Heinrich Schliemann was a German businessman and a pioneer in the field of archaeology. He was an advocate of the historicity of places mentioned in the works of Homer and an archaeological excavator of Hisarlik, now presumed to be the site of Troy, along with the Mycenaean sites Mycenae and Tiryns, his work lent weight to the idea. Schliemann's excavation of nine levels of archaeological remains with dynamite has been criticized as destructive of significant historical artifacts, including the level, believed to be the historical Troy. Along with Arthur Evans, Schliemann was a pioneer in the study of Aegean civilization in the Bronze Age; the two men knew of each other. Schliemann had died before fulfilling that dream. Evans bought the site and stepped in to take charge of the project, still in its infancy. Schliemann was born January 1822 Heinrich Schliemann in Neubukow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, his father, Ernst Schliemann, was a Lutheran minister. The family moved to Ankershagen in 1823. Heinrich's father was a poor Pastor.
His mother, Luise Therese Sophie Schliemann, died in 1831. After his mother's death, his father sent Heinrich to live with his uncle; when he was eleven years old, his father paid. Heinrich's interest in history was encouraged by his father, who had schooled him in the tales of the Iliad and the Odyssey and had given him a copy of Ludwig Jerrer's Illustrated History of the World for Christmas in 1829. Schliemann claimed that at the age of 7 he had declared he would one day excavate the city of Troy. However, Heinrich had to transfer to the Realschule after his father was accused of embezzling church funds and had to leave that institution in 1836 when his father was no longer able to pay for it, his family's poverty made a university education impossible, so it was Schliemann's early academic experiences that influenced the course of his education as an adult. In his archaeological career, there was a division between Schliemann and the educated professionals. At age 14, after leaving Realschule, Heinrich became an apprentice at Herr Holtz's grocery in Fürstenberg.
He told that his passion for Homer was born when he heard a drunkard reciting it at the grocer's. He laboured for five years, until he was forced to leave because he burst a blood vessel lifting a heavy barrel. In 1841, Schliemann moved to Hamburg and became a cabin boy on the Dorothea, a steamer bound for Venezuela. After twelve days at sea, the ship foundered in a gale; the survivors washed up on the shores of the Netherlands. Schliemann became a messenger, office attendant, a bookkeeper in Amsterdam. On March 1, 1844, 22-year-old Schliemann took a position with B. H. Schröder & Co. an import/export firm. In 1846, the firm sent him as a General Agent to St. Petersburg. In time, Schliemann represented a number of companies, he learned Greek, employing a system that he used his entire life to learn languages. By the end of his life, he could converse in English, Dutch, Portuguese, Polish, Greek, Russian and Turkish as well as German. Schliemann's ability with languages was an important part of his career as a businessman in the importing trade.
In 1850, he learned of the death of his brother, who had become wealthy as a speculator in the California gold fields. Schliemann went to California in early 1851 and started a bank in Sacramento buying and reselling over a million dollars' worth of gold dust in just six months; when the local Rothschild agent complained about short-weight consignments he left California, pretending it was because of illness. While he was there, California became the 31st state in September 1850, Schliemann acquired United States citizenship. While this story was propounded in Schliemann's autobiography of 1881, Christo Thanos and Wout Arentzen, state that Schliemann was in St Petersburg that day, "in actual fact...obtained his American citizenship only in 1869." According to his memoirs, before arriving in California he dined in Washington, D. C. with President Millard Fillmore and his family, but Eric Cline says that Schliemann didn't attend but read about it in the papers. Schliemann published what he said was an eyewitness account of the San Francisco Fire of 1851, which he said was in June although it took place in May.
At the time he was in Sacramento and used the report of the fire in the Sacramento Daily Journal to write his report. On April 7, 1852, he returned to Russia. There he attempted to live the life of a gentleman, which brought him into contact with Ekaterina Petrovna Lyschin, the niece of one of his wealthy friends. Schliemann had learned that his childhood sweetheart, had married. Heinrich and Ekaterina married on October 12, 1852; the marriage was troubled from the start. Schliemann next cornered the market in indigo dye and went into the indigo business itself, turning a good profit. Ekaterina and Heinrich had a son and two daughters and Nadezhda. Schliemann made yet another quick fortune as a military contractor in the Crimean War, 1854–1856, he cornered the market in saltpeter and lead, constituents of ammunition, which he resold to the Russian g
Peter Haddock is an English former footballer who played in the Football League as a Centre Back or Right Back for Newcastle United and Leeds United. Haddock was born in Newcastle upon Tyne, joined his home-town club as an apprentice in 1978, turning professional the following year, he made his debut in the Football League on 5 September 1981 in a 3–0 defeat at Queens Park Rangers in the Second Division. He played in a calm and collected manner and got a good run in the side during 1981–82 but lost his place halfway through the following season following the arrival of Glenn Roeder and Jeff Clarke, he remained at the club, playing only infrequently, had a spell on loan at Burnley, before leaving for Leeds United in July 1986 for a fee of £45,000. During the early part of his career at Leeds he suffered a series of injuries, limiting his first-team appearances; however once he had returned he won player of the year in 1988. Under the stewardship of Howard Wilkinson "Fish", as he was known, became a crucial part of the defensive unit alongside Chris Fairclough that won promotion as Second Division champions in 1989–90.
His career was cut short however when he suffered a freak injury in the second leg of the League Cup semi-final against Manchester United in 1991, as Leeds went out 3–1 on aggregate. Interview with Haddock at The Square Ball fansite
Arlette Leroi-Gourhan was a French archaeologist in that she initiated the use of palynology as part of archaeological studies. She contributed to archaeological excavations, she was President of Société Préhistorique Française, following her work at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique. Her two most famous works are the discovery of the "flower burial" in Shanidar 4 tomb, the analysis of Ramses II's mummy. Leroi-Gourhan was born Arlette Royer on 9 January 1913 in Paris, to a family of wealthy manufacturers; as a child she partook in sports and arts, as well as travelling throughout Europe and Northern Africa. She studied at École du Louvre, École des hautes études en sciences sociales. At EHESS, she met André Leroi-Gourhan. Royer and Leroi-Gourhan married in 1936, travelled to Japan the following year when André took up a two-year position funded by the Government of Japan. Leroi-Gourhan focused her research on a non-existent field of study at the time, she wrote some 180 papers on the subject and associated topics between 1956 and 2002, some 35 of which were co-written with her husband or/and other scientists.
She started a laboratory at Musée de l'Homme. André Leroi-Gourhan lead the prehistory department at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique, so he encouraged Arlette not to seek a position at the centre in order to avoid the appearance of nepotism. Subsequently, she served as a "director without position" for CNRS. In 1971 Leroi-Gourhan served as President of the Société Préhistorique Française. During their marriage and André Leroi-Gourhan only published one paper together, however Arlette published a paper based on her husband's earlier research in Japan following his death in 1986