Anne Seymour Damer
Anne Seymour Damer, née Conway, was an English sculptor. In 1767 she married John Damer, the son of Lord Milton, the couple received an income of £5,000 from Lord Milton, and were left large fortunes by Milton and Henry Conway. They separated after seven years, and he committed suicide in 1776 and her artistic career developed during her widowhood. Anne was a frequent visitor to Europe, during one voyage she was captured by a privateer, but released unharmed in Jersey. She visited Sir Horace Mann in Florence, and Sir William Hamilton in Naples, in 1802, while the Treaty of Amiens was in effect, she visited Paris with the author Mary Berry and was granted an audience with Napoleon. From 1818, Anne Damer lived at York House and she died, aged 79, in 1828 at her London house, No.27 Upper Brook Street, Grosvenor Square. She was buried in the church at Sundridge, along with her sculptors tools and apron, the development of Anne Seymour Damers interest in sculpture is credited to David Hume and to the encouragement of Horace Walpole, who was her guardian during her parents frequent trips abroad.
According to Walpole, her training included lessons in modelling from Giuseppe Ceracchi, in marble carving from John Bacon, during the period 1784–1818, Damer exhibited 32 works as an honorary exhibitor at the Royal Academy. Her work, primarily busts in Neoclassical style, developed from early wax sculptures to technically complex ones in works in terracotta and marble. Her subjects, largely drawn from friends and colleagues in Whig circles, included Lady Melbourne, Joseph Banks, George III, Mary Berry, Charles James Fox and she executed several actors portraits, such as the busts of her friends Sarah Siddons and Elizabeth Farren. She produced keystone sculptures of Isis and Tamesis for each side of the arch on the bridge at Henley-on-Thames. The original models are in the Henley Gallery of the River, another major architectural work was her 10-foot statue of Apollo, now destroyed, for the frontage of Drury Lane theatre. She created two bas reliefs for the Boydell Shakespeare Gallery of scenes from Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra, Damer was a writer, with one published novel, Belmour.
Damers friends included a number of influential Whigs and aristocrats and her guardian and friend Horace Walpole was a significant figure, who helped foster her career and on his death left her his London villa, Strawberry Hill. She moved in literary and theatrical circles, where her friends included the poet and dramatist Joanna Baillie, the author Mary Berry, and the actors Sarah Siddons and Elizabeth Farren. She frequently took part in masques at the Pantheon and amateur theatricals at the London residence of the Duke of Richmond, a romance between Damer and Elizabeth Farren, who was mentioned by Thrale, is the central storyline in the 2004 novel Life Mask by Emma Donoghue
Henley Royal Regatta
Henley Royal Regatta is a rowing event held annually on the River Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. It was established on 26 March 1839, the regatta lasts for 5 days over the first weekend in July. Races are head-to-head knock out competitions, raced over a course of 1 mile,550 yards, the regatta regularly attracts international crews to race. The most prestigious event at the regatta is the Grand Challenge Cup for Mens Eights, as the regatta pre-dates any national or international rowing organisation, it has its own rules and organisation, although it is recognised by both British Rowing and FISA. The regatta is organised by a body of Stewards, who are largely former rowers themselves. Pierre de Coubertin modelled elements of the organisation of the International Olympic Committee on the Henley Stewards, the regatta is regarded as part of the English social season. As with other events in the season, certain enclosures at the regatta have strict dress codes, entries for the regatta close at 6,00 pm sixteen days before the Regatta.
In order to encourage a high quality of racing, create a manageable race timetable and to ensure that most crews race only once a day, qualifying races are held on the Friday before the regatta. The qualifying races take the form of a timed processional race up the regatta course, Times are released for non-qualifying crews only. This does not stop a band of unofficial timers with synchronised watches working out how fast their first round opposition might be. If it is apparent that there are a number of outstanding crews in an event, they may be selected by the Stewards, to prevent them from meeting too early in the competition. The regatta insists that selection is not the same as seeding, the difference being that there is no rank order as is usually the case in, for example. The draw is an event that takes place in the Henley town hall. For each event the names of all selected crews are placed on pieces of paper which are drawn at random from the Grand Challenge Cup. These crews are placed on pre-determined positions on the draw chart.
The remaining qualifying crews are drawn from the cup, filling in from the top of the draw chart downwards. Each event in the regatta takes the form of a knockout competition, the course is marked out by two lines of booms, which are placed along the river to form a straight course 2,112 metres long. The course is enough to allow two crews to race down with a few metres between them
Shrewsbury SHROOZ-bree is the county town of Shropshire, England. It is on the River Severn and has a population of approximately 72,000. and is nicknamed the heart of shropshire. Shrewsbury is a town whose centre has a largely unaltered medieval street plan and over 660 listed buildings. The town has historically been a centre for the wool trade, horticulture remains popular, and the Shrewsbury Flower Show is one of the largest horticultural events in England. The A5 and A49 trunk roads cross near to the town and its Welsh name Amwythig means fortified place. Over the ages, the important town has been the site of many conflicts. The Angles, under King Offa of Mercia, took possession in 778, nearby is the village of Wroxeter,5 miles to the south-east. This was once the site of Viroconium, the fourth largest cantonal capital in Roman Britain, as Caer Guricon it is a possible alternative for the Dark Age seat of the Kingdom of Powys. The importance of the Shrewsbury area in the Roman era was underlined with the discovery of the Shrewsbury Hoard in 2009, Shrewsburys known history commences in the Early Middle Ages, having been founded c.800 AD.
It is believed that Anglo-Saxon Shrewsbury was most probably a settlement fortified through the use of earthworks comprising a ditch and rampart, There is evidence to show that by the beginning of the 900s, Shrewsbury was home to a mint. The Welsh besieged it in 1069, but were repelled by William the Conqueror, Roger de Montgomery was given the town as a gift from William, and built Shrewsbury Castle in 1074, taking the title of Earl. He founded Shrewsbury Abbey as a Benedictine monastery in 1083, the 3rd Earl, Robert of Bellême, was deposed in 1102 and the title forfeited, in consequence of rebelling against Henry I and joining the Duke of Normandys invasion of English in 1101. In 1138, King Stephen successfully besieged the castle held by William FitzAlan for the Empress Maud during the known as the Anarchy. It was in the late Middle Ages when the town was at its height of commercial importance. This was mainly due to the trade, a major industry at the time, with the rest of Britain and Europe, especially with the River Severn.
The Shrewsbury Drapers Company dominated the trade in Welsh wool for many years, Shrewsburys monastic gathering was disbanded with the Dissolution of the Monasteries and as such the Abbey was closed in 1540. However, it is believed that Henry VIII thereafter intended to make Shrewsbury a cathedral city after the formation of the Church of England, but the citizens of the town declined the offer. Despite this, Shrewsbury thrived throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, largely due to the towns fortuitous location, as a resultant a number of grand edifices, including the Irelands Mansion and Drapers Hall, were constructed
Remenham is a village and civil parish on the Berkshire bank of the River Thames opposite Henley-on-Thames in southern England. The parish covers the starting point of the Henley Royal Regatta course, Remenham Club and Upper Thames Rowing Clubs are private members club for rowers, with a good view of the river halfway along the Henley course. The Leander Club, founded in 1818, is one of the oldest rowing clubs in the world, Remenham is host to many successful rowing regattas including Henley Womens Regatta, Henley Masters Regatta and Henley Boat Races. The parish church St Nicholass is Norman in origin, but has been rebuilt subsequently, the tower has chequer-work turrets and in the chancel there are some Sienese wrought iron gates. A field on the Park Place estate has an obelisk which was originally the spire of St Brides Church in the City of London. Indeed, by the time of his fall from grace and attainder in 1496, bray effectively sold or quit in favour of William Norreys whose nephew-in-law, soon to be heir was Sir William Sandys – created Baron Sandys who died in 1542.
It remained with the Lords Sandys until 1612–13 when it was conveyed to Sir William Lovelace – created Lord Lovelace of Hurley, the heirs of Lord Lovelace eventually parted with the manor, which in 1723 was held by Bulstrode Whitlock of Phyllis Court, Henley. Over the course of that and the following year Whitlock passed the manor to Dr Gislingham Cooper and he sold it about 1760 to the uncle of Strickland Freeman of Fawley Court, lord of the manor in 1813. His heir was William Peere Williams, Admiral of the Fleet and his grandson and heir William Peere Williams Freeman dealt with the manor in 1833 and sold it to Dudley Coutts Marjoribanks – a baronet. Sir Dudley Coutts Marjoribanks sold it in 1871 to the Right Hon. William Henry Smith, once a large manor, less significant than the above, its owners have included Lord Archibald Hamilton, son of William 3rd Duke of Hamilton. About 1738 Lord Archibald sold the estate to Frederick, Prince of Wales, father of George III, in 1752 it was purchased by General the Hon.
Henry Seymour Conway, who started the cultivation of lavender in Remenham and established a distillery. The grounds were out by Conway according to the taste of the period. On a hill beyond the grounds was a Druidic temple presented to Conway by the inhabitants of Jersey. Before 1709 the gift of the living had been purchased by Jesus College, with whom it has remained, providing a vicar. The parish did away with its land by an Act of Parliament of 1799. In 1923 at Aston was a ferry over the river, supplementing Henley Bridge built in the 13th century at the end of the parish. Underwood, at Remenham Hill, was the residence of Mrs. Ames, Aston is a hamlet set back by one short access lane from the Thames further to the east of Henley-on-Thames than Remenham village centre, both offset to the north. Less than 1 mile separates the two, however this is a buffer that is farmed
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river entirely in England and it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its tidal reach up to Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary, the Thames drains the whole of Greater London. Its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise, in Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the average discharge from a drainage basin that is 60% smaller. Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs and its catchment area covers a large part of South Eastern and a small part of Western England and the river is fed by 38 named tributaries. The river contains over 80 islands, in 2010, the Thames won the largest environmental award in the world – the $350,000 International Riverprize.
The Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys Thames. It has suggested that it is not of Celtic origin. A place by the river, rather than the river itself, indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name Thames is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit. It is believed that Tamesubugus name was derived from that of the river, tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography. The rivers name has always pronounced with a simple t /t/, the Middle English spelling was typically Temese. A similar spelling from 1210, Tamisiam, is found in the Magna Carta, the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as River Thames or Isis down to Dorchester, richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida.
An alternative, and simpler proposal, is that London may be a Germanic word, for merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the London River. Londoners often refer to it simply as the river in such as south of the river. Thames Valley Police is a body that takes its name from the river. The marks of human activity, in cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river
Hambleden Lock is a lock with a long weir situated on the River Thames in England. The lock is on the Berkshire bank between Aston and Remenham and it was built by the Thames Navigation Commission in 1773, The lock is named after the village of Hambleden, a mile to the north. The great weir is impressive and there are walkways over it from the lock to the village of Mill End on the Buckinghamshire bank. Here is situated the picturesque Hambleden Mill, and the site of a Roman villa is nearby, the mill at Hambleden is mentioned in Domesday Book, which implies there was a weir here then. There is reference to the weir, with a winch in 1338, the pound lock was the fourth downstream in the series of locks built after the 1770 navigation act. The others were built of fir which had to be replaced by oak after a dozen years, in 1777 a small brick house was built and Caleb Gould became keeper. There is reference to continuing use of the lock and winch at the weir until the middle of the nineteenth century.
The channel downstream of the lock which takes navigation clear of the weir and weir pool was excavated in 1825, the lock was completely rebuilt in 1870 after years of complaint about its condition. In 1884 the new weirs were built and after public complaints the walkway was built to reopen the ancient right of way, the lock was rebuilt in 1994. The lock can be reached from the village of Aston on the side, after a short walk. From the opposite side the walkways across the weirs provide easy access from Mill End. The river curves round to the south, passing, on the Buckinghamshire bank, after the turn is Temple Island, which is the start of the Henley Royal Regatta course. The regatta is rowed upstream over a straight course of 1 mile,550 yards. On the Berkshire bank are open fields and Remenham Farm, the regatta lawns continue up to Henley Bridge, while the town of Henley on Thames stretches along the Oxfordshire bank. After Henley Bridge is the Henley river front with boat hire, after a small wooded island is the larger Rod Eyot, and Mill Meadows provides public open space on the Henley side of the river.
The River and Rowing Museum is situated here, on the Berkshire bank the land rises steeply with a wooded escarpment hanging over Marsh Lock. It crosses Henley Bridge and continues on the Oxfordshire bank to Marsh Lock, since the 1940s kayakers and canoeists have used the weir structure for recreation. In each of the four sluices a concrete ramp of about 16 deg has been fixed to the apron, on top of these a hinged steel plate is fixed
The Patent Rolls are a series of administrative records compiled in the English and United Kingdom Chancery, running from 1201 to the present day. The rolls were started in the reign of King John, under the Chancellorship of Hubert Walter, the texts of letters patent were copied onto sheets of parchment, which were stitched together into long rolls to form a roll for each year. As the volume of business grew, it necessary to compile more than one roll for each year. The most solemn grants of lands and privileges were issued, not as letters patent, but as charters and this series was discontinued in 1516, and all charters issued thereafter, mainly for grants of titles, were entered on the patent rolls. The patent rolls run in an almost unbroken series from 1201 to the present day, with a number of gaps, notably during the English Civil War. They are written almost exclusively in Latin in the early period, English was used occasionally in the 16th century, but only during the Commonwealth and after 1733 are all the entries in English.
The medieval rolls were stored in the Tower of London. These transfers ceased at the end of the 15th century, the rolls from both sites were reunited at the newly built Public Record Office in the 1850s, and they are now held at the National Archives, London, where their class reference is C66. As of 2016, there are 5,790 rolls in the series, Letters patent were issued to grant monopolies over particular industries to individuals with new techniques, and these grants were likewise copied onto the patent rolls. The system became subject to abuse in the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I, and was regulated by the Statute of Monopolies of 1624. In 1853, responsibility for patents of invention was transferred to the newly established Patent Office, all the medieval and early modern rolls to 1625 have been published, although editorial policies and formats have varied. The rolls for the years 1216 to 1232 were published as full Latin texts in two published in 1901 and 1903, simply entitled Patent Rolls.
The post-1232 rolls have not been published as full texts, but in calendar form,53 volumes of calendars were published between 1891 and 1916, covering the years 1232 to 1509. Those for the reign of Henry VIII were not independently published and those for the years 1547–1582 were published in 19 volumes between 1924 and 1986. Calendars and indexes of the rolls for the reign of James VI and I were published by the List and these are facsimiles, reproduced from photocopies, of contemporary 17th-century finding aids. Although of value, they do not meet modern standards of comprehensiveness. Commissions of gaol delivery and assize were entered on the backs of the rolls, hardys 1835 edition of the rolls for 1201–1216 is available online in a non-searchable form. The published texts and calendars from 1216 to 1452 have been available online in a fully searchable form by the University of Iowa
St. Catharines is the largest city in Canadas Niagara Region and the sixth largest urban area in Ontario, with 96.13 square kilometres of land and 133,113 residents in 2016. It lies in Southern Ontario,51 kilometres south of Toronto across Lake Ontario and it is the northern entrance of the Welland Canal. Residents of St. Catharines are known as St. Cathariners, St. Catharines carries the official nickname The Garden City due to its 1,000 acres of parks and trails. St. Catharines is located between the Greater Toronto Area and the Fort Erie – US border, manufacturing is the citys dominant industry, as noted by the heraldic motto and Liberality. General Motors of Canada, Ltd. the Canadian subsidiary of General Motors, was the citys largest employer, TRW Automotive operates a plant in the city, though in recent years employment there has shifted from heavy industry and manufacturing to services. St. Catharines lies on one of the main telecommunications backbones between Canada and the United States, and as a result a number of call centres operate in the city, the city was first settled by Loyalists in the 1780s.
The Crown granted them land in compensation for their services and for losses in the United States, early histories credit Serjeant Jacob Dittrick and Private John Hainer, formerly of Butlers Rangers, as among the first to come to the area. They took their Crown Patents where Dicks Creek and 12 Mile Creek merge, although never documented, some local St. Catharines historians speculate that Dicks Creek was named after Richard Pierpoint, a Black Loyalist and former American slave. Secondary to water routes, native trails provided transportation networks, resulting in the present-day radial road pattern from the City centre, the surrounding land was surveyed and Townships created between 1787 and 1789. He did this from his mill, built on the 12 Mile Creek in Power Glen, after his death in 1786, his holdings were forfeited to merchant Robert Hamilton of Queenston. Hamilton tried to operate for profit the already well-established Murrays Distribution Centre, among other ventures, Hamilton became land wealthy, expropriating lands from subsistence Loyalist settlers who were incapable of settling their debts.
Murrays distribution centre, Hamiltons warehouse, and its location have long been a mystery, Hamilton lacked interest in social development and sold his business to Jesse Thompson before the turn of the 18th century. The small settlement was known as The Twelve and as Murrays District to military and civic officials and this is confirmed in St. Catharines’ first history, written by J. P. Merritt, to be historically accurate the name St. Catharines preceded all of these…. The Merritt family arrived after this time, among the Loyalists to relocate following the American Revolution and they were from the Carolinas, New York state and New Brunswick. In 1796, Thomas Merritt arrived to build on his relationship with his former Commander and Queens Ranger, John Graves Simcoe, at an unknown early date, an inn was built by Thomas Adams on the east side of what is now Ontario Street. It became a community meeting place, election centre, stagecoach stop, and mail delivery deposit. This was preceded by the church and a log school house completed before 1797 and this was an extension of the old Iroquois Trail and was renamed St.
Paul Street by the settlers and descendant by the mid-19th century. Several mills, salt works, numerous outlets, a ship building yard, distillery
Courtauld Institute of Art
The Courtauld Institute of Art, commonly referred to as The Courtauld, is a self-governing college of the University of London specialising in the study of the history of art and conservation. It is among the most prestigious institutions in the world for these disciplines and is known for the disproportionate number of directors of major museums drawn from its small body of alumni. The art collection of the Institute is known particularly for its French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings and is housed in the Courtauld Gallery, the Institute and the Gallery are both in Somerset House, in the Strand in London. Originally the Courtauld Institute was based in Home House, a Robert Adam-designed townhouse in Londons Portman Square, the Strand block of Somerset House, designed by William Chambers from 1775–1780, has housed the Courtauld Institute since 1989. The Courtauld celebrated its 75th anniversary during the 2007–08 academic year, the Courtauld Institute of Art is the major centre for the study of the history and conservation of art and architecture in the United Kingdom.
It offers undergraduate and postgraduate teaching to around 400 students each year, degrees are awarded by the University of London. The Independent has called it probably the most prestigious specialist college for the study of the history of art in the world, the Courtauld was ranked, first in the United Kingdom for History and History of Art in The Guardian’s 2017 University Guide. The only undergraduate course offered by the Courtauld is a BA in the History of Art and this is a full-time course designed to introduce students to all aspects of the study of western art. Students in the history of art masters programme have to choose a specialisation ranging from antiquity to modern to global contemporary artwork. Special options are taught in class sizes of 5–10 students. In 2009, it was decided that the Witt Library would not continue to add new material to the collection, the book library is one of the UKs largest archives of art history books and exhibition catalogues. There is a library which covers films, and an IT suite.
Two other websites and sell high resolution digital files to scholars and broadcasters, the Courtauld uses a virtual learning environment to deliver course material to its students. Since 2004, the Courtauld has published a research journal, immediations. Each cover of the journal has been commissioned by a contemporary artist. The art collection of the Institute is housed in the Courtauld Gallery, the collection was begun by the founder of the Institute, Samuel Courtauld, who presented an extensive collection of mainly French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings in 1932. It was enhanced by further gifts in the 1930s and a bequest in 1948, the Gallery contains some 530 paintings and over 26,000 drawings and prints. The Courtauld Gallery is open to the public, since 1989 it has been housed in the Strand block of Somerset House, which was the first home of the Royal Academy, founded in 1768
Oxfordshire is a county in South East England bordering on Warwickshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire and Gloucestershire. The county has major education and tourist industries and is noted for the concentration of performance companies and facilities. Oxford University Press is the largest firm among a concentration of print and publishing firms, the main centre of population is the city of Oxford. The highest point is White Horse Hill, in the Vale of White Horse, oxfordshires county flower is the Snakes-head Fritillary. Historically the area has always had some importance, since it contains valuable agricultural land in the centre of the county, largely ignored by the Romans, it was not until the formation of a settlement at Oxford in the eighth century that the area grew in importance. Alfred the Great was born across the Thames in Wantage, Vale of White Horse, the University of Oxford was founded in 1096, though its collegiate structure did not develop until on. The university in the county town of Oxford grew in importance during the Middle Ages, the area was part of the Cotswolds wool trade from the 13th century, generating much wealth, particularly in the western portions of the county in the Oxfordshire Cotswolds.
Morris Motors was founded in Oxford in 1912, bringing industry to an otherwise agricultural county. The importance of agriculture as an employer has declined rapidly in the 20th century though, Oxfordshire remains a very agricultural county by land use, with a lower population than neighbouring Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, which are both smaller. The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, the army unit in the area, was based at Cowley Barracks on Bullingdon Green. Conversely, the Caversham area of Reading, now administratively in Berkshire, was part of Oxfordshire as was the parish of Stokenchurch. This is a chart of trend of gross value added of Oxfordshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. Oxfordshire has a comprehensive education system with 23 independent schools and 35 state secondary schools. Only eight schools do not have a form, these are mostly in South Oxfordshire. The county has two universities, the ancient University of Oxford and the modern Oxford Brookes University, both located in Oxford, in addition, Wroxton College, located in Banbury, is affiliated with Fairleigh Dickinson University of New Jersey.
The dreaming spires of the buildings of the University of Oxford are among the reasons for Oxford being the sixth most visited city in the United Kingdom for international visitors. Among many notable University buildings are the Sheldonian Theatre, built 1664–68 to the design of Sir Christopher Wren, Blenheim Palace close to Woodstock was built by the great architect John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, after he had won the battle of Blenheim. The gardens, which can be visited, were designed by the landscape gardener Capability Brown, in the palace, which can be visited by the public, Sir Winston Churchill was born in 1874