tarot-like cards instead of rolling dice to determine the outcome of an event; the English version of Engel does not include the Arcana system at all. The German version includes d20 rules in addition to the Arcana system; the game was published by the German publisher Feder&Schwert, who published the World of Darkness RPG series in Germany and used to publish the Dungeons & Dragons series. In the flooded, quasi-medieval Europe of 2654, massive islands are the domains of the orders of the Angelitic Church; the Engel the angels of Judeo-Christian belief, patrol the skies from their fortresslike Heavens, ceaselessly striving to defend the people of Europe against the hordes of the verminous. The eternally youthful Pontifex Maximus in Roma Æterna, in Italy, presides over a bureaucratic and autocratic church, having combined religious and secular power into a integrated whole.

Within its dominion, dark riders take a tithe of every village's children for the unknown purposes of the church. Many of the cities have broken away from the direct command of the Church, coming under the sway of Junklords who keep alive what remains of antediluvian technology. In the face of real and quantifiable evil, the people of Europe turn away from the direct political and spiritual leadership of the church; as the numbers of the Engel plateau, players must navigate politics and faith as the guardians of Europe. Five orders of angels serve the Angelic Church in Roma Æterna; the Michaelites are the leaders of the hosts. The Order of Michael Named after the archangel Michael, the members of this order are trained in the arts of strategy and leadership. With their unique mental powers, they are the perfect commanders of the heavenly hosts. Like the archangel himself, the Michaelites are deemed the purest and most godlike of all angels, their crest features a key. The Heaven of the Michaelites stands in Roma Æterna.

Their traditional color is gold. The Order of Uriel Named after the archangel Uriel, this order keeps the knowledge of the ways of the Lord; the Urielites are the messengers among the angels. As such, their gift enables them to find their way in the dark of night or in the middle of a thunderstorm, they are very capable foragers, can find food and water in the loneliest desert. The all-seeing eye is their crest; the Heaven of the Urielites has been erected in Mont Salvage in the Pyrenees. Their colour is green; the Order of Gabriel Named after the archangel Gabriel, this angelic order is the most feared. These warriors of God called the angels of death, are trained to fight and kill in every imaginable way. With the flaming sword, the symbol of the order, they deal out the Lord's judgment; the Heaven of the Gabrielites is located near the ancient German town of Nürnberg. The colour of their order is black; the Order of Ramiel This order follows Jeremiel. The Ramielites are the sages among the other orders.

Their divine gift lets. Their crest is the alpha and omega; the Heaven of the Ramielites is located in the ancient Czech town of Prague, the new Venice of the east. The colour of their order is blue; the Order of Raphael This order, named after the archangel Raphael, is accustomed to the ways of healing. A touch of their hands can soothe pain, heal wounds, banish misery. Many Raphaelites refrain from violence and do not carry weapons, their crest shows the healing hand. The Heaven of the Raphaelites is located near Grenoble in the French Alps, their colour is silver. The book follows the standard d20 System convention of six primary statistics, levels, experience points and skills. Normal humans have access to only the aristocrat, expert, fighter and warrior classes; the Engel have access to special abilities restricted to their bands. There is no magic; such powers drain the hit points of the Engel. All core mechanics are included, in the Engel Corebook. Equipment of the quasi-medieval setting of Engel is described, along with rules for pre-Flood artifacts such as firearms and ceramic armor.

A small selection of NPCs and sample player characters is provided, along with a map of the new Europe and a more-or-less complete history of the World of Engel since the Flood. Certain sections are explicitly forbidden for players to read, as they contain spoilers about the overall plot. Nonhuman NPCs are only detailed though mentioned. Described by Shannon Appelcline as "Perhaps the most unusual d20 book published directly by White Wolf" was Engel Corebook, a early OGL-licensed release that took a German post-apocalyptic fantasy game published by Feder & Schwert and converted it to d20. Appelcline stated that "It was notable as a rare German game that made it