Helmstedt is a town on the eastern edge of the German state of Lower Saxony. It is the capital of the District of Helmstedt; the historic university and Hanseatic city conserves an important monumental heritage of Romanesque and Renaissance buildings, as well as numerous timber framed houses. During the German partition the nearby Bundesautobahn 2 was the site of the Helmstedt–Marienborn border crossing, the most important on the former inner German border as starting point of the shortest land route between West Germany and West Berlin. Helmstedt is situated in a basin between the Elm and Lappwald hill ranges, at the transition area between the northern foothills of the Harz mountains and the North German Plain, it is surrounded by the Elm-Lappwald Nature Park. The town centre is located about 36 kilometres east of Braunschweig, 45 kilometres west of Magdeburg, 90 kilometres east of the state capital Hanover; the municipal area includes the localities of Barmke and Emmerstedt, both incorporated by a 1974 administrative reform, Büddenstedt, incorporated in 2017, as well as the resort town of Bad Helmstedt, about 3.5 kilometres east of the town centre.
Helmstedt has about 25,000 inhabitants. The settlement in the Duchy of Saxony was first mentioned as Helmonstede in a 952 deed issued by the German king Otto I. In former times called Helmstädt, the town developed in the vicinity of the Benedictine St. Ludger's Abbey, founded around 800 by Saint Liudger as a mission station. Helmstedt's town privileges were documented in 1247, it belonged to the Abbacy of Werden until 1490, when it was bought by the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. From 1576 to 1810, the University of Helmstedt was located here. From the late 1940s to 1990, the town was the site of a major border crossing between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic; the main rail and autobahn route between West Germany and Berlin, across the GDR, began at the Helmstedt–Marienborn border crossing known as Checkpoint Alpha. Official military traffic from NATO countries to West Berlin was only allowed to use this route; the town lies on the Brunswick-Magdeburg railway. Franz Heinrich Ludolf Ahrens, philologist Bibiana Beglau, actress Victor von Bruns and plastic surgeon Georg Fein and democratic politicians of Vormärz, founder and organizer of Workers' Educational Association s Peter Feldmann, mayor of Frankfurt since 2012 Johann Andreas Graeffer botanist and nurseryman remembered by garden historians as having introduced a number of exotic plants to British gardens Johann Christian Friedrich Heyer, the first missionary, sent abroad by Lutherans in the US Hans Krebs, military officer and chief of staff of the Wehrmacht Rudolf Leuckart and founder of parasitology Anton August Heinrich Lichtenstein and librarian Johann Heinrich Meibom, German physician and professor of medicine at the University of Helmstedt Karl Reinhard and editor of the Göttingen Musenalmanachs Stefan Rinke and specialist in Latin American history Theodor von Schubert, astronomer Paul Gottlieb Werlhof, Royal Hanoverian court physician and poet Andree Wiedener, last active for Eintracht Frankfurt In addition, see the list of famous students and professors of the University of Helmstedt.
Helmstedt is twinned: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Helmstedt". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Official website District Emmerstedt Helmstedt-CITYTOUR Map of Helmstedt Photos and information on Helmstedt's role in Allied military rail operations in 1969-70 Riding with the locomotive engineer across the former intra-German frontier in 2005
Edward Nash Yourdon was an American software engineer, computer consultant and lecturer, software engineering methodology pioneer. He was one of the lead developers of the structured analysis techniques of the 1970s and a co-developer of both the Yourdon/Whitehead method for object-oriented analysis/design in the late 1980s and the Coad/Yourdon methodology for object-oriented analysis/design in the 1990s. Yourdon obtained his B. S. in applied mathematics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1965, did graduate work in electrical engineering and computer science at MIT and the Polytechnic Institute of New York. In 1964 Yourdon started working at Digital Equipment Corporation developing FORTRAN programs for the PDP-5 minicomputer and assembler for the PDP-8. In the 1960s and early 1970s after working at a small consulting firm and as independent consultant, in 1974 Yourdon founded his own consulting firm, YOURDON Inc. to provide educational and consulting services. After he sold this firm in 1986 he served on the Board of multiple IT consultancy corporations, was advisor on several research project in the software industry throughout the 1990s.
In June 1997, Yourdon was inducted into the Computer Hall of Fame, along with such notables as Charles Babbage, James Martin, Grace Hopper, Gerald Weinberg. In December 1999 the Crosstalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering, named him one of the ten most influential people in the software field. In the late 1990s, Yourdon became the center of controversy over his beliefs that Y2K-related computer problems could result in severe software failures that would culminate in widespread social collapse. Due to the efforts of Yourdon and thousands of dedicated technologists and project managers, these potential critical system failure points were remediated, thus avoiding the problems Yourdon and others identified early enough to make a difference. In the new millennium, Yourdon became Faculty Fellow at the Information Systems Research Center of the University of North Texas as well as Fellow of the Business Technology Trends Council for the Cutter Consortium, where he was editor of the Cutter IT Journal.
After developing structured analysis techniques of the 1970s, object-oriented analysis/design in the late 1980s and 1990s, in the new millennium Yourdon specialized in project management, software engineering methodologies, Web 2.0 development. He founded and published American Programmer magazine, he is the author of the book Fall of the American Programmer. In 1974, Yourdon founded the consulting firm Yourdon Inc. in New York, which provided consulting and publishing in the field of software engineering. In the early 1980s, the company had multiple offices in North America and Europe and a staff of 150 people, they trained over 250,000 people in the topics of structured programming, structured design, structured analysis, logical data modeling and project management. In 1986, Yourdon sold the consulting company, it became part of the Canadian software company CGI Informatique. The publishing division had published over 150 books on software engineering topics before it became part of Prentice Hall.
In the 1980s Yourdon developed the Yourdon structured method in SSADM based on the functional structuring. The method supports two distinct design phases: design. YSM includes three discrete steps: the feasibility study, it offers a series of models: The behavioral model: states that system behavior can be described in three ways: functions and relationships. The processor environment model: describes the allocation of computing functions in processor hardware; the software environment model: defines the software architecture and its effects from each processor. The code organizational model: shows the modular structure of each taskThe Yourdon structured method and structured analysis and design technique are examples of structured design methods. During the late 1990s, he was one of the leading proponents of the theory that the'Y2K bug' could lead to a collapse of civilization, or at least protracted economic depression and technological breakdown on a wide scale, he wrote several books on the subject, including Time Bomb 2000, produced at least one video putting forth that theory.
Yourdon was criticized when his predictions failed to materialize in any form. This blunder may have caused him to lose credibility with many in the software industry. In his final years, Yourdon served as an internationally recognized expert witness and computer consultant specializing in project management, software engineering methodologies, Web 2.0 development. He died on January 2016, as a result of a post-surgical blood infection. Yourdon was married to Toni Nash, he had three children. He had five grandchildren. Yourdon had five sisters. Yourdon was an avid photographer whose photos were published in The New York Times, Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal, Fast Company, Time/CNN, New York Observer, New York magazine and the Huffington Post. Yourdon authored over 550 technical articles and authored or coauthored 26 computer books since 1967. A selection: 1967. Real-Time Systems Design. Information & Systems Press. 1972. Design of On-Line Computer Systems. Prentice Hall. Yourdon, Edward.
The 5K run is a long-distance road running competition over a distance of five kilometres. Referred to as the 5K road race, 5 km, or 5K, it is the shortest of the most common road running distances, it is distinguished from the 5000 metres track running event by stating the distance in kilometres, rather than metres. Among road running events, the 5K distance is popular with novice or infrequent runners or joggers, as it is comparatively easier to complete the distance without endurance training; this makes the distance suitable for people looking to improve or maintain their general physical fitness, rather than develop long-distance running abilities. The brevity of the distance means that less time is required to take part in the activity and that people from a wide range of ages and abilities may participate. From a physiological perspective, five kilometres is towards the low end of endurance running; the combination of the activity's simplicity, its low cost, medium exercise intensity mean that it is recommended by medical organisations and healthcare professionals.
Like all physical activity, regular 5K runs can improve cardiovascular function and reduce body fat, as well as having mental health benefits. Similar to other road running events, many organised 5K running events incorporate an element of charity running. Runners may elect to raise money for a chosen charity on the condition of their completion of the race; this is optional, with other participants running for pleasure. The 5K distance is popular among women and a number of annual women-only races are organised over this distance. Running USA's 2012 analysis of participation in American road races showed that 58% of participants in 5K races were women; this contrasts with women's participation in sport in general and in longer distance races where the same report showed the gender bias was reversed. The Hot Chocolate 5K in Chicago and the Mercedes-Benz Corporate Run in Miami are the largest organised 5K runs in the United States, having attracted over 20,000 and over 16,000 runners in 2012; this ranked the Hot Chocolate 5K as the 20th largest road running event of any distance in the United States that year.
There are several prominent 5K race series, including The Color Run, an international, mass participation, city-based series involving coloured water showers, the Parkrun series, a worldwide network of free-to-enter, volunteer-led races occurring each weekend. Unlike longer road races, such as the 10K run and marathon, the 5K distance is not contested by elite distance runners; the Carlsbad 5000 is one of the few races that attract competitive elite fields and has seen several world bests for the distance. The IAAF, now World Athletics did not go back to recognize the world best performances set at Carlsbad, which left a dilemma of known superior performances at Carlsbad and inferior world records that will last until the performances at Carlsbad are recognized or surpassed. Another annual American race, Freihofer's Run for Women regularly has elite women competing in the road distance, as does the BOClassic in Italy. Elite racing exclusively takes place on the track for this distance. There is no official world championship event organised for the 5 km road distance.
Championships over 5 km are held nationally including the United States and England. An annual North American 5K Championships was created in 2002, but this competition ceased after 2005; the 5 km road distance was introduced by IAAF as a world record event in November 2017, with the inaugural record to be recognised after 1 January 2018 if the performances were equal to or better than 13:10 for men and 14:45 for women. Other statistical organisations, including the Association of Road Racing Statisticians, record best times for the event. Records for the 5K are noted in national records in athletics. + = en route to longer performance Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 14:53: Violah Jepchumba ran 14:51+. Sheila Chepkirui ran 14:53+. List of world bests World Best Progressions- Road. Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Retrieved on 2014-01-18. 5K run training from About.com
Alfredo Pea is an Italian stage and television actor. Born in Rome, Pea studied acting at the "Studio di arti sceniche" drama school by Alessandro Fersen, he became first known in the mid-seventies thanks to a series of commedia sexy all'italiana films, in which he played the typical role of a shy teenager seduced by more experienced women. In the same period he started appearing, in secondary roles, in more ambitious art films, working with Giuliano Montaldo, Mario Monicelli, Marco Tullio Giordana and Giuseppe Ferrara, among others. From the late 1970s he is active on television, in TV-movies and series of good success such as Il Capo dei Capi; the Visitor Classe mista The School Teacher And Agnes Chose to Die The Two Orphans La dottoressa del distretto militare Closed Circuit To Love the Damned Control Weird Tales Oasi State Secret Alfredo Pea on IMDb
"Old Santeclaus with Much Delight" is an anonymous illustrated children's poem published in New York in 1821, predating by two years the first publication of "A Visit from St. Nicholas", it is the first publication to mention Santa's reindeer and sleigh, as well as being the first to describe his arrival on Christmas Eve. The accompanying illustrations are the earliest published artistic depictions of a Santa Claus figure; the poem, with eight colored engraved illustrations, was published in New York by William B. Gilley in 1821 as a small paperback book entitled The Children's Friend: A New-Year's Present, to the Little Ones from Five to Twelve; the names of the author and the illustrator are not known. The illustrations were engraved, reproduced lithographically, the first instance of lithography in the United States. Published in the same city as Washington Irving's earlier portrait of Santa Claus in Knickerbocker's History of New York, the poem may have directly inspired another New Yorker, Clement Clarke Moore, to create the modern Santa in "'Twas the Night before Christmas".
Gilley's book includes some important elements in the early development of Santa Claus: his connection with the northern winter, the reindeer and sleigh, his arrival on Christmas Eve rather than on 6 December. The accompanying engravings are the earliest images of a Santa figure, they show Santeclaus dressed in a red outfit and are the first reference to his being dressed in that color. Although red had been traditionally associated with bishop's robes, such as those that Saint Nicholas might have worn, the outfit shown is not that of a bishop, nor does it represent the old Dutch clothing of Saint Nicholas as described by Washington Irving and James Kirke Paulding. Santeclaus leaves presents as rewards only for "good" children. "Naughty" children receive a "long, birchen rod" whose use for parental punishment is endorsed as a "command of God". Media related to "Old Santeclaus with Much Delight" at Wikimedia Commons Old Santeclaus public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Evil Ed is a 1995 Swedish horror comedy film directed by Anders Jacobsson and starring Johan Rudebeck, Per Löfberg and Olof Rhodin. The film's plot follows film editor Edward Tor Swenson, who begins to go insane and embark on a murder spree after editing too many gory horror films; the film is a satire towards the harsh censoring that the Swedish Statens biografbyrå ran from 1911 to 1996. The bureau was dismissed in 2011; when the original editor of the Loose Limbs series of splatter films commits suicide, the head of "The Splatter & Gore Department", Sam Campbell, assigns Edward Tor Swenson, an editor for European Distributors, to finish what the original editor was doing, allows Edward the use of his private country cottage so Edward can go about his work in peace. Over the course of a few days, Edward begins to lose touch with sanity. One night, he dreams about a mental asylum patient telling him to kill others to "correct the world"; when Nick, a young employee of European Distributors pulls up to Edward's house to deliver developed film to be edited, he is rudely reprimanded by Edward.
Edward begins to have hallucinations about demons and other creatures. When Sam comes to check up on Edward's work, Edward hallucinates that he a white demon, accidentally kills him by snapping his neck in a panic; the next evening, Nick comes by Ed's cottage to deliver more developed film, but is attacked by Ed, left in critical condition. After this, Edward kills two intruders. Worried for her husband, Edward's wife and daughter go to visit him, but are killed by Edward, until Barbara shoots him in the shoulder with one of the intruders' revolver, he is taken to a psychiatric ward after the attack, while Nick, who managed to crawl outside where he was noticed by a passing car, is taken to the same hospital. In the mental ward, Edward is sedated by doctors, but he hallucinates that the attending doctors are demons and kills them; as he leaves the ward, he kills a mental patient, which catches the attention of a security guard, who calls a SWAT team. Edward assaults Nick in his hospital room, abducts his girlfriend, who came to visit him.
Edward props her on a hospital bed. Edward soon gets into a gun battle with the SWAT team, killing all of them, gets into a stand off. Edward kills Mel by impaling her with hospital equipment; as he's about to perform surgery on Mel, he hallucinates the mental patient who tells Edward that he has to pay for his terrible job of correcting the world. As he's about to stab Mel again, Nick shoots Edward's hand off with the SWAT Team Captain's shotgun, he shoots him again, blowing his arm off, his head, killing him. Nick walks up to Ed's dead body, to Mel's body, while a voice over of him is heard telling the audience that one day the world will be a happy place, "it will happen" eventually. Johan Rudebeck as Edward "Eddie" Tor Swenson Per Löfberg as Nick Olof Rhodin as Sam Campbell Camela Leierth as Mel Gert Fylking as SWAT team lieutenant Cecilia Ljung as Barbara Dan Malmer as Zip Kim Sulocki as Dix Göran Lundström as Bondage Face Robert Dröse as Fridge Fritz Bill Moseley as the voice of the Loose Limbs killer Anders Jacobsson as Car Driver Kaj Steveman as Mop Boy Vasa as Dr. Wrech Evil Ed was filmed in Länna-ateljéerna and Roslagstulls sjukhus in Sweden in 1995.
The film was blown up to 35 mm. Evil Ed was released on November 1995 at the Stockholm International Film Festival, it was released theatrically in Gothenburg and Uppsala in 1997. Evil Ed on IMDb Evil Ed at AllMovie Evil Ed at Rotten Tomatoes Evil Ed at the Swedish Film Institute Database