Postage stamps and postal history of Switzerland
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Switzerland. The first stamps used in Switzerland were issued by the cantons of Zürich and Basel for their own use, with the first federal issues coming several years on April 7, 1850. By March 19, 1798, the Helvetic Republic had come into being. According to Napoleon, the country was "liberated" to form itself into a new State, which assumed the title of "Republique Helvetique Une et Indivisible." And, the Republic was administratively reorganized into twenty-two Cantons. That number was reduced to nineteen due to mergers and to some changes at the frontiers. In September 1798, all postal mail was ordered to be "a natural and necessary property of the state" or, in modern parlance, nationalization was ordered. Thus, the cantonal and private mail services were taken over; the country was divided into five postal districts as follows: Berne, where Fischer Posts were entrusted with the administration of the mails. The first Republican Decree of the Helvetic State relating to postal matters was one of suppressing the old and colorful cantonal uniforms worn by the letter carriers, As a symbol of national service, a new uniform was issued in the Republican colors of green and yellowSwiss stamps are inscribed with the word "Helvetica", rather than "Schweiz", "Suisse" "Svizzera", or "Svizra".
With four official languages-German, French and Romansch. The Swiss would have had to put all four languages on each stamp, quite a problem to overcome with such limited space on a stamp. Switzerland is known by the Latin name "Confoederatio Helvetica" for historical reasons. "Confoederatio" means "confederation" and "Helvetica" is a reference to the Helvetians, a Celtic tribe that lived in Switzerland when the Romans invaded. The English equivalent of the Latin name is "Swiss Confederation." Hence, the use of Helvetica on stamps. The first Swiss stamps were those of the Cantons of Zurich and Basel; these early Swiss stamps have another distinction. They were the 3rd, 4th, 5th adhesive postage stamp issuing nations of the World; the Cantonal postage stamp issues are tremendously rare today. BASEL Basel issued their own stamp, the "Basel Dove" in 1845; this was a 2½-rappen value featuring a white embossed dove carrying a letter in its beak, inscribed "STADT POST BASEL", a design by the architect Melchior Berry.
It is printed in black and blue, making it the world's first tri-colored stamp. A first printing in light green instead of the chosen blue was first believed to be a proof, but now acknowledged as first trial printing. BERNEIn 1675, Beat Fischer von Reichenbach was granted permission to operate a private postal service in Bern, Switzerland; the building next to the Berne Minster Gothic Chapel in Berne was used as a post office from 1675 to 1883. The service was named for him "Fischerpost"; the service operated until 1832. Beat Fischer von Reichenbach was knighted by Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor for establishing postal services between Germany and Spain. In 1975 a postage stamp dedicated to Beat Fischer von Reichenbach was issued in Switzerland. In June 1799, the Seat of Government was transferred to Berne. A thorough reorganization took place at that time, the post mark was changed to "Central Post Adminst.. Therefore, there were two types of postmarks. Berne has a small 20 x 24 mm. mark which reads "Helvt.
Republ. at top and "Central Post Bureau" at bottom, in the center a "E" and a "V". In the Lucerne marking, there was a line below the wording, in the one used in Berne a small "posthorn" appeared; the post horn is synonymous in parts of Europe with the mail, images of the instrument are still used as a symbol of the post office. Postmen would improvise or play well-known melodies on the horn to entertain those along their delivery; this resulted in some reprimands from their superiors to stop playing “vulgar” opera arias that the post office thought undignified. The postal clerks were told to put a hand written manuscript date after the "E" indicating the date the letter was received. There are of course, recognized misprints called "Freaks" Some Bern covers dated June to December 1799, with the Central Post Bureau wording, one cover, dated July 1799, from Lucerne with the postmark applied in red ink; the red ink was used in Lucerne from November 1798 to January 1799, when it was replaced with vermillion ink.
The next time red ink markings would be found again would be on Berne post markings. This may indicate that when the Seat of the Government was changed, the red ink was taken from Lucerne to Berne for use there. GENEVA On September 30, 1843, Geneva issued their first stamps: the "Double Geneva", the world's first postage stamp in green colour. Like the first Zürich issue, it consisted of pairs of stamps, each printed in black on yellow-green paper, depicting the city's arms, inscribed "Poste de Genéve" at the top and "Port local" at the bottom. But, an additional inscription, reading "10 PORT CANTONAL Cent" ran across the top of each pair; the idea was that the user could cut out a single stamp
Switzerland in the Roman era
The territory of modern Switzerland was a part of the Roman Republic and Empire for a period of about six centuries, beginning with the step-by-step conquest of the area by Roman armies from the 2nd century BC and ending with the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. The Celtic tribes of the area were subjugated by successive Roman campaigns aimed at control of the strategic routes from Italy across the Alps to the Rhine and into Gaul, most by Julius Caesar's defeat of the largest tribal group, the Helvetii, in 58 BC. Under the Pax Romana, the area was smoothly integrated into the prospering Empire, its population assimilated into the wider Gallo-Roman culture by the 2nd century AD, as the Romans enlisted the native aristocracy to engage in local government, built a network of roads connecting their newly established colonial cities and divided up the area among the Roman provinces. Roman civilization began to retreat from Swiss territory when it became a border region again after the Crisis of the Third Century.
Roman control weakened after 401 AD, but did not disappear until the mid-5th century after which the area began to be occupied by Germanic peoples. The Swiss plateau, within the natural borders of the Alps to the South and East, Lake Geneva and the Rhône to the west and the Rhine to the north, was recognized as a contiguous territory by Julius Caesar; this area had been dominated by the La Tène culture since the 5th century BC, settled by a Celtic population, of which the Helvetii were the most numerous, but which included the Rauraci in north-west Switzerland centered on Basel, the Allobroges around Geneva. South of the Swiss plateau were the Nantuates and Veragri in the Valais, the Lepontii in the Ticino, while the Raetians controlled the Grisons as well as large areas around it; the first part of what is now Switzerland to fall to Rome was the southern Ticino, annexed after the Roman victory over the Insubres in 222 BC. The territory of the Allobroges around Geneva came under Roman sway by 121 BC and was incorporated into the province of Gallia Narbonensis prior to the Gallic Wars.
In around 110 BC, two Helvetic tribes under Divico – the Tigurini and the Tougeni, sometimes identified with the Teutons – joined the wandering Germanic Cimbri on a march to the West. In the course of the Cimbrian War they defeated a Roman force under Lucius Cassius Longinus at the Battle of Burdigala in 107 BC, but after the Roman victory over the Teutons at Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC, the Tigurini returned to settle in the Swiss Plateau. In 61 BC, the Helvetii, led by Orgetorix, decided to leave their lands and move to the West, burning their settlements behind them – twelve oppida, according to Caesar, some 400 villages, they were decisively beaten by Caesar in the Battle of Bibracte in 58 BC. After their surrender, Caesar sent the Helvetii home, according them the status of foederati or Roman allies, but not yet subjugating them to Roman sovereignty. Caesar's policy aimed at controlling the territory west of the Jura and Rhine, as well as at blocking the potential incursion routes from the East along the Jura.
The Raetians, described as savage warriors by Strabo, continued to launch incursions into the Swiss Plateau and had to be contained. To that end, Caesar charged the Helvetii and the Rauraci with defending their territory and established two colonies of veterans – one, the Colonia Julia Equestris on the shores of Lake Geneva and the other through Lucius Munatius Plancus in northwestern Switzerland, preceding the larger Augusta Raurica founded by Augustus in around 6 AD. Caesar's attempt to open the Great St Bernard Pass for Roman traffic failed in 57 BC due to strong opposition by the local Veragri. Concerted and successful efforts to gain control over the Alpine region were undertaken by his successor, Augustus, as the rapid development of Lugdunum made the establishment of a safe and direct route from Gaul to Italy a priority. In 25 BC, an army under Aulus Terentius Varro Murena wiped out the Salassi in the Aosta Valley. At some time between 25 and 7 BC – either following the Aosta campaign or, more in the course of the conquest of Raetia in 15 BC – a campaign subjugated the Celtic tribes of the Valais and opened the Great St Bernard Pass.
That conquest was a consequence of the Augustan imperative of securing the Imperial borders. To control the Alps as the shield of northern Italy, Rome needed to control both flanks of the mountain range, thus it had to extend its power to the Rhine and Danube, thereby opening a direct route to Germania and all of Central Europe. The last obstacle in this path were the Raetians. After a first expedition against them by Publius Silius Nerva in 16 BC, a more thorough campaign by Drusus and the emperor Tiberius brought Raetia – and thereby all of Switzerland – under Roman control; the tropaeum alpium, built by Augustus in 7 BC to celebrate his conquest of the Alps, lists among the defeated peoples the tribes of Raetia and of the Valais, but not the Helvetii. It appears that they were absorbed peacefully into the Empire during the first century AD, except for their part in the conflicts of the Year of the Four Emperors, AD 69; the history of Switzerland under Roman rule was, from the Augustan period up until 260 AD, a time of exceptional peace and prosperity.
The Pax Romana was made possible by the protection of well-defended and distant Imperial borders and a peaceful and smooth Romanization of the local population. The Romans urbanized the territory with numerous settlements and built a network of high-quality Roman roads connecting them, allowing for the integration of Helvetia into the imperial economy. While the Roman presence was always strong in the Alps
For the wreath used in heraldry, see torse. A wreath is an assortment of flowers, fruits, twigs, or various materials, constructed to form a ring. In English-speaking countries, wreaths are used as household ornaments, most as an Advent and Christmas decoration, they are used in ceremonial events in many cultures around the globe. They can be worn as a garland around the neck. Wreaths have much symbolism associated with them, they are made from evergreens and symbolize strength, as evergreens last throughout the harshest winters. Bay laurel may be used; the word wreath comes from Old English writha, band. Wreaths were a design used in ancient times in southern Europe; the most well-known are pieces of Etruscan civilization jewelry, made of gold or other precious metals. Symbols from Greek myths appear in the designs, embossed in precious metal at the ends of the wreath. Ancient Roman writers referred to Etruscan corona sutilis, which were wreaths with their leaves sewn onto a background; these wreaths resemble a diadem, with thin metal leaves being attached to an ornamental band.
Wreaths appear stamped into Etruscan medallions. The plants shown making the wreaths in Etruscan jewelry include ivy, olive leaves, laurel and vines. Wreaths were worn as crowns by Etruscan rulers; the Etruscan symbolism continued to be used in Ancient Rome. Roman magistrates wore golden wreaths as crowns, as a symbolic testament to their lineage back to Rome's early Etruscan rulers. Roman magistrates used several other prominent Etruscan symbols in addition to a golden wreath crown: fasces, a curule chair, a purple toga, an ivory rod. In the Greco-Roman world, wreaths were used as an adornment that could represent a person’s occupation, their achievements and status; the wreath, used was the laurel wreath. The use of this wreath comes from the Greek myth involving Apollo, Zeus’ son and the god of life and light, who fell in love with the nymph Daphne; when he pursued her she asked the river god Peneus to help her. Peneus turned her into a laurel tree. From that day, Apollo wore a wreath of laurel on his head.
Laurel wreaths became associated with what Apollo embodied. Laurel wreaths were used to crown victorious athletes at the original Olympic Games and are still worn in Italy by university students who just graduated. Other types of plants used to make wreath crowns had symbolic meaning. For example, oak leaves symbolized wisdom, were associated with Zeus, who according to Greek mythology made his decisions while resting in an oak grove; the Twelve Tables, dating to 450 BC, refer to funeral wreaths as a long-standing tradition. Olive wreath was the prize for the winner at the ancient Olympic Games. Harvest wreaths, a common household decoration today, are a custom with ancient roots in Europe; the creation of harvest wreaths in Europe can be traced back to ancient times, is associated with animistic spiritual beliefs. In Ancient Greece, the harvest wreath was a sacred amulet, using wheat or other harvested plants, woven together with red and white wool thread; the harvest wreath would be hung by the door year-round.
Harvest wreaths were an important symbol to the community in Ancient Greece, not to the farmer and his family. The festivals devoted to Dionysus, the Oschophoria and Anthesteria, included a ritual procession called the eiresîonê. A harvest wreath was carried to Pyanopsia and Thargelia by young boys, who would sing during the journey; the laurel or olive wreath would be hung at the door, offerings were made to Helios and the Hours. It was hoped. In Poland, the harvest wreath is a central symbol of the Harvest Dozynki. Wreaths are made of different shapes and sizes, using harvested grain plants and nuts; the wreath is brought to a church for a blessing by a priest. The tradition includes a procession to the family home from the church, with a girl or young woman leading the procession and carrying the wreath; the procession is followed with a feast. Ukraine and other Eastern Europe cultures have similar rituals that began as part of pre-Christian culture. In Christianity, wreaths are used to observe the Advent season, in preparation for Christmastide and Epiphanytide, as well as to celebrate the latter two liturgical seasons.
These wreaths, as with other Advent and Christmas decorations, are set up on the first Sunday of Advent, a custom, sometimes done liturgically, through a hanging of the greens ceremony. The Advent wreath was first used by Lutherans in Germany in the 16th century, in 1839, Lutheran priest Johann Hinrich Wichern used a wreath made from a cart wheel to educate children about the meaning and purpose of Christmas, as well as to help them count its approach, thus giving rise to the modern version of the Advent wreath. For every Sunday of Advent, starting with the fourth Sunday before Christmas, he would put a white candle in the wreath and for every day in between he would use a red candle; the use of the Advent wreath has since spread from the Lutheran Church to many Christian denominations, some of these traditions, such as the Catholic Church and Moravian Church, have introduced unique variations to it. All of the Advent wreaths, have four candles, many of them have a white candle in the centre, the Christ candle, lit on Christmas Day.
Advent and Christmas wreaths are con
Zug, is an affluent municipality and town in Switzerland. The name Zug originates from fishing vocabulary; the town of Zug is the canton's capital. As of 31 December 2017 it had a total population of 30,205 inhabitants; the official language of Zug is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The oldest human traces date back to the time of around 14,000 BC. There have been Paleolithic finds on the north bank of Lake Zug, which come from nomadic hunters and gatherers. Archaeologists have been able to prove the existence of over forty lake-shore settlements, on the shores of Lake Zug, from the epoch of the first settled farmers in the Neolithic period; the peak in these lake-shore village settlements was in the period between 3800 and 2450 BC. For the same epoch, the first pre-alpine land use has been proven in Menzingen and in the Ägeri valley; the well-known, historically-researched and interesting lake-shore village, ‘Sumpf’, dated from the late Bronze Age.
These rich finds result in a quite differentiated picture of life in former times, attractively represented in the Zug Museum for Prehistory. In addition, many traces from the Iron Age and the Roman and Celtic-Roman time have been discovered. In around AD 600, Alemannic families and tribes immigrated to the area of present-day canton Zug; the name Blickensdorf, place names with ‘- ikon’ endings, prove this as the first Alemannic living space. The churches of Baar and Risch date back to the early Middle Ages; the first written document on the area originates from the year 858, refers to King Ludwig the German giving the farm Chama to the Zürich Fraumünster convent. At this time, the area of present-day Zug belonged to different monastic and secular landlords, the most important of whom were the Habsburgs, who, in 1264, inherited the Kyburg rights and remained a central political power until about 1400. In the course of the high medieval town construction, the settlement of Zug received a town wall at some point after 1200.
The town founders were the counts of Kyburg. The town, first mentioned in AD 1240, was called an "oppidum" in 1242 and a "castrum" in 1255. In 1273, it was bought by Rudolph of Habsburg from Anna, the heiress of Kyburg and wife of Eberhard, head of the cadet line of Habsburg. Through this purchase it passed into the control of the Habsburgs and was placed under a Habsburg bailiff; the Aeusser Amt or Outer District consisted of the villages and towns surrounding Zug, which each had their own Landsgemeinden but were ruled by a single Habsburg bailiff. Zug was important as an administrative center of the Kyburg and the Habsburg district as a local market place, thereafter, as a stage town for the transport of goods over the Hirzel hill towards Lucerne. On 27 June 1352, both the town of Zug and the Aeusser Amt entered the Swiss Confederation, the latter being received on the same terms as the town, not, as was usual in the case of outer districts, as a subject land. About 1364, the town and the Aeusser Amt were recovered for the league by the men of Schwyz, from this time Zug took part as a full member in all the acts of the league.
In 1379, the Holy Roman Emperor Wenceslaus exempted Zug from all external jurisdictions, in 1389 the Habsburgs renounced their claims, reserving only an annual payment of 20 silver marks, which came to an end in 1415. In 1400 Wenceslaus gave all criminal jurisdiction to the town only; the Aeusser Amt, in 1404 claimed that the banner and seal of Zug should be kept in one of the country districts and were supported in this claim by Schwyz. The matter was settled in 1412 by arbitration, the banner was to be kept in the town. In 1415, the right of electing their landammann was given to Zug by the Confederation, a share in the criminal jurisdiction was granted to the Aeusser Amt by German king Sigismund; the alliance of the four forest cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Lucerne with the city of Zürich in 1351 set much in motion. The town of Zug was seen as having Habsburg ties with the cities of Zürich and Lucerne, therefore had to be conquered, it is that this was more for political than economic reasons: the Lucerne market was important for central Switzerland, but strongly dependent on the city of Zürich.
Zürich initiated a siege on Zug with the federal army in June 1352. Zug surrendered. On 27 June 1352 Zürich, Zug, Uri and Unterwalden formed an alliance. Zürich's saw this ‘Zugerbund’ as an alliance of convenience. For the town of Zug, little changed, Zug remained Habsburg; that same year, the Zug alliance was declared invalid by all parties. A period of Schwyz domination followed. Only did Zug become sovereign and federal. Zug expanded its territory, acquiring a number of rural areas in the form of bailiwicks. Zug became a confederation in itself - with the town and its subject territories, the three outer municipalities, Ägeri and Baar; this problematic dualism dominated until 1798, i.e. until the end of the old confederation, the political structure of the Canton Zug. The unifyi
Flag of Switzerland
The flag of Switzerland displays a white cross in the centre of a square red field. The white cross is known as the Swiss cross, its arms are equilateral, their ratio of length to width is 7:6. The size of the cross in relation to the field was set in 2017 as 5:8; the white cross has been used as the field sign of the Old Swiss Confederacy since its formation in the late 13th or early 14th century. Its symbolism was described by the Swiss Federal Council in 1889 as representing "at the same the Christian cross symbol and the field sign of the Old Confederacy"; as a national ensign, it was first used in 1800 during the Hundred Days by general Niklaus Franz von Bachmann, as regimental flag of all cantonal troops from 1841. The federal coat of arms was defined in 1815 for the Restored Confederacy as the white-on-red Swiss cross in a heraldic shield; the current design was used together with a cross composed of five squares until 1889, when its dimensions were set. The civil and state ensign of Switzerland, used by Swiss ships and non-governmental bodies, is rectangular in shape and has the more common proportions of 3:2.
The Swiss flag is one of only two square sovereign-state flags, the other being the flag of Vatican City. The emblem of the Red Cross is the Swiss flag with switched colours. According to the 2017 flag law, "The Swiss flag shows a Swiss cross on a square background". Special provisions are made for civil aircraft identification; the Swiss cross is defined as "a white, free-standing cross depicted against a red background, whose arms, which are all of equal size, are one-sixth longer than they are wide."Swiss Standard German uses Fahne rather than the term Flagge used for national flags in Germany. The name of the flag of the Swiss Confederation is Schweizerfahne. While the proportions of the cross have been fixed since 1889, the size of the cross relative to the flag had not been fixed prior to 2017; the annex to SR 232.21 provides an image specifying that the margin is to be of the same width as the cross arms, so that the total height of the cross is fixed at 20:32 = 5:8 of the height of the flag.
This ratio is given as a "vexillological recommendation" in the flag regulation used by the Swiss Armed Forces. Flags with a cross of larger relative widths than the prescribed 20:32 = 62.5% remain in wide use. For the ensign, the ratio of the size of the cross to the height is 5:8, so that the ratio of cross to flag width is 5:12; the shade of red used in the flag was not defined by law prior to 2017. The 2017 flag law specifies the colour of the flag as: CMYK 0 / 100 / 100 / 0 Pantone 485 C / 485 U RGB 255 / 0 / 0 Hexadecimal #FF0000 Scotchcal 100 -13 RAL 3020 Traffic red NCS S 1085-Y90R In 2004, the Federal Chancellery published a corporate design guide for the federal administration, in force since 1 January 2007; the colour specifications given there are compatible with those put in the annex to the flag law. The matching of heraldic tincture to modern color specifications for print or screen display is uncertain, to some extent left to the discretion of the publisher. A 2004 source specifies "Pantone Red 032 C", or RGB #F00000, for heraldic red.
Recommendations for using "web safe" colours for electronic displays have been obsoleted by technological progress. However, it has become common to specify colours for printing using the "Pantone Matching System", a proprietary colour space, Pantone LLC prevents the publication of keys to their codes under intellectual property laws; the pdf document of the official "corporate design" manual published by the Federal Chancellery appears to be representing the red in the Swiss flag as RGB #e30613. There are conflicting conventions in use among those canotons whose cantonal coats of arms have red tincture; the ultimate origin of the white cross is attributed by three competing legends: To the Theban Legion, to the Reichssturmfahne attested from the 12th century, to the Arma Christi that were venerated in the three forest cantons, which they were allowed to display on the uniformly red battle flag from 1289 by king Rudolph I of Habsburg at the occasion of a campaign to Besançon. Use of a white cross as a mark of identification of the combined troops of the Old Swiss Confederacy is first attested in the Battle of Laupen, where it was sewn on combatants' clothing as two stripes of textile, contrasting with the red St. George's cross of Habsburg Austria, with the St. Andrew's cross used by Burgundy and Maximilian I.
The first flag used as a field sign representing the confederacy rather than the individual cantons may have been used in the Battle of Arbedo in 1422. This was a triangular red flag with an elongated white cross; the white cross was thus in origin a field mark attached to combatants for ide
Coins of the Swiss franc
The coins of the Swiss franc are the official coins used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. The name of the subunit is Centime in French, Rappen in German, Centisimo in Italian and Rap in Romansh. There are coins in denominations of 5 centimes, 10 centimes, 20 centimes, ½ franc, 1 franc, 2 francs and 5 francs. In the past, there were coins of 1 and 2 centimes; the country's name is on all the coins as Confoederatio Helvetica, the Latin name of the Swiss Confederation, or Helvetia. The oldest Swiss coins valid today are the 10 centimes coins dating back to 1879, they are therefore among the world’s oldest coins still valid. To date, they have 75 % copper and 25 % nickel; until 1967, the circulating coins with face values of ½ franc to 5 francs were of silver alloy. These were withdrawn from circulation because the value of the silver in the alloy exceeded its face value; the 2 centimes coins were made invalid in 1978 and the 1 centime coins in 2007 long after they had fallen out of daily use. Since 2004 the pure nickel 20 centime coins of the years 1881–1938 have been withdrawn from circulation because machines cannot detect them.
Today, all the coins except the 5 centime coin are in a copper-nickel alloy. Seven coins are in circulation: Swiss franc Centime Rappen Vreneli Banknotes of the Swiss franc Swissmint Coinage table Banknotes and coins Swiss coins
Federal Palace of Switzerland
The Federal Palace refers to the building in Bern housing the Swiss Federal Assembly and the Federal Council. It consists of a central assembly building and two wings housing government departments and a library; the two chambers where the National Council and the Council of States meet are separated by the Hall of the Dome. The dome itself has an external height of 64 m, an internal height of 33 m; the mosaic in the center represents the federal coat of arms along with the Latin motto Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno, surrounded by the coat of arms of the 22 cantons that existed in 1902. The coat of arms of the Canton of Jura, created in 1979, was placed outside of the mosaic; the name in German and Romansh both mean "federal house", whereas the French and Italian names both translate to "Federal Palace". The Latin word curia originates from Ancient Rome and meant an assembly, used for where the Roman Senate met, both meanings being relevant to the Federal Palace; the building was designed by the architect Hans Auer and its inauguration took place on 1 April 1902.
The total cost, at the time, was 7,198,000 Swiss Francs. Federal Assembly National Council Council of States Hall of the dome Visitor centreWest wingFederal Council Federal Chancellery of Switzerland Federal Department of Foreign Affairs Federal Department of Justice and Police Carl Lutz Room. East wingFederal Department of Economic Affairs and Research Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports As president of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland and therefore member of the so-called Elefantenrunde, the presidents of the five most important political parties in Switzerland, Ursula Koch participated at the first live stream broadcast from the Federal Palace in late 1999; as reported in a study by the Federal parliamentary services, the noise caused by human activities in the chamber of the National Council is too loud. The undisclosed study was published by 10vor10 on 12 December 2014, pointing that the noise level is at a level of about 70 decibels, comparable to a used roadway, so concentration of work for politicians is not possible.
Bundesplatz Hotel Bellevue Palace Official website Federal Palace in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland