Helvetica or Neue Haas Grotesk is a used sans-serif typeface developed in 1957 by Swiss typeface designer Max Miedinger with input from Eduard Hoffmann. Helvetica is a neo-grotesque or realist design, one influenced by the famous 19th century typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk and other German and Swiss designs, its use became a hallmark of the International Typographic Style that emerged from the work of Swiss designers in the 1950s and 60s, becoming one of the most popular typefaces of the 20th century. Over the years, a wide range of variants have been released in different weights and sizes, as well as matching designs for a range of non-Latin alphabets. Notable features of Helvetica as designed include a high x-height, the termination of strokes on horizontal or vertical lines and an unusually tight spacing between letters, which combine to give it a dense, solid appearance. Developed by the Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei of Münchenstein, its release was planned to match a trend: a resurgence of interest in turn-of-the-century "grotesque" sans-serifs among European graphic designers, that saw the release of Univers by Adrian Frutiger the same year.
Hoffmann was the president of the Haas Type Foundry, while Miedinger was a freelance graphic designer who had worked as a Haas salesman and designer. Miedinger and Hoffmann set out to create a neutral typeface that had great clarity, no intrinsic meaning in its form, could be used on a wide variety of signage. Named Neue Haas Grotesk, it was licensed by Linotype and renamed Helvetica in 1960, which in Latin means "Swiss", capitalising on Switzerland's reputation as a centre of ultra-modern graphic design. A feature-length film directed by Gary Hustwit was released in 2007 to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the typeface's introduction in 1957; the main influence on Helvetica was Akzidenz-Grotesk from Berthold. Its'R' with a curved tail resembles Schelter-Grotesk, another turn-of-the-century sans-serif sold by Haas. Wolfgang Homola comments that in Helvetica "the weight of the stems of the capitals and the lower case is better balanced" than in its influences. Attracting considerable attention on its release as Neue Haas Grotesk and Linotype adopted Neue Haas Grotesk for release in hot metal composition, the standard typesetting method at the time for body text, on the international market.
In 1960, its name was changed by Haas' German parent company Stempel to Helvetica in order to make it more marketable internationally. Intending to match the success of Univers, Arthur Ritzel of Stempel redesigned Neue Haas Grotesk into a larger family; the design was popular: Paul Shaw suggests that Helvetica "began to muscle out" Akzidenz-Grotesk in New York City from around summer 1965, when Amsterdam Continental, which imported European typefaces, stopped pushing Akzidenz-Grotesk in its marketing and began to focus on Helvetica instead. It was made available for phototypesetting systems, as well as in other formats such as Letraset dry transfers and plastic letters, many phototypesetting imitations and knock-offs were created by competing phototypesetting companies. In the late 1970s and 1980s, Linotype licensed Helvetica to Xerox and Apple, guaranteeing its importance in digital printing by making it one of the core fonts of the PostScript page description language; this has led to a version being included on Macintosh computers and a metrically-compatible clone, Arial, on Windows computers.
The rights to Helvetica are now held by Monotype Imaging. Tall x-height, which makes it easier to read at distance. Tight spacing between letters. An oblique rather than italic style, a common feature of all grotesque and neo-grotesque typefaces. Wide capitals of uniform width obvious in the wide'E' and'F'. Square-looking's'. Bracketed top flag of'1'. Rounded off square tail of'R'. Concave curved stem of'7'. Two-storied'a', a standard neo-grotesque feature, single-storey'g' Like many neo-grotesque designs, Helvetica has narrow apertures, which limits its legibility onscreen and at small print sizes, it has no visible difference between upper-case'i' and lower-case'L', although the number 1 is quite identifiable with its flag at top left. Its tight, display-oriented spacing may pose problems for legibility. Other fonts intended for legibility at small sizes such as Verdana, Trebuchet, or a monospace font such as Courier, which makes all letters quite wide, may be more appropriate than Helvetica. Helvetica is among the most used sans-serif typefaces.
Versions exist for Latin, Hebrew, Japanese, Hindi, Urdu and Vietnamese alphabets. Chinese faces have been developed to complement Helvetica. Helvetica is a common choice for commercial wordmarks, including those for 3M, Adult Swim, American Apparel, BASF, Blaupunkt, BMW, Diaspora, ECM, General Motors, J. C. Penney, Kaiser Permanente, Knoll, Lufthansa, Nestlé, Oath Inc. Panasonic, Philippine Airlines, Seiko Epson, Target, Tupperware and Verizon. Apple used Helvetica as the system typeface of iOS until 2015. Helvetica has been used by the U. S. government.
John Shelton Fenty is the largest shareholder and de facto chairman of the football club Grimsby Town. He is a Conservative councillor for the Humberston and New Waltham ward of North East Lincolnshire Council. At the age of 18 in 1980 he took over a failed haulage business. Though he made his wealth through his development from scratch, a food processing company called Five Star Fish Ltd, a company that achieved market dominance in the food service sector and won many accolades for excellence. By the time the business was sold, it employed over 280 people and was respected in the business, it sold in April 2004 for £20 million to the Real Good Food Company. He stood down as chairman at the start of 2007 and left the company in August 2007, after 27 years at the helm. In January 2011, Fenty became the chairman and finance director of Topcon Construction Limited, having been a client of Topcon when it built a new cold store facility built for his fish processing business at Five Star Fish. Since April 2013, Fenty is the business mentor and commercial adviser to IT support company E-Tech Solutions based in Grimsby.
In May 2008, Fenty was elected as a Conservative Party councillor for the Humberston and New Waltham ward of North East Lincolnshire Council. He was re-elected in 2012 and 2016. In the late 1990s, he was co-opted onto the board of Grimsby Town after building up £4,295 of shares in the club and another £40,000 of shares through the Five Star Fish Employee Benefit Trust, he subsequently sold all of these shares, except for £500 of his personal shares, to Michael Rouse following the collapse of ITV Digital at the end of the 2001–02 season. But, by the end of the 2002–03 season Fenty had had a change of heart and took his shareholding to £62,289 of the club equating to 26.3% of the company, buying out long term major shareholder Dudley Ramsden's interest in the club in the process. Following the sale of Five Star Fish in April 2004, Fenty became chairman of Grimsby Town on 29 July 2004 with Peter Furneaux switching roles with Fenty and becoming Vice Chairman. Under Fenty the club seemed to be building solid foundations for the future despite a huge unpaid tax bill, in the region of £700,000, to HM Revenue and Customs relating to the seasons following the ITV digital collapse.
The club lost in the 2006 Football League Two play-off Final at the Millennium Stadium and manager Russell Slade left the club to join Yeovil Town when his contract expired at the end of May 2006. A succession of failed managerial appointments followed and Grimsby Town were relegated out of the Football League for the first time in one hundred years and into the Conference National for the first time in the club's history at the end of the 2009–10 season. Fenty is a divisive figure amongst Grimsby Town supporters; some argue his loans and willingness to invest in further shares have kept the club from going out of business on numerous occasions whilst others argue that his poor judgement and decision making is the major contributing factor to the huge financial losses and that the decision to appoint the novice Neil Woods as manager in November 2009 ahead of Slade and the subsequent run of 20 winless league games at the start of Woods' tenure consigned Grimsby Town to relegation. Fenty complained to Ofcom following a 28 April 2007 broadcast of the BBC Radio Humberside Sports programme contained a reporter calling Fenty a "plonker".
The complaint was not upheld though as the station had issued two apologies in the following 7sevendays. Ofcom considered that the complaint had, in effect, been resolved by the BBC, therefore found in the context of the subsequent broadcasts no unfairness resulted to Fenty. On 23 February 2011, Grimsby Town relieved Woods of his duties. On 7 March 2011, after using an unnamed agent to make a direct approach, Fenty interviewed Boston United joint managers Rob Scott and Paul Hurst despite the pair being under contract and not having the permission of Boston to speak to the pair. On 21 March 2011 Scott and Hurst resigned as Boston managers and were appointed Grimsby Town joint managers 48 hours later. A lengthy dispute for compensation between the two clubs followed; the case was heard on 16 March 2012 with the court recorder finding in favour of Boston United. In his finding he said that Fenty had "acted recklessly" in his dealings with the said agent by relying on his word with regards to Scott and Hurst's breach of contract.
On 19 September 2011, Fenty resigned as chairman of Grimsby Town with immediate effect. He remains the largest-holding executive director. John Fenty - Strength of Purpose Original article in the Cleethorpes Chronicle - August 2010 The Thundercliffe interviews: John Fenty Cod Almighty Website - February 2005
The Bodrogkeresztúr culture was a middle Copper Age culture which flourished in Hungary from 4000 to 3600 BC. The Bodrogkeresztúr culture is best known for its seventy cemeteries. Which show clear genetic links with the preceding Tiszapolgár culture. Bodrogkeresztúr cemetieres make clear distinctions between males and females, who are buried on their right and left sides respectively. Both sexes are buried with their heads oriented towards the east. Burials contain pittery and copper implements, copper and gold ornaments; the Bodrogkeresztúr appears to have practiced mixed stockbreeding. Although raising cattle, they appear to have raised sheep and pigs as well. Wild fauna in their territories included red deer, wild boar, roe deer and hare. Bodrogkeresztúr ceramics are similar to those of the preceding Tiszapolgár culture, although a new form" referred to as the "milk jug" appears to have been introduced at this time. Flint and stone tools and gold objects and various implements are inherited from the Tiszapolgár culture, although these objects appear at increasing frequency among the Bodrogkeresztúr culture.
The Bodrogkeresztúr people appear to have been living in communities composed of 15-20 related people. They appear to have been less patriarchal and more egalitarian than people of the preceding Tiszapolgár culture; the physical type of the Bodrogkeresztúr people was of the Mediterranean type, is contrasted with the "Proto-Europoid" type prevalent on the Eurasian Steppe. In accordance with the Kurgan hypothesis, the Bodrogkeresztúr people are considered an "Indo-Europeanized" native culture whose structure was altered by invasions of Indo-European peoples from the east. Others have suggested that the Bodrogkeresztúr was natively Indo-European, that it, along with the Sălcuţa culture of neighboring Bulgaria, migrated southwards and became the Proto-Greeks. Mallory, J. P.. "Bodrogkeresztúr culture". Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. Pp. 75–76. ISBN 1884964982