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Hendaye is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department and Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The town, France's most southwesterly and a popular seaside tourist resort, stands on the right bank of the River Bidassoa – which marks the Franco-Spanish border – at the point where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean in the French Basque Country. Hendaye has three distinguishable parts: la ville, which stretches from Saint Vincent's church to the area around the SNCF railway station and the industrial zone. Hendaye acquired its independence from the Urrugne parish in 1598, when Saint Vincent's church was built. In the Franco-Spanish War, the town was occupied by the Spanish, in September 1636. On the fortified Île des Faisans in the river, the Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed in 1659, ending decades of intermittent war between France and Spain. Authority over the island alternates between Spain every six months. All the same, the village kept being subject to destruction due to cross-border military activity.

In the War of the Pyrenees, or less in the run-up to the rise of Napoleon to prominence, the village was levelled to the ground, as described in 1799 by Wilhelm von Humboldt: "The settlement spreads over a rather wide area, seems to have looked clean and pleasant time ago. All the houses, but for a handful of them, lie destroyed; the empty walls can stand, while the ground before inhabited is covered with overgrown bush and hawthorn. Ivy creeps up the walls, out of crumbling windows. Shells can still be come across the street here and there, but hardly can one bump into a person. Most of the inhabitants either perished in the danger and helplessness of the runaway, or they scattered away to other places." The abolition of the French provinces, the War of the Pyrenees and the end of Basque home rule in the Spanish Basque districts—customs on the Ebro river moved to the Pyrenees —broke the fluent cross-border trade and natural coexistence of the Basque speaking communities around the lower Bidassoa and the Bay of Txingudi, divided as of by a restricted Spanish-French border.

On 22 October 1863, the railway arrived in Hendaye, as the track on the Spanish side approached the Bidassoa borderline. On 15 August 1864, the first Madrid-Paris train arrived in Hendaye, forever re-shaping the human and urban landscape of the village and prompting rapid development. Hendaye started to stand out as an international hub and a seaside resort for the elites after the model of Biarritz, halfway between Donostia and Biarritz. In 1913, the Spanish Basque railway serving the coastline all the way to Donostia arrived at Hendaye Gare. On 23 October 1940, Ramón Serrano Súñer, Francisco Franco, Adolf Hitler and Joachim von Ribbentrop met in the Hendaye railway station to discuss Spain's participation in World War II as part of the Axis; the town square, where there is a weekly open-air market on Wednesdays, is the location of the famous seventeenth century "Great Cross of Hendaye", a stone cross carved with alchemical symbols that occultists find to contain encrypted information on a future global catastrophe.

The church of Saint-Vincent was built in 1598, reconstructed over the centuries following fires and bombardments. Its most recent transformation was finished in 1968; the 13th-century crucifix is the principal treasure. The ruins of the early seventeenth century fortifications, which were reinforced by Vauban in 1685, the old cannons facing Hondarribia, are one of the features of the promenade along the Bay of Txingudi waterfront; the seafront Château of Antoine d'Abbadie, built by the architect and theorist Eugène Viollet-le-Duc is a monument of the Gothic Revival. The Casino building, of Neo-Moorish style, was built in 1885, it used to be occupied by a casino. During the First World War, it served as a military hospital for French soldiers and as the Portuguese Military Hospital of Hendaia, from 15 June 1918 to 23 February 1919; the picturesque old fishing port of Caneta has views over the Bay of Txingudi to Hondarribia and the Jaizkibel, is the site of Pierre Loti's house and the old customs building.

The Jumeaux rocks have become somewhat emblematic to Hendaye. These two high rock stacks, which have been carved out of the cliffs by wave action, are visible from the beach or from the domaine d'Abbadia, a nature park on the edge of the commune related to the Conservatoire du littoral project. Hendaye doesn't have any specific music venues; the covered pelota fronton at Belcenia has a high capacity and the basque folk band Oskorri have played here on more than one occasion. In summer, bigger bands can play in open air at the Hendaye Plage Rugby pitch. Toure Kunda, among others, have played here. Concerts can be organised in the Cinéma les Variétés, which has a high capacity; the closed market is a good place for starting-out local bands to stage small concerts. Rather than a pub scene, local bands play in Hendaye's many campsites in the summer; the Lanetik Egina music club is the hub of Hendaye's music scene. It has a good reputation and organises regular concerts, it is a place where musicians of all ages can meet up and form bands.

The most successful band to come from Hendaye is the basque ska-punk band Skunk, who have made many album

Florence Mumba

Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba referred to as Florence Mumba, is a Zambian judge at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia known as the Khmer Rouge Tribunal or the Cambodia Tribunal. She has previously served in the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and as well as a Supreme Court Judge in Zambia, she was born in Mazabuka District, in the Southern Province of Zambia, in 1948. She graduated in 1972, with a Bachelor of Laws. In 1973 she went into private practice in Zambia, serving in that capacity until 1980. In October of that year, she was appointed as a High Court Judge in Zambia, being the first woman to serve in that capacity, she represented Zambia at the Conference on Women in 1985 and at the African Regional Conference on Women in 1994. She was appointed to ombudsman in 1989, which she remained, until she was appointed to the Supreme Court in Zambia in 1997. In 1992, as a member of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, she participated in drafting a resolution to the UN General Assembly, to have rape included as a war crime in the jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals.

She served as a member of the International Ombudsman Institute Board from 1992 to 1996. From 1994 until 1996, she served as Vice-President of that board. From 1994 until 2003, she served as Commissioner on the International Commission of Jurists. In 1997, she was elected Judge of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, serving as Vice President of The ICTY from 1999 to 2001. From 2003 to 2005, she served on the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. In 2009, she was appointed to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, first as a Reserve Judge, as a full-time judge of Supreme Court Chamber of ECCC. First women lawyers around the world Government of Zambia Judiciary of Zambia International Criminal Court Elizabeth Muyovwe Website of the Supreme Court of Zambia

Howard Crosby (minister)

Howard Crosby was an American Presbyterian preacher and professor, great-grandson of Judge Joseph Crosby of Massachusetts and of Gen. William Floyd of New York, a signer of the U. S. Declaration of Independence, the father of Ernest Howard Crosby, a relative of Fanny Crosby. Crosby was a descendant of Rip Van Dam and Matthias Nicoll. Crosby was born in New York City in 1826, he graduated in 1844 from New York University where he was one of the founding fathers of the Gamma Chapter of the Delta Phi fraternity, became professor of Greek at NYU in 1851. In 1859, he was appointed professor of Greek at Rutgers College, New Brunswick, New Jersey, where two years he was ordained pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of New Brunswick. From 1863 until his death he was pastor of New York. From 1870 to 1881 Crosby was chancellor of New York University known as the University of the City of New York, he was one of the American revisers of the English version of the New Testament. Crosby took a prominent part in politics.

He opposed total abstinence. He was one of the founders and the first president of the New York Society for the Prevention of Crime, pleaded for better management of Indian affairs and international copyright. Among his publications are The Lands of the Moslem, Bible Companion, Jesus: His Life and Works, True Temperance Reform, True Humanity of Christ, commentaries on the book of Joshua and the New Testament, he was president of the American Philological Association and in 1871 gave a presidential address, excerpted in the Proceedings of the American Philological Association. "Linguistics or philology may be considered either as a philosophy. Under the first aspect we may gain some idea of its extent by thinking of the vast number of languages which are to be investigated, not only those now spoken, but many of which we have but the fossils, it touches here psychology and history, enables us to know the unseen. A linguistic criticism is the source of all true commentary. By philology we can reconstruct prehistoric man, read the history of times before the Olympiads and Nabonassar.

Languages are never lost. By this science, the original unity of the human race is nearly proved…. Again philology as a philosophy speculates on the value of language to man, its relations to his mind; these speculations are not to be confounded with the facts of the science…. Every profound thinker has found himself fettered by language. Hence disputes and misunderstandings have arisen. In poetry, in devotion, in music, language is shown to be imperfect. Man in his development, must have a fuller language than he has to-day; this may be in a new creation with spiritual bodies." The President, in conclusion, referred to the field of American languages as open to the researches of the Association, suggesting its division into sections and the organization of local branches. From 1872 to 1880 Crosby was a member of the New Testament Company of the American Revision Committee. Crosby married Margaret Evertson Givan, a daughter of John Givan and Mary Ann Evertson, she a granddaughter of Jacob Evertson of Amenia, New York.

Howard Crosby at the Database of Classical Scholars This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Crosby, Howard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 505

Jump Jim Crow

"Jump Jim Crow" or "Jim Crow" is a song and dance from 1828, done in blackface by white minstrel performer Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice. The song is speculated to have been taken from Jim Crow, a physically disabled African slave, variously claimed to have resided in St. Louis, Cincinnati, or Pittsburgh; the song became a great 19th-century hit and Rice performed all over the country as "Daddy Pops Jim Crow". "Jump Jim Crow" was a key initial step in a tradition of popular music in the United States, based on the racist "imitation" and mockery of black people. The first song sheet edition appeared in the early 1830s, published by E. Riley. A couple of decades would see the mockery genre explode in popularity with the rise of the minstrel show; the song printed used "floating verses", which appear in altered forms in other popular folk songs. The chorus of the song is related to the traditional Uncle Joe / Hop High Ladies; as a result of Rice's fame, the term Jim Crow had become a pejorative term for African Americans by 1838 and from this the laws of racial segregation became known as Jim Crow laws.

The lyrics as most quoted are: Other verses, quoted in non-dialect standard English: As he extended it from a single song into an entire minstrel revue, Rice wrote additional verses for "Jump Jim Crow". Published versions from the period run as long as 66 verses. Verses range from the boastful doggerel of the original version to an endorsement of President Andrew Jackson. Jim may be derived from "Jimmy", an old cant term for a crow, based on a pun for the tool "crow". Before 1900, crowbars were called "crows" and a short crowbar was and still is called a "jimmy", a typical burglar's tool; the folk concept of a dancing crow predates the Jump Jim Crow minstrelsy and has its origins in the old farmer's practice of soaking corn in whiskey and leaving it out for the crows. The crows eat the corn and become so drunk that they cannot fly, but wheel and jump helplessly near the ground, where the farmer can kill them with a club. Uncle Tom Lyrics and background from the Bluegrass Messengers In Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, Charles Mackay, pg 629-630, reported his dismay at hearing the song in London.

Scandalize My Name: Black Imagery in American Popular Music, by Sam Dennison Strausbaugh, John. Black Like You: Blackface, Whiteface and Imitation in American Popular Culture. Jeremy P. Tarcher / Penguin. ISBN 1-58542-498-6

Bee sting

A bee sting is a wound caused by the stinger from a bee being injected into one's flesh. The stings of most of these species can be quite painful, are therefore keenly avoided by many people. Bee stings differ from insect bites, the venom or toxin of stinging insects is quite different. Therefore, the body's reaction to a bee sting may differ from one species to another. In particular, bee stings are acidic, whereas wasp stings are alkaline, so the body's reaction to a bee sting may be different from its reaction to a wasp sting; the most aggressive stinging insects are vespid hornets. All of these insects aggressively defend their nests. Although for most people a bee sting is painful but otherwise harmless, in people with insect sting allergy, stings may trigger a dangerous anaphylactic reaction, deadly. Additionally, honey bee stings release pheromones. A honey bee, away from the hive foraging for nectar or pollen will sting, except when stepped on or handled. Honey bees will seek out and sting when they perceive the hive to be threatened being alerted to this by the release of attack pheromones.

Although it is believed that a worker honey bee can sting only once, this is a partial misconception: although the stinger is in fact barbed so that it lodges in the victim's skin, tearing loose from the bee's abdomen and leading to its death in minutes, this only happens if the skin of the victim is sufficiently thick, such as a mammal's. Honey bees are the only hymenoptera with a barbed sting, though yellow jackets and some other wasps have small barbs. Bees with barbed stingers can sting other insects without harming themselves. Queen honeybees and bees of many other species, including bumblebees and many solitary bees, have smoother stingers with smaller barbs, can sting mammals repeatedly; the sting's injection of apitoxin into the victim is accompanied by the release of alarm pheromones, a process, accelerated if the bee is fatally injured. The release of alarm pheromones near a hive may attract other bees to the location, where they will exhibit defensive behaviors until there is no longer a threat because the victim has either fled or been killed.

These pheromones do not dissipate or wash off and if their target enters water, bees will resume their attack as soon as it leaves the water. The alarm pheromone emitted when a bee stings another animal smells like a banana. Drone bees, the males, do not have stingers; the female bees are the only ones that can sting, their stinger is a modified ovipositor. The queen bee has a barbed but smoother stinger and can, if need be, sting skin-bearing creatures multiple times, but the queen does not leave the hive under normal conditions, her sting is not for defense of the hive. Queen breeders who handle multiple queens and have the queen odor on their hands are sometimes stung by a queen; the main component of bee venom responsible for pain in vertebrates is the toxin melittin. In one of the alternative medical uses of honey bee products, bee venom has been used to treat arthritis and other painful conditions. All available evidence supporting this practice is either anecdotal, animal studies, or preliminary evidence, most of which has poor methodology.

While a preliminary, in-vitro proof of concept has demonstrated that isolated melittin may attenuate the infectivity of two specific HIV strains, apitherapy is not accepted as a viable medical treatment for any condition or disease. According to the American Cancer Society, there is no scientific evidence that apitherapy or bee venom therapy can treat or change the course of cancer or any other disease. Clinical trials have shown that apitherapy is ineffective in treating multiple sclerosis or any other disease, can cause a worsening in multiple sclerosis symptoms; the stinger consists of three parts: a stylus and two barbed slides, one on either side of the stylus. The bee does not push the stinger in; the slides move alternately up and down the stylus so when the barb of one slide has caught and retracts, it pulls the stylus and the other barbed slide into the wound. When the other barb has caught, it retracts up the stylus pulling the sting further in; this process is repeated until the sting is in and continues after the sting and its mechanism is detached from the bee's abdomen.

When a honey bee stings a person, it cannot pull the barbed stinger back out. It leaves behind not only the stinger, but part of its abdomen and digestive tract, plus muscles and nerves; this massive abdominal rupture kills the honey bee. Honey bees are the only bees to die after stinging; the first step in treatment following a honey bee sting is removal of the stinger itself. The stinger should be removed as as possible without regard to method: a study has shown the amount of venom delivered does not differ whether the sting is pinched or scraped off and a delay of a few seconds leads to more venom being injected. Once the stinger is removed and swelling should be reduced with a cold compress. A topical anesthetic


CJRU, branded as and branded as The Scope at Ryerson, is a low-powered AM campus and community radio station and operated by Radio Ryerson Incorporated at Ryerson University in Toronto, granted a broadcast license by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission on December 11, 2014. The station broadcasts on 1280 kHz with a signal strength of 99 watts as well as online; the station launched on the AM band on March 31, 2016 after several weeks of test transmissions. CJRU's current license expires on August 31, 2021; the 1280 AM frequency was used by CFBN. CJRU has operated as an internet radio station since April 2013. In February 2014, an application was filed with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission for an AM license; the CRTC held a hearing on September 25, 2014 and released its decision approving a license December 11, 2014. The internet station was started after Ryerson Radio's previous application to acquire a license for an FM license for CKLN-FM's former frequency of 88.1 MHz was rejected by the CRTC on September 11, 2012 in favour of indie rock station CIND-FM.

Ryerson-based CKLN-FM had broadcast on 88.1 from 1983 to 2011 when the station lost its license due to compliance issues. The station contrasts itself from its predecessor, CKLN. According to volunteer co-ordinator Emily Joveski: "One of the stigmas associated with radio at Ryerson is some of the mistrust lingering from the previous station, but we are different. We are accessible to all students, we will be a positive influence on Ryerson as well as the community."The application to the CRTC was supported by intervenors such as musician Ron Sexsmith, Blue Rodeo founding member Bob Wiseman, Toronto city councillors Kristyn Wong-Tam and Mike Layton, Liberal MP Chrystia Freeland and the National Campus and Community Radio Association. CJRU is governed by a nine-member board of directors with includes three representatives of the student body, three representatives of Ryerson University's administration, one representative of the station's volunteers and two directors, chosen by the board, to represent the community at large.

The board's chair is the dean of Ryerson's Faculty of Communication & Design. Ted Rogers School of Management dean Steven Murphy and Radio Television Arts chair Charles Falzon sit on the board on behalf of the university, while the president of the Ryerson Students Union sits as one of the student representatives. While two individuals intervening at the CRTC hearing opposed the station's application alleging too few community directors, the station responded by telling the CRTC that "it was appropriate to restrict membership in this case to avoid governance problems such as those that led to the revocation of CKLN-FM's licence, where a second competing board of directors was elected by members"; the CRTC agreed in its decision that "the proposed governance model is appropriate and provides for balanced representation from students, the community, the university and volunteers". The terms of its license require CJRU to air at least 120 hours of local and Canadian programming a week with a format that will be "a mixture of pop, dance, folk, folk-oriented, world beat international, blues, hip-hop, experimental music" with a "music discovery approach" focusing on emerging artists.

The schedule includes "in-depth spoken word programming and programming targeted to specific groups within the community". CJRU leases transmitter space from a tower in Toronto's Port Lands district, at Unwin Street and Cherry Street, used by CHHA 1610 Voces Latinas. CJRU AM history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CJRU