Ann Arbor, Michigan
Ann Arbor is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County. The 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934. Ann Arbor is home to the University of Michigan; the university shapes Ann Arbor's economy as it employs about 30,000 workers, including about 12,000 in the medical center. The city's economy is centered on high technology, with several companies drawn to the area by the university's research and development infrastructure. Ann Arbor was founded in 1824, named for wives of the village's founders, both named Ann, the stands of bur oak trees; the University of Michigan moved from Detroit to Ann Arbor in 1837, the city grew at a rapid rate in the early to mid-20th century. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as a center for left-wing politics. Ann Arbor became a focal point for political activism, such as opposition to the Vietnam War and support for the legalization of cannabis. In about 1774, the Potawatomi founded two villages in the area of.
Ann Arbor was founded in 1824 by land speculators John Elisha Walker Rumsey. On May 25, 1824, the town plat was registered with Wayne County as "Annarbour", the earliest known use of the town's name. Allen and Rumsey decided to name it for their wives, both named Ann, for the stands of bur oak in the 640 acres of land they purchased for $800 from the federal government at $1.25 per acre. The local Ojibwa named the settlement kaw-goosh-kaw-nick, after the sound of Allen's sawmill. Ann Arbor became the seat of Washtenaw County in 1827, was incorporated as a village in 1833; the Ann Arbor Land Company, a group of speculators, set aside 40 acres of undeveloped land and offered it to the state of Michigan as the site of the state capital, but lost the bid to Lansing. In 1837, the property was accepted instead as the site of the University of Michigan, which moved from Detroit. Since the university's establishment in the city in 1837, the histories of the University of Michigan and Ann Arbor have been linked.
The town became a regional transportation hub in 1839 with the arrival of the Michigan Central Railroad, a north–south railway connecting Ann Arbor to Toledo and other markets to the south was established in 1878. Throughout the 1840s and the 1850s settlers continued to come to Ann Arbor. While the earlier settlers were of British ancestry, the newer settlers consisted of Germans and African-Americans. In 1851, Ann Arbor was chartered as a city, though the city showed a drop in population during the Depression of 1873, it was not until the early 1880s that Ann Arbor again saw robust growth, with new emigrants from Greece, Italy and Poland. Ann Arbor saw increased growth in manufacturing in milling. Ann Arbor's Jewish community grew after the turn of the 20th century, its first and oldest synagogue, Beth Israel Congregation, was established in 1916. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as an important center for liberal politics. Ann Arbor became a locus for left-wing activism and anti-Vietnam War movement, as well as the student movement.
The first major meetings of the national left-wing campus group Students for a Democratic Society took place in Ann Arbor in 1960. S. teach-in against the Vietnam War. During the ensuing 15 years, many countercultural and New Left enterprises sprang up and developed large constituencies within the city; these influences washed into municipal politics during the early and mid-1970s when three members of the Human Rights Party won city council seats on the strength of the student vote. During their time on the council, HRP representatives fought for measures including pioneering antidiscrimination ordinances, measures decriminalizing marijuana possession, a rent-control ordinance. Alongside these liberal and left-wing efforts, a small group of conservative institutions were born in Ann Arbor; these include Word of a charismatic inter-denominational movement. Following a 1956 vote, the city of East Ann Arbor merged with Ann Arbor to encompass the eastern sections of the city. In the past several decades, Ann Arbor has grappled with the effects of rising land values and urban sprawl stretching into outlying countryside.
On November 4, 2003, voters approved a greenbelt plan under which the city government bought development rights on agricultural parcels of land adjacent to Ann Arbor to preserve them from sprawling development. Since a vociferous local debate has hinged on how and whether to accommodate and guide development within city limits. Ann Arbor ranks in the "top places to live" lists published by various mainstream media outlets every year. In 2008, it was ranked by CNNMoney.com 27th out of 100 "America's best small cities". And in 2010, Forbes listed Ann Arbor as one of the most liveable cities in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.70 square miles, of which, 27.83 square miles of it is land and 0.87 square miles is water, much of, part of the Huron River. Ann Arbor is about 35 miles west of Detroit. Ann Arbor Charter Township adjoins the city's north and east sides. Ann Arbor is situated on the Huron River in a productive fruit-growing region.
The landscape of Ann Arbor consists of hills and valleys, with the terrain becoming steeper near the Huron River. The elevation ranges from about 750 feet along the Huron River to 1,015 feet (309
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Beverly, West Virginia
Beverly is a town in Randolph County, West Virginia, USA. It had a population of 702 at the 2010 census. Beverly was the county seat of Randolph County, Virginia for a century — from 1790 until 1890 — after which the nearby settlement of Elkins assumed that role following an intense local political "war". Beverly is located at 38°51′2″N 79°52′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.45 square miles, all of it land. The origin of the name Beverly is disputed. In January 1865, Confederate General Thomas L. Rosser took 300 men, crossed the Allegheny Mountains to Beverly in deep snow and bitter cold and surprised and captured two Union infantry regiments in their works there; some 580 prisoners were taken. Rosser's troops burnt the Beverly Covered Bridge, the earliest of Lemuel Chenoweth's celebrated wooden covered bridges, but Chenoweth rebuilt it in 1872 and'73; as of the census of 2010, there were 702 people, 323 households, 199 families residing in the town.
The population density was 1,560.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 360 housing units at an average density of 800.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.0% White, 0.1% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.3% of the population. There were 323 households of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.2% were married couples living together, 21.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.4% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.75. The median age in the town was 40.5 years. 24.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 46.6% male and 53.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 651 people, 285 households, 190 families residing in the town.
The population density was 1,473.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 313 housing units at an average density of 708.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.77% White, 0.31% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.08% of the population. There were 285 households out of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 19.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.71. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.7 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $21,875, the median income for a family was $24,722. Males had a median income of $25,714 versus $16,250 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,620. About 27.4% of families and 31.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.0% of those under age 18 and 34.7% of those age 65 or over. This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Beverly has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. History and buildings of Beverly Battle of Rich Mountain, fought just west of Beverly
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Valley Head, West Virginia
Valley Head is a census-designated place in Randolph County, West Virginia, United States. Valley Head is located on U. S. Route 219 12 miles south-southwest of Huttonsville. Valley Head has a post office with ZIP code 26294; as of the 2010 census, its population was 267. The community was named for the nearby headwaters of the Tygart Valley River. Country musician and Grand Ole Opry member Wilma Lee Cooper was born in Valley Head in 1921. Banking executive Jean Yokum was born in Valley Head in 1931; the climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Valley Head has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps. Traveling 219: Valley Head
Randolph County, West Virginia
Randolph County is a county located in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,405, its county seat is Elkins. The county is named for Edmund Jennings Randolph. Randolph County comprises West Virginia, Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,040 square miles, of which 1,040 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. It is the largest county in West Virginia by area. Tygart Valley River Shavers Fork Laurel Fork Point Mountain Cheat Mountain White Top, a knob of Cheat Mountain Laurel Mountain Rich Mountain Shavers Mountain Gaudineer Knob, a knob of Shavers Mountain Bowden Cave Sinks of Gandy Blister Run Swamp Gaudineer Scenic Area Shavers Mountain Spruce-Hemlock Stand Tucker County Pendleton County Pocahontas County Webster County Upshur County Barbour County Monongahela National Forest United States National Radio Quiet Zone As of the census of 2000, there were 28,262 people, 11,072 households, 7,661 families residing in the county.
The population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 13,478 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.69% White, 1.07% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races. 0.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,072 households out of which 29.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.70% were married couples living together, 9.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.80% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.30% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years.
For every 100 females there were 101.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,299, the median income for a family was $32,632. Males had a median income of $24,751 versus $17,819 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,918. About 13.40% of families and 18.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.30% of those under age 18 and 12.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 29,405 people, 11,695 households, 7,753 families residing in the county; the population density was 28.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 14,189 housing units at an average density of 13.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.3% white, 1.2% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.3% were German, 15.9% were Irish, 12.0% were English, 10.2% were American, 5.4% were Italian.
Of the 11,695 households, 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families, 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.81. The median age was 43.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $36,176 and the median income for a family was $47,071. Males had a median income of $34,903 versus $25,988 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,472. About 12.7% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.1% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. Elkins Beverly Harman Huttonsville Mill Creek Montrose Womelsdorf Randolph County was part of Virginia until the American Civil War, in which the county was contested in the Western Virginia Campaign; the Battle of Rich Mountain was fought in the county. Herman Ball, football player Lemuel Chenoweth, master covered bridge builder William Wallace Barron, former governor, indicted for bribery and jury tampering.
Dellos Clinton "Sheriff" Gainer, major league baseball player Marshall Goldberg, football player Wilma Lee Cooper Grand Ole Opry and WWVA Jamboree star Stoney Cooper, Grand Ole Opry and WWVA Jamboree star Eldora Marie Bolyard Nuzum, American newspaper editor and interviewer of U. S. Presidents Becky Creek Wildlife Management Area National Register of Historic Places listings in Randolph County, West Virginia Elkins Randolph County Tourism and Visitors Bureau Elkins Depot Welcome Center
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government