SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hejaz

The Hejaz is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. The name of the region is derived from the Arabic root Ḥ-J-Z, meaning "to separate," and it is so called as it separates the land of the Najd in the east from the land of Tihamah in the west, it is known as the "Western Province." It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by Jordan, on the east by the Najd, on the south by the'Asir Region. Its largest city is Jeddah, the second largest city in Saudi Arabia, with Mecca and Medina being the fourth and fifth largest cities in Saudi Arabia; the Hejaz is significant for being the location of the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina, the first and second holiest sites in Islam, respectively. As the site of the two holiest sites in Islam, the Hejaz has significance in the Arab and Islamic historical and political landscape; the Hejaz is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia, containing 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia. Arabic is the predominant language as in the rest of Saudi Arabia, with Hejazi Arabic being most spoken dialect in the region.

Hejazi Saudis are of ethnically diverse origins. The region is the birthplace of the Islamic Ummah of Muhammad, born in Mecca, locally considered to have been founded by the Biblical figures Abraham and Ishmael; the area became part of his empire through the early Muslim conquests, it formed part of successive caliphates, first the Rashidun caliphate, the Umayyad caliphate and the Abbasid caliphate. The Ottoman Empire held partial control over the area of Hejaz. After its dissolution, an independent Kingdom of Hejaz existed in 1925 before being conquered by the neighbouring Sultanate of Nejd, creating the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd. In September 1932, the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd joined the Saudi dominions of Al-Hasa and Qatif, creating the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; the Hejaz is the most cosmopolitan region in the Arabian Peninsula. People of Hejaz have the most articulated identity of any regional grouping in Saudi Arabia, their place of origin alienates them from the Saudi state, which invokes different narratives of the history of the Arabian Peninsula.

One or two megalithic dolmen have been found in the Hijaz. The Hejaz includes both the Mahd adh-Dhahab and a water source, now dried out, that used to flow 600 miles north east to the Persian Gulf via the Wadi Al-Rummah and Wadi Al-Batin system. Archaeological research led by of Boston University and the University of Qassim indicates that the river system was active in 8000 BCE and 2500–3000 BCE; the northern part of the Hejaz was part of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea. Saudi Arabia's first World Heritage Site, recognized by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is that of Al-Hijr; the name "Al-Ḥijr" occurs in the Quran, the site is known for having structures carved into rocks, similar to Petra. Construction of the structures is credited to the people of Thamud; the location is called "Madā’in Ṣāliḥ", as it is speculated to be the city in which the Islamic Nabī Salih was sent to the people of Thamud. After the disappearance of Thamud from Mada'in Saleh, it came under the influence of other people, such as the Nabataeans, whose capital was Petra.

It would lie in a route used by Muslim Pilgrims going to Mecca. According to Arab and Islamic sources, the civilization of Mecca started after Ibrāhīm brought his son Ismāʿīl and wife Hājar here, for the latter two to stay; some people from the Yemeni tribe of Jurhum settled with them, Isma'il married two women, one after divorcing another, at least one of them from this tribe, helped his father to construct or re-construct the Ka'bah, which would have social, religious and historical implications for the site and region. For example, in Arab or Islamic belief, the tribe of Quraysh would descend from Isma'il ibn Ibrahim, be based in the vicinity of the Ka'bah, include Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf. From the Period of Jāhiliyyah to the days of Muhammad, the often-warring Arab tribes would cease their hostilities during the time of Pilgrimage, go on pilgrimage to Mecca, as inspired by Ibrahim, it was during such an occasion that Muhammad met some Medinans who would allow him to migrate to Medina, to escape persecution by his opponents in Mecca.

As the land of Mecca and Medina, the Hijaz was where Muhammad was born, where he founded a Monotheistic Ummah of followers, bore patience with his foes or struggled against them, migrated from one place to another, preached or implemented his beliefs and died. Given that he had both followers and enemies here, a number of battles or expeditions were carried out in this area, like those of Al-Aḥzāb, Badr and Ḥunayn, they involved both Meccan companions, such as Hamzah ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Ubaydah ibn al-Harith and Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Medinan companions. The Hijaz fell under Muhammad's influence as he emerged victorious over his opponents, was thus a part of his empire. Due to the presence of the two holy cities in the Hijaz, the region was ruled by numerous empires; the Hijaz was at the center of the Rashidun Caliphate, in particular whilst its capital was Medina from 632 to 656 ACE. The region was under the control of regional powers such as Egypt and the Ottoman Empire, throughout much of its history.

In 1916, Sharif Hussein ibn Ali proclaimed himself King of an independent Hejaz, as a result of the McMahon–Hussein Corre

Josefina, Zamboanga del Sur

Josefina the Municipality of Josefina, is a 5th class municipality in the province of Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 11,799 people. Josefina is politically subdivided into 14 barangays. In the early years the lands of, now Josefina was part of the Municipality of Aurora. In years, Molave separated from Aurora and became a town; some years Tambulig became independent and was recognized as a township with the land of Josefina still tagged as part of its territories. During this time the first Visayan settlers came to live in the area; these settlers came from Tudela, Misamis Occidental, a barrio part of Tambulig was established and was named Bagong Tudela. Some years passed and the Paredes family, one of the first settlers, was able to acquire properties there and named it "Salug Estate". A member of the family was worked in Borneo, he brought along his lessons and expertise and together with the locals, "the Subanen", planted his land with Rubber Trees.

By the Rubber Technologist, Nicholas Paredes, coined the name "New Town" for the new rubber plantation. With the rubber plantation, the place was locally called as "Gumahan"; this became small businesses came bustling. With the increased activity in this new location it was christened as "Upper Bagong Tudela"; this became the center of the new community. In the early 1970s, the people of Gumahan and its outlying barrios made a move, through the leadership of Nicholas Paredes, to create a town, they were able to submit the proposal to congress, through the sponsorship of Cong. Cerilles, it passed the 2nd congressional reading; when scheduled for the 3rd and final congressional reading, Martial Law was declared dissolving the Congress. On November 11, 1978, by virtue of Presidential Decree 1240, 13 barangays of Tambulig were separated and formed into the independent municipality Josefina. During this time Nicholas Paredes stood as the first Mayor. Mayor Paredes donated the land where now stands the Market Area, the school, the Municipal Hall and the Catholic Church.

The town center is located within the properties of the Paredes family. Josefina was named after the mother of Congressman Cerilles, a known educator in Zamboanga Del Sur; as to this day Josefina is still known as "Gumahan". Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information

Precoce Migoule (chestnut)

The Precoce Migoule is chestnut hybrid, a natural cross between a European chestnut and a Japanese chestnut. It was discovered by J. Dufrenoy at the orchard of Migoule in Brive-la-Gaillarde; the tree is vigorous and erect growing with growth of 3 or more feet in a season if the conditions are right. It is a large sized chestnut tree with height reaching more and 25-35 feet wide. Trees can bear after 3 to 5 years. Full production in 12 - 20 years depending on the location; this hybrid can be grown in many areas. It is cold hardy to -20F. In an orchard with South West orientation it can be grown up to 500 m elevation, it is frost sensitive but can produce nuts from secondary buds. It is an early ripening variety - great for northern climates where late ripening varieties can get damaged by frost - a dependable producer in cool regions. Precoce Migoule is susceptible to bark canker, resistant to rust; the pollen has low to medium fertility. In the Northern hemisphere, the bloom period for the male catkins is June 15-30 female flowers June 25 - July 10.

It can pollinize all Castanea sativa cultivars and can get pollinated by Basalta #3, Belle Epine, Ginyose, Marsol and Vignols. Phytophthora resistance is poor on its own root stock, it is better to graft Precoce Migoule onto ink disease resistant rootstock of Marsol, Maraval or Marigoule. Trees drop nuts free of the burr. Nut fall is mid to late September and continuing until the first week into October. Depending on the root graft, the nuts can be large. Precoce Migoule is a variety of chestnuts with more than 12% double embryos, still commercially acceptable because of its large nuts; the color of the nuts is light mahogany. The nuts are as sensitive to kernel rot as Marron du Var and Marsol and exhibit higher sensitivity to kernel rot than Bouche de Betizac, Mardonne and Marigoule; the flavor of the roasted nuts is variously described as good good to excellent. Nuts store well. Nut production is for the fresh market. "Châtaignes et marrons" - Henri BREISCH - éditeur CTIFL - 1995Hennion, B.. Chestnut.

In: Badenes M. Byrne D. Fruit Breeding. Handbook of Plant Breeding, vol 8. Springer, Boston, MA Andrea Vannini and Anna Maria Vettraino.