Tamarind is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa. The genus Tamarindus is a monotypic taxon; the tamarind tree produces pod-like fruit that contains an edible pulp used in cuisines around the world. Other uses of the pulp include metal polish; the wood can be used for woodworking and tamarind seed oil can be extracted from the seeds. Its tender young leaves are used in Indian cuisine in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana; because of tamarind's many uses, it is cultivated around the world in tropical and subtropical zones. The name derives from Arabic: تمر هندي, romanized tamar hindi, "Indian date". Several early medieval herbalists and physicians wrote tamar indi, medieval Latin use was tamarindus, Marco Polo wrote of tamarandi. In Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Italy and throughout the Lusosphere, it is called tamarindo. In those countries it is used to make the beverage of the same name. In Timor-Leste it is called sukaer. In the Caribbean, tamarind is sometimes called tamón.
In the Philippines, it is called sampalok or sampaloc in Filipino, sambag in Cebuano. Tamarind is sometimes confused with "Manila tamarind". While in the same taxonomic family Fabaceae, Manila tamarind is a different plant native to Mexico and known locally as guamúchili. Tamarindus indica is indigenous to tropical Africa, but has been cultivated for so long on the Indian subcontinent that it is sometimes reported to be indigenous there, where it is known as imli in Hindi-Urdu, it grows wild in Africa in locales as diverse as Sudan, Nigeria and Tanzania. In Arabia, it is found growing wild in Oman Dhofar, where it grows on the sea-facing slopes of mountains, it reached South Asia through human transportation and cultivation several thousand years BC. It is distributed throughout the tropical belt, from Africa to South Asia, northern Australia, throughout Oceania, Southeast Asia and China. In the 16th century, it was introduced to Mexico, to a lesser degree to South America, by Spanish and Portuguese colonists, to the degree that it became a staple ingredient in the region's cuisine.
Today, India is the largest producer of tamarind. The consumption of tamarind is widespread due to its central role in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Americas Mexico; the tamarind is a long-lived, medium-growth tree, which attains a maximum crown height of 12 to 18 metres. The crown has an vase-shaped outline of dense foliage; the tree grows well in full sun. It prefers clay, loam and acidic soil types, with a high resistance to drought and aerosol salt; the evergreen leaves are alternately arranged and pinnately lobed. The leaflets are bright green, elliptic-ovular, pinnately veined, less than 5 cm in length; the branches droop from a single, central trunk as the tree matures, are pruned in agriculture to optimize tree density and ease of fruit harvest. At night, the leaflets close up; as a tropical species, it is frost-sensitive. The pinnate leaves. Tamarind timber consists of hard, dark red softer, yellowish sapwood; the tamarind flowers, with red and yellow elongated flowers.
Flowers are 2.5 cm wide, five-petalled, borne in small racemes, yellow with orange or red streaks. Buds are pink as the four sepals are lost when the flower blooms; the fruit is an indehiscent legume, sometimes called a pod, 12 to 15 cm in length, with a hard, brown shell. The fruit has a fleshy, acidulous pulp, it is mature when the flesh is coloured reddish brown. The tamarinds of Asia have longer pods, whereas West Indian varieties have shorter pods; the seeds are somewhat flattened, a glossy brown. The fruit is best described as sweet and sour in taste, is high in tartaric acid, sugar, B vitamins, unusually for a fruit, calcium; the fruit is harvested by pulling the pod from its stalk. A mature tree may be capable of producing up to 175 kg of fruit per year. Veneer grafting, shield budding, air layering may be used to propagate desirable cultivars; such trees will fruit within three to four years if provided optimum growing conditions. The fruit pulp is edible; the hard green pulp of a young fruit is considered by many to be too sour, but is used as a component of savory dishes, as a pickling agent or as a means of making certain poisonous yams in Ghana safe for human consumption.
As the fruit matures it becomes sweeter and less sour and the ripened fruit is considered more palatable. In Western cuisine, it is found in HP Sauce. Tamarind paste has many culinary uses including a flavoring for chutnies and the traditional sharbat syrup drink. Tamarind sweet chutney is popular in Pakistan as a dressing for many snacks. Tamarind pulp is a key ingredient in flavoring curries and rice in south Indian cuisine, in the Chigali lollipop, in certain varieties of Masala Chai tea. Across the Middle East, from the Levant to Iran, tamarind is used in savory dishes, notably meat-based stews, combined with dried fruits to achieve a sweet-sour tang. In the Philippines, the whole fruit is used as an ingredient in the traditional dish called sinigang to add a unique sour taste, unlike that of dishes that use vinegar instead. Indonesia has a sour, tamarind-
Dame Jessica Ennis-Hill is a retired British track and field athlete from England, specialising in multi-eventing disciplines and 100 metres hurdles. As a competitor in heptathlon, she is the 2012 Olympic champion, a three-time world champion, the 2010 European champion, she is the 2010 world indoor pentathlon champion. A member of the City of Sheffield & Dearne athletic club, she is the current British national record holder for the heptathlon, she is a former British record holder in the 100 metres hurdles, the high jump and the indoor pentathlon. Born in Sheffield on 28 January 1986, Ennis-Hill is one of two daughters of Vinnie Ennis and Alison Powell, she has a younger sister, Carmel. Her father is a Jamaican self-employed painter and decorator, while her English mother is a social worker from Derbyshire, her father did some sprinting at school, whilst her mother favoured the high jump. They introduced her to athletics by taking her to a Start:Track event at Sheffield's Don Valley Stadium during the 1996 school summer holidays.
She won her first athletics prize there, a pair of trainers. More it was there that she met Toni Minichiello, the man, to become her coach. Ennis-Hill took to the sport and joined the City of Sheffield and Dearne Athletic Club the following year, aged 11. In November 2000, aged 14, she won the Sheffield Federation for School Sports Whitham Award for the best performance by a Sheffield athlete at the National Schools Championships, where she won the high jump competition. Growing up in the Highfield area of Sheffield, Ennis attended Sharrow Primary School and King Ecgbert School in Dore, where she did her GCSEs and stayed on in the sixth form to gain three A-Levels, before going on to study psychology at the University of Sheffield and graduating in 2007 with a 2:2. Ennis's full-time coach throughout her career was UK Athletics national coach for combined events Antonio'Toni' Minichiello, who coached her since she was eleven years old, she received specialist javelin coaching from World Championships bronze medallist and European Championships silver medallist Mick Hill.
Ennis took part in athletics from a young age. She competed in the high jump and pentathlon at the English Schools AAA Junior Girls in 1999 won the AAA Girls title in the high jump the following year at the age of fourteen, clearing 1.70 metres. In 2001, she was runner-up at the high jump and heptathlon events in the English Schools AAA Intermediate section and won the high jump in 2002 with a jump of 1.80 metres. Ennis established herself as one of Britain's top junior athletes at the AAA U20 Championships in 2003 as she took the indoor pentathlon title and outdoor 100 m hurdles title. Ennis competed at the 2003 World Youth Championships in Sherbrooke, Canada in July, where after leading at the end of the first day she finished in fifth position with 5,311 points; the following year Ennis competed in the 2004 World Junior Championships in Grosseto, where she finished eighth with 5,542 points, again after leading at the end of the first day. Ennis won two silver medals, in the 100 m hurdles and the high jump, at the 2004 Commonwealth Youth Games in Bendigo, held in November and December 2004, won the heptathlon at the July 2005 European Athletics Junior Championships in Kaunas, with a British junior record score of 5,891 points.
One of Ennis's first victories as a senior came in February 2004. She won the 60 m hurdles at the Northern Senior Indoor Championships in a time of 8.60 seconds. Two weeks earlier she had won three Northern Junior Indoor Championship titles: the 60 m sprint, the 60 m hurdles and the high jump. In February Ennis finished third in the 60 m hurdles at the AAA Indoor Championships in Sheffield in a time of 8.43 seconds. At the July 2005 AAA Championships Ennis competed in the 100 m hurdles, in which she recorded a personal best time of 13.26 seconds, the high jump. Ennis's first senior international competition was the 2005 Universiade, held in August in İzmir, where she won a bronze medal in the heptathlon with a new personal best of 5,910 points, behind winner Lyudmila Blonska and second-placed Simone Oberer. Ennis won a bronze medal for England at the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, Australia with a personal best score of 6,269 points, improving her previous best total by more than 350 points.
Her high jump of 1.91 metres would have been enough to take the individual event gold medal. She achieved personal bests in the 200 m and the javelin. Before the competition her aim was to score over 6,000 points; the competition was won by Kelly Sotherton with 6,396 points, with Kylie Wheeler second on 6,298 points. At the AAA Championships in July Ennis competed in the 100 m hurdles, in which she recorded a personal best time of 13.19 seconds in the heats, the high jump. In July, Ennis guided the Great Britain women's team to a fourth-place finish in the overall competition at the European Cup Combined Events Super League competition in Arles, France with a combined points total of 17,454. Ennis finished fourth in the individual standings with a points total of 6,170. In 2006 Ennis improved her personal best with a score of 6,287 points when finishing eighth at the 2006 European Championships in Gothenburg, Sweden. Ennis produced personal bests in the 200 m and the javelin; the medallists were Carolina Klüft, Karin Ruckstuhl and Lilli Schwarzkopf..
In January, Ennis set a new personal best of 8.24 seconds in the 60 m hurdles at the Loughborough indoor meeting, whilst in February, at the UK Indoor City Challenge Cup in Sheffield, she set personal bests of 7.43 seconds in the 60 m and 6.19 metres in
Blackheath is a district of south east London, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich and the London Borough of Lewisham. It is located east of Lewisham, south of Greenwich. Blackheath is within the historic boundaries of Kent; the name is recorded in 1166 as Blachehedfeld and means the "dark coloured heathland". It is formed from the Old English'blæc' and'hǣth' and refers to the open space, the meeting place of the ancient hundred of Blackheath; the name was applied to the Victorian suburb that developed in the 19th century and was extended to the areas known as Blackheath Park and Blackheath Vale. An urban myth is that Blackheath was associated with the 1665 Plague or the Black Death of the mid-14th century; the idea that Blackheath got its name from its use as a burial pit goes all the way back to the medieval period, when it was certainly used for the disposal of the dead during the ‘Black Death‘. Every part of London has a local tradition about plague pits under, say, a local school or shop.
They were common. The sheer number of bodies meant that the traditional churchyards became, as one contemporary put it, ‘overstuft’ quickly. During the seventeenth century Blackheath was, along with Hounslow Heath, a common assembly point for English Armies. In 1673 the Blackheath Army was assembled under Marshal Schomberg to serve in the Third Anglo-Dutch War; the Roman road that became known as Watling Street crosses the northern edge of Blackheath heading for the mouth of Deptford Creek, rather than for Deptford Bridge like the modern A2. Before the development of Greenwich palace by the Tudors, one of the most used royal palaces during the latter Plantagenet era was Eltham Palace located about 2.5 miles to the southeast of the heath and Watling Street. It continued to be used as a royal residence to the 16th century. Blackheath was a rallying point for Wat Tyler's Peasants' Revolt of 1381, for Jack Cade's Kentish rebellion in 1450. Wat Tyler is remembered by Wat Tyler Road on the heath, Jack Cade by Cade Road near the heath.
After pitching camp on Blackheath, Cornish rebels were defeated in the Battle of Deptford Bridge, just to the west, on 17 June 1497. With Watling Street carrying stagecoaches across the heath, en route to north Kent and the Channel ports, it was a notorious haunt of highwaymen during the 17th and 18th centuries; as reported in Edward Walford's Old and New London, "In past times it was planted with gibbets, on which the bleaching bones of men who had dared to ask for some extension of liberty, or who doubted the infallibility of kings, were left year after year to dangle in the wind." In 1909 Blackheath had a local branch of the London Society for Women's Suffrage. The Vanbrugh Pits are on the north-east part of the heath; the site of old gravel workings, Vanbrugh Pits have long been reclaimed by nature and form one of the more attractive parts of the rather flat Blackheath. It is attractive in spring when the extensive gorse blossoms; the pits are named after Sir John Vanbrugh, architect of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard, who had a house nearby, adjacent to Greenwich Park, now called Vanbrugh Castle.'Mince Pie House' built for his family, survived until 1911.
The sizeable estate of Blackheath Park, created on lands of Wricklemarsh Manor by John Cator is situated east of Blackheath, between Lee Road, Morden Road and Manor Way. Built over in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it contains many fine examples of substantial Georgian and Victorian houses – most notably Michael Searles' crescent of semi-detached terrace houses linked by colonnades, The Paragon – as well as some 1930s and 1960s additions; the Cator Estate was built on part of the estate owned by Sir John Morden, whose Morden College is another notable building to the south-east of the heath. The Cator Estate contains innovative 1960s Span houses and flats, the Blackheath High School buildings on Vanburgh Park include the Church Army Chapel. St Michael and All Angels' Church, designed by local architect George Smith and completed in 1830, was dubbed the Needle of Kent in honour of its tall, thin spire. All Saints' Church, situated on the heath, designed by the architect Benjamin Ferrey, dates from 1857.
Another Anglican church, St John the Evangelist's, was designed in 1853 by Arthur Ashpitel. The Pagoda is a notable example of a beautiful property situated in Blackheath, built in 1760 by Sir William Chambers in the style of a traditional Chinese pagoda, it was leased to the Prince Regent, who would become King George IV, used as a summer home by his wife Caroline, Princess of Wales. In 1871 the management of Blackheath passed by Act of Parliament to the Metropolitan Board of Works. Unlike the commons of Hackney, Tooting Bec and Clapham, Blackheath came to the Metropolitan Board of Works at no expense, because the Earl of Dartmouth agreed to waive his manorial rights, it is held in trust for public benefit under the Metropolitan Commons Act of 1886. It passed to the London County Council in 1889 to the Greater London Council; when the GLC closed in 1986, responsibility was given to the two boroughs of Greenwich and Lewisham, where it remains today. The heath itself is not manorial waste; the freehold is retained by the Manor of Lewisham and the Royal Manor of Greenwich.
The heath's chief natural resource is gravel, the freeholders retain rights over its extraction. In 1608, according to tradition, Blackheath was the place where golf was introduced to England – the Royal Blackheath G
Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may include flavorings. Vinegar contains 5–20% acetic acid by volume; the acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol or sugars by acetic acid bacteria. There are many types of vinegar, depending upon the source materials. Vinegar is now used in the culinary arts: as a flavorful, acidic cooking ingredient, or in pickling; as the most manufactured mild acid, it has had a wide variety of industrial and domestic uses. The word vinegar arrived in Middle English from Old French, which in turn derives from Latin: vinum + acer; the conversion of ethanol and oxygen to acetic acid takes place by the following reaction: CH3CH2OH + O2 → CH3COOH + H2O Vinegar contains numerous flavonoids, phenolic acids, aldehydes, which vary in content depending on the source material used to make the vinegar, such as orange peel or various fruit juice concentrates. Vinegar was used for conservation by the Babylonians as much as 5,000 years ago.
Traces of it have been found in Egyptian urns from around 3000 BC. Commercial vinegar is produced either by a slow fermentation process. In general, slow methods are used in traditional vinegars, where fermentation proceeds over the course of a few months to a year; the longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria. Fast methods add mother of vinegar to the source liquid before adding air to oxygenate and promote the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in one to three days; the source materials for making vinegar are varied: different fruits, alcoholic beverages, other fermentable materials are used. Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines without any additional flavoring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, raspberry and tomato; the flavors of the original fruits remain in the final product. Most fruit vinegars are produced in Europe, where there is a market for high-price vinegars made from specific fruits.
Several varieties are produced in Asia. Persimmon vinegar, called gam sikcho, is common in South Korea. Jujube vinegar, called zaocu or hongzaocu, wolfberry vinegar are produced in China. Apple cider vinegar is made from cider or apple must, has a brownish-gold color, it is sometimes sold unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present. It can be sweetened for consumption. A byproduct of commercial kiwifruit growing is a large amount of waste in the form of misshapen or otherwise-rejected fruit and kiwifruit pomace. One of the uses for pomace is the production of kiwifruit vinegar, produced commercially in New Zealand since at least the early 1990s, in China in 2008. Pomegranate vinegar is used in Israel as a dressing for salad, but in meat stew and in dips. Vinegar made from raisins is used in cuisines of the Middle East, it is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor. Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East, used in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries. Coconut vinegar, made from fermented coconut water or sap, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine, as well as in some cuisines of India and Sri Lanka Goan cuisine.
A cloudy white liquid, it has a sharp, acidic taste with a yeasty note. In the Philippines, there are other types of vinegar made from palm sap. Like coconut vinegar, they are by-products of tubâ production; the two of the most produced are nipa palm vinegar and kaong palm vinegar. Along with coconut and cane vinegar, they are the four main traditional vinegar types in the Philippines and are an important part of Filipino cuisine. Nipa palm vinegar is made from the sap of the leaf stalks of nipa palm, it imparts a distinctly musky aroma. Kaong palm vinegar is made from the sap of flower stalks of the kaong palm, it is sweeter than all the other Philippine vinegar types and are used in salad dressing. Vinegar from the buri palm sap is produced, but not the same prevalence as coconut and kaong vinegars. Kaong palm vinegar is produced in Indonesia and Malaysia, though it's not as prevalent as in the Philippines because the palm wine industry is not as widespread in these Muslim-majority countries. Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic aged vinegar produced in the Modena and Reggio Emilia provinces of Italy.
The original product — traditional balsamic vinegar — is made from the concentrated juice, or must, of white Trebbiano grapes. It is dark brown, rich and complex, with the finest grades being aged in successive casks made variously of oak, chestnut, cherry and ash wood. A costly product available to only the Italian upper classes, traditional balsamic vinegar is marked "tradizionale" or "DOC" to denote its Protected Designation of Origin status, is aged for 12 to 25 years. A cheaper non-DOC commercial form described as "aceto balsamico di Modena" became known and available around the world in the late 20th century made with concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar coloured and sweetened with caramel and sugar. Balsamic vine
Jim Connolly (illustrator)
Jim Connolly is an English illustrator and commercial artist from Sheffield. He is best known for creating comic book style designs for album/single covers, concert posters, magazine articles and silkscreen prints, his style features loud and brash bubblegum colours and comical characters drawn with a sharp vectorized look. The dominant features of his work include comic book, science fiction and horror references with a UK slant. Beyond his comic book style work he has worked in a variety of different styles as an illustrator and designer on outsourced E-Learning games for the BBC and Channel 4 via several E-Learning companies. Connolly studied illustration and animation at Manchester Metropolitan University under the tuition of illustrator Ian Whadcock. During his time in Manchester he first began creating and contributing to many underground comics and fanzines; this early work evolved into the creation of concert posters and album/single artwork for several bands. Having seen Connolly's designs for the Ape Drape Escape, The Barbs commissioned him to work on two singles and an album cover.
Their single'Massive Crush' reached No. 1 in the Philippines music chart in late 2004. In September 2004 Big Cheese Magazine featured an article about the relationship between the Barb's music and Jim Connolly's artwork. Relaxed Muscle, a side-project of Jarvis Cocker, Richard Hawley and Jason Buckle, used a Connolly-penned depiction of the band on the digital content on their album A Heavy Night With.... This can be seen alongside the band's quirky music videos. Connolly's love of punk rock led him to design posters for appearances by The Buzzcocks, The Damned, The Misfits and Zombina and the Skeletones. Swampy bluesmith Mr David Viner received the poster treatment on a visit to Sheffield University Students Union; this led to other commissions from Sheffield University Students Union including the consistent logo design for their annual'Band Comp'. In 2006 Jim Bob re-worked a gig poster designed by Connolly into the cover of a'best of' solo album Best of Jim Bob. Exposed Magazine commissioned several designs as profile pictures for their reviewers and for their film column, where they have used Connolly to visualise the latest comic book film adaptions.
Sandman Magazine has recently used Connolly's work in articles featuring Madchester icon Clint Boon and all-female Manchester punk band Hotpants Romance. In 2008, The Archipelago Press Company released a silkscreen print by Connolly satorising the destruction of Sheffield's iconic Tinsley cooling towers. In Jim's version of events the towers are destroyed by UFOs and onlookers are seen fleeing for their lives; the popularity of the original print led to the release of a Henderson's Relish inspired print titled'Use the Sauce' in November 2008, again via The Archipelago Press Company which has stated that a further 4 prints will be produced continuing the Sheffield/comic book satirical theme. In April 2009 a third print was released entitled'Bargains of the Damned', which features a mock zombie film poster with a parody of South Yorkshire mall Meadowhall shopping centre as the focus; the film Dawn of the Dead is stated as a key influence on the image. An exhibition will be held in Sheffield sometime in late 2009.
Alongside future art prints Connolly is collaborating with graphic novelist Anjan Sarkar on a comic project titled'Moronoid'. The two have collaborated on single covers for the Ape Drape Escape. Connolly is an original member of the alternative band the Ape Drape Escape and played drums on their debut E. P.'The Fracture Clinic', which received four'K's from Kerrang magazine on 25 October 2003. He left the band but continues to make music with the comedy punk band the Friends of Batman, in which he is a co-singer/songwriter, they have been labelled'ramshackle' by Sandman Magazine for their unrehearsed and drunken performances. Jim is an occasional magazine article writer and comic book enthusiast, he managed to combine the two by interviewing influential comic artist Paul Grist in July 2008. Official Website Artist's Blog A fancomic by the artist Poster Archive on Gigposters.com Rother FM Radio Interview Sheffield Star Interview 1 Sheffield Star Interview 2 An early interview with Sandman Magazine The Archipelago Press Co Ltd.
Anjan Sarkar – creative collaborator
2012 Summer Olympics
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event, held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremonies on 27 July. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees participated. Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City and Paris. London became the first city to host the modern Olympics three times, having hosted the Summer Games in 1908 and in 1948. Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability; the main focus was a new 200-hectare Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London.
The Games made use of venues that existed before the bid. The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised highly; the opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of ranging criticisms from some social media sites. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal. Saudi Arabia and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors; these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the games.
Though there were several controversies, the 2012 games were deemed successful with the rising standards of competition amongst nations across the world, packed stadiums and smooth organisation. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics. By 15 July 2003, the deadline for interested cities to submit bids to the International Olympic Committee, nine cities had submitted bids to host the 2012 Summer Olympics: Havana, Leipzig, Madrid, New York City and Rio de Janeiro. On 18 May 2004, as a result of a scored technical evaluation, the IOC reduced the number of cities to five: London, Moscow, New York and Paris. All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February and March 2005; the Paris bid suffered two setbacks during the IOC inspection visit: a number of strikes and demonstrations coinciding with the visits, a report that a key member of the bid team, Guy Drut, would face charges over alleged corrupt party political finances.
Throughout the process, Paris was seen as the favourite as this was its third bid in recent years. London was seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin, its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London 2012 on 19 May 2004. In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between Paris. On 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities, they did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive. London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid received positive evaluations. On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, "I cannot predict it since I don't know how the IOC members will vote, but my gut feeling tells me that it will be close. It will come down to a difference of say ten votes, or maybe less."On 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore.
Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New Madrid. The final two contenders were Paris. At the end of the fourth round of voting, London won the right to host the 2012 Games with 54 votes to 50. Tragically, the celebrations in London were short-lived, being overshadowed by bombings on London's transport system less than 24 hours after the announcement; the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games was created to oversee the staging of the Games after the success of the bid, held its first board meeting on 3 October 2005. The committee, chaired by Lord Coe, was in charge of implementing and staging the Games, while the Olympic Delivery Authority was in charge of the construction of the venues and infrastructure; the latter was established in April 2006. The Government Olympic Executive, a unit within the Department for Culture and Sport, was the lead government body for coordinating the London 2012 Olympics, it focused on oversight of the Games, cross-programme programme management and the London 2012 Olympic Legacy before and after the Games that would benefit London and the United Kingdom.
The organisation was responsible for the supervision of the £9.3 billion of public sector funding. In August 2011, security concerns arose surrounding the hosting of the Olympic Games in London due to the 2011 England riots, with a few countries expressing fear over the safety of the Games, in spite of the International Olympic Committee's assurance that the riots would not affect the Games; the IOC's Coordination Commission for the 2
Wembley is an area of north west London and part of the London Borough of Brent. It is notably home to the Wembley Wembley Stadium. Wembley formed a separate civil parish from 1894 and was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1937. In 1965, the area merged with the Municipal Borough of Willesden to create the London Borough of Brent, has since formed part of Greater London, it includes Alperton, North Wembley, Wembley Park and Northwick Park. Wembley is derived from the Old English proper name "Wemba" and the Old English "lea" for meadow or clearing; the name was first mentioned in the charter of 825 of Selvin. A further instance may be seen as Wambeleye; the village of Wembley grew up on the hill by the clearing with the Harrow Road south of it. Much of the surrounding area remained wooded. In 1547 there were but six houses in Wembley. Though small, it was one of the wealthiest parts of Harrow. At the dissolution of the monasteries in 1543, the manor of Wembley fell to Richard Andrews and Leonard Chamberlain, who sold it to Richard Page, Esq. of Harrow on the Hill, the same year.
The Page family continued as lords of the manor of Wembley for several centuries and commissioned Humphry Repton the landscape gardener to design what is now Wembley Park. Wembley Park thus derived its name from Repton's habit of referring to the areas he designed as "parks". There was a mill on Wembley Hill by 1673. In 1837, the London and Birmingham Railway was opened from London Euston through Wembley to Hemel Hempstead, completed to Birmingham Curzon Street the following year; the changing names of the local station demonstrated the increasing importance of the'Wembley' name.'Sudbury' station opened in 1845, renamed as'Sudbury and Wembley' in 1882, renamed as'Wembley for Sudbury' in 1910, renamed as'Wembley Central' in 1948, at the time of the Olympic Games. To modernise the service, a new Watford DC Line was built alongside the main lines and Bakerloo line trains, electric trains to Broad Street started in 1917. Electric trains to London Euston began running in 1922. Since 1917, there have been six platforms at.
In 1880, the Metropolitan Railway opened its line from Baker Street through the eastern side of Wembley, but only built a station, Wembley Park, in 1894. There are now three physically separate services, the London to Aylesbury Line, the Metropolitan line, the Jubilee line. Only the latter two services have platforms at Wembley Park station. In November 1905, the Great Central Railway opened a new route for fast expresses that by-passed the congested Metropolitan Railway tracks, it ran between Neasden Junction, south of Wembley, Northolt Junction, west of London, where a new joint main line with the Great Western Railway began. Local passenger services from London Marylebone were added from March 1906, when new stations were opened, including'Wembley Hill', next to what became the site of Wembley Stadium - the national stadium of English sport - which opened for the FA Cup Final of April 1923, remaining open for 77 years until it closed for reconstruction in October 2000. After a long planning and redevelopment process dogged by a series of funding problems and construction delays, the new stadium opened its doors in March 2007.
Wembley Hill station was renamed'Wembley Complex' in May 1978, before getting its present name of'Wembley Stadium' in May 1987. The area around the current Wembley Stadium was the location of the British Empire Exhibition of 1924-1925; until the 2000s, remnants of the many reinforced concrete buildings, including the original Wembley Stadium, but nearly all have now been removed, to make way for redevelopment. Wembley, in common with much of northwest London, had an extensive manufacturing industry, but much of it closed in the 1980s. Factories in the area included Glacier Metals, Wolf Power Tools, Sunbeam Electrical Appliances, Griffin & George and GEC; the retail centre of Wembley has suffered from chronic traffic congestion and from the opening of neighbouring purpose-built shopping centres, first Brent Cross in the early 1970s and the Harrow and Ealing Broadway Shopping Centres. During the 1960s, rebuilding of Wembley Central station, a block of flats, an open-plan shopping plaza, a car park were constructed on a concrete raft over the railway.
The shopping plaza suffered slow decline and was therefore poorly maintained, but it is being redeveloped. The first phase, including construction of eighty-five homes and reconstruction of the plaza, has been completed. Most of the rest of Wembley's housing consists of inter-war semi-detached houses and terraces and of modern apartment blocks, with a significant minority of detached housing. Extensive redevelopment has occurred in the Wembley Park area, about a mile northeast from Wembley town centre. On 16 May 1990, a 2 lb IRA bomb killed 34-year-old soldier Sergeant Charles Chapman and injured four others near the Stadium intersection in Wembley. Wembley has a high degree of ethnic diversity, as illustrated by the accompanying pie chart for Wembley Central. According to the 1991 census, 49.2% of the Wembley Cental ward was Asian, with 39% being Indian. The ward along with neighbouring Alperton were in the top 10 most diverse in London; the white population dropped further to 21.3% by the 2001 census, with 78.6% being of black or minority ethnic groups.
The White British populatio