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Helgeandsholmen

Helgeandsholmen is a small island in central Stockholm, Sweden. It is located north of Stadsholmen, east of Strömsborg, with which, together with Riddarholmen, it forms Gamla stan, the old town of Stockholm. Helgeandsholmen contains the Riksdag Building and the Museum of Medieval Stockholm, is connected to neighbouring islands through three bridges: Riksbron and Norrbro; the terrace in the eastern end, called Strömparterren, is a public park with a restaurant dating from 1832, while the flight of stairs leading down to the water is from 1807-1810. The quay west of the Riksdag Building once surrounded Sweden's central bank Sveriges Riksbank and was thus named Bankkajen, while the streets on southern and northern sides are called Norra/Södra Helgeandstrappan, all of them named in 1925. First mentioned in a letter written in Latin July 28, 1320 the name'Helgeandsholmen', a corruption of Helige andens holme, appears as in insula dicta helghaanzsholm. At the time, helgeandshus was a name used for charitable institutions spiritual in nature, in Stockholm first mentioned in a testament from April 24, 1301.

Though one regular shaped island today, Helgeandsholmen was until quite a set of islets. Before the start of extensive archaeological excavations in 1978, it was traditionally believed that the present island once encompassed three islets: A larger main island to the south, called Helgeandsholmen from the 14th century; the excavations, convincingly showed that during the early Middle Ages this island in fact consisted of two smaller islets, of which we know nothing. And, north of this major island, two smaller ones, once the property of the abbey at Klara: One called Barkarholmen, suggesting there was a tanning business here as bark was an important raw material for tanning; this islet was known as Klosterholmen. And, east of Barkarholmen, a rocky islet called Lilla Stockholm in the 16th century, renamed Bryggeriholmen during the 17th century, after that called Slaktarholmen after a slaughterhouse operating there. Lilla Stockholm disappeared when Norrbro was completed in 1806; as mentioned above, a charitable institution organized by a pious foundation was located on the island, receiving sick people and elderly as well as foreigners, accepting donations from burghers in city, through which the institution became an important landowner.

The original Helgeandshuset dates back to the 13th century but is not mentioned until 1301. Rebuilt after a fire in 1410, it was moved to Riddarholmen by King Gustav Vasa in 1531. Though the appearance of Helgeandshuset is not known, it is believed to have resembled similar institutions elsewhere and thus consist of a hospital ward and a church surrounded by other buildings and a graveyard. Norrbro stretched diagonally across Helgeandsholmen from Mynttorget to Gustav Adolfs torg. Though not mentioned until 1288, the first bridge is believed to have been built with the foundation of the city in 1252. Like all bridges during the Middle Ages, Norrbro was built in wood, at the time considered appropriate as bridges easily could be dismantled during sieges. Drawbridges are mentioned in 1318, the general urban code from the mid 14th century prescribes six cities around Lake Mälaren - Arboga, Enköping, Strängnäs, Västerås and Uppsala - to share the costs of maintenance with Stockholm, thus indicating the bridge wasn't of interest to the city, but a vital part of the regional road system.

These neighbouring cities came to question this obligation however, during the 16th and 17th centuries Stockholm was, bit by bit, to take charge of the bridge alone. Until the 1640s, the width of the street varied from 10 to 20 ells, but as the northern settlements were incorporated with the city in 1635, so was Helgeandsholmen, the standard street width was regulated. Governor Klas Fleming had Norrbro straightened out, in line with his own site on the street, the width set to 24 ells. Norrbro was rebuilt as one of the city's first stone bridges, the northern section completed in 1797, the southern in 1806. An inner gate, Norreport, is mentioned south of Helgeandsholmen in 1409, an outer gate in the 1460s, but was older than that. Both gates were supplied with defensive towers. In the early 15th century, the walls were extended and a western tower added to the fortifications, the entire structure being outdated that century and demolished by 1672. Established on the island as early as 1535, Royal Stables were at first accommodated in the former hospital ward, by 1612 given a for the purpose suitable building.

First relocated north of Helgeandsholmen in the 1640s, they were moved back again in 1680 to a building designed by architect Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. Destroyed by a fire in 1696, the stables were rebuilt in the design of Nicodemus Tessin the Younger, a structure surviving different alternations until the beginning of the 20th century. Over the years, several canals have passed through today's Helgeandsholmen, most notably between and south of the two palaces described above. Before post-glacial rebound made the canals unnecessary, spring floods was a serious problem forcing the reconstruction of bridges and other struc

Sinecure

A sinecure is an office – carrying a salary or otherwise generating income – that requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service. The term originated in the medieval church, where it signified a post without any responsibility for the "cure of souls", the regular liturgical and pastoral functions of a cleric, but came to be applied to any post, secular or ecclesiastical, that involved little or no actual work. Sinecures have provided a potent tool for governments or monarchs to distribute patronage, while recipients are able to store up titles and easy salaries. A sinecure is not a figurehead, which requires active participation in government, albeit with a lack of power. A sinecure can be given to an individual whose primary job is in another office, but requires a sinecure title to perform that job. For example, the Government House Leader in Canada is given a sinecure ministry position so that he or she may become a member of the Cabinet. Similar examples are the Lord Privy Seal and the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in the British cabinet.

Other sinecures operate as legal fictions, such as the British office of Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Chiltern Hundreds, used as a legal excuse for resigning from Parliament. Sinecure, properly a term of ecclesiastical law for a benefice without the cure of souls, arose in the English Church when the rector had no cure of souls nor resided in the parish, the work of the incumbent being performed by a vicar; such sinecure rectories were expressly granted by the patron. They were abolished by parliament under the Ecclesiastical Commissioners Act of 1840. Other ecclesiastical sinecures were certain cathedral dignities to which no spiritual functions attached or incumbencies where by reason of depopulation and the like, the parishioners disappeared or the parish church was allowed to decay; such cases ceased to exist. The term is used of any office or place to which salary emoluments or dignity, but no duties are attached; the British civil service and the royal household, for example, were loaded with innumerable offices which, by lapse of time, had become sinecures and were only kept as the reward of political services or to secure voting power in parliament.

They were prevalent in the 18th century, but were abolished by statutes during that and the following centuries. Below is a list of extant sinecures by country. Lord President of the Council Lord Privy Seal First Secretary of State Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Minister without portfolio Paymaster General Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Chiltern Hundreds Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury – held by the Chief Whip in the House of Commons Treasurer of the Household – held by the Deputy Chief Whip in the Commons Comptroller of the Household – held by a senior Commons Whip Vice-Chamberlain of the Household – held by a senior Commons Whip Lords of the Treasury – held by the several junior Commons Whips Captain of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms – held by the Chief Whip in the House of Lords Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard – held by the Deputy Chief Whip in the Lords Lords in Waiting – held by the several junior Lords Whips Lord Clerk Register Lord Steward of the Household Master of the Horse Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports Constable of the Tower of London Constable and Governor of Windsor Castle Deputy Prime Minister of Canada President of the Privy Council Registrar-General Receiver-General Attorney-General Vice-President of the Executive Council Board member Emeritus, academia Minister without portfolio No-show job Quango Safe seat FeatherbeddingChurch: Abbé Benefice Simony Titular bishop This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"Sinecure". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Lord Mackay of Clashfern Halsbury's Laws of England, 4th ed. Vol.14, "Ecclesiastical Law", Smith, W.. A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities: Being a Continuation of the'Dictionary of the Bible'. J. B. Burr Pub. Co. pp. "Sinecure". Definition on Enciclopedia Treccani Maurilio Guasco, Storia del clero, Bari:Laterza, p. 20

Indian Castle Church

Indian Castle Church is a historic mission church at Indian Castle in Herkimer County, New York. The church is located on NYS Route 5S near present-day Danube, it is a one-story, rectangular wood frame structure, clad in clapboard with a gable roof and steeple. To the rear of the church is a burial ground containing the remains of both Mohawks and Europeans, it was erected in 1769 by Sir William Johnson, British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, as an Indian mission church for the Mohawk nation. They were the easternmost of the Five Nations of the Iroquois League, who occupied most of New York west of the Hudson River; the land was donated by siblings Joseph and Molly Brant, two prominent Mohawk in their village of Canajoharie, located on the south side of the Mohawk River. Construction was done under the direction and at the expense of Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Molly Brant was a longtime common-law wife of Johnson, her brother Joseph Brant became a prominent Mohawk military leader, allied with the British, during the American Revolutionary War and led the Mohawk after their migration to Canada.

The church is located within what is now designated as the Mohawk Upper Castle Historic District, a National Historic Landmark. It is the only colonial Indian missionary church surviving in New York State; the church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. List of the oldest buildings in New York Media related to Indian Castle Church at Wikimedia Commons Historic American Buildings Survey No. NY-243, "Indian Castle Church, State Route 5S, Indian Castle, Herkimer County, NY", 4 photos, 2 data pages Dean R. Snow and David B. Guldenzopf, "Indian Castle Church, the Mohawk Upper Castle Historic District National Historic Landmark", Indian Castle Church Website Indian Castle Church website