Free State (province)
The Free State is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bloemfontein, South Africa's judicial capital, its historical origins lie in the Boer republic called Orange Free State and Orange Free State Province. The current borders of the province date from 1994 when the Bantustans were abolished and reincorporated into South Africa, it is the only one of the four original provinces of South Africa not to undergo border changes, excluding the reincorporation of Bantustans. The provincial government consists of a premier, an executive council of ten ministers, a legislature; the provincial assembly and premier are elected for five-year terms, or until the next national election. Political parties are awarded assembly seats based on the percentage of votes each party receives in the province during the national elections; the assembly elects a premier, who appoints the members of the executive council. The premier of Free State as of 2009 was Ace Magashule of the African National Congress. In 2018, Sisi Ntombela was appointed premier.
The Free State is situated on a succession of flat grassy plains sprinkled with pastureland, resting on a general elevation of 3,800 feet only broken by the occasional hill or kopje. The rich soil and pleasant climate allow for a thriving agricultural industry. With more than 30,000 farms, which produce over 70% of the country's grain, it is known locally as South Africa's breadbasket; the province is high-lying, with all land being 1,000 metres above sea level. The Drakensberg and Maluti Mountains foothills raise the terrain to over 2,000 m in the east; the Free State lies in the heart of the Karoo Sequence of rocks, containing shales, mudstones and the Drakensberg Basalt forming the youngest capping rocks. Mineral deposits are plentiful, with gold and diamonds being of particular importance found in the north and west of the province; the flats in the south of the reserve provides ideal conditions for large herds of plain game such as black wildebeest and springbok. The ridges and plains typical of the northern section are home to kudu, red hartebeest, southern white rhinoceros and buffalo.
The Southern African wildcat, black wildebeest, eland, white rhinoceros and wild dog can be seen at the Soetdoring Nature Reserve near Bloemfontein. The South African cheetahs has been reintroduced in the Free State for the first time in June 2013 after a hundred years of regional extinction, at Laohu Valley Reserve near Philippolis. Following the reintroduction of an adult female South African cheetah in early 2016, three wild cheetah cubs has been born for the first time in Laohu Valley Reserve in February 2017, making the three new cubs the first cheetahs born in the wild since their disappearance from the Free State province in over a century; the Free State experiences a continental climate, characterised by warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters. Areas in the east experience frequent snowfalls on the higher ranges, whilst the west can be hot in summer. All precipitation falls in the summer months as brief afternoon thunderstorms, with aridity increasing towards the west. Areas in the east around Harrismith and Ficksburg are well watered.
The capital, experiences hot, moist summers and cold, dry winters frequented by severe frost. Bloemfontein averages: January maximum: 31 °C, July maximum: 17 °C, annual precipitation: 559 mm Bethlehem averages: 27 °C, July maximum: 16 °C, annual precipitation: 680 mm In the southeast, the Free State borders seven districts of Lesotho: Mokhotlong – farthest to the east Butha-Buthe – northwest of Mokhotlong and northeast of Leribe Leribe – southwest of Butha-Buthe and northeast of Berea Berea – southwest of Leribe and north of Maseru Maseru – south of Berea and northeast of Mafeteng Mafeteng – southwest of Maseru and northwest of Mohale's Hoek Mohale's Hoek – southeast of MafetengDomestically, it borders the following provinces: KwaZulu-Natal – east Eastern Cape – south Northern Cape – west North West – northwest Gauteng – north Mpumalanga – northeastThe Free State borders more districts of Lesotho and more provinces of South Africa than any other province, it is traversed by the northwesterly line of equal longitude.
The Free State Province is divided into one metropolitan municipality and four district municipalities. The district municipalities are in turn divided into 19 local municipalities: See List of cities and towns in the Free State The Free State's major towns include: Bloemfontein & Botshabelo in Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality Welkom and Virginia in Lejweleputswa Bethlehem and Phuthaditjhaba in Thabo Mofutsanyana Kroonstad and Parys in Fezile Dabi The Free State is the only province in South Africa that operates a free 24-hour dedicated rotorwing aeromedical service from a public hospital, they are able to deliver a high level of care on scene. On 31 October 2018 Free State Emergency Medical Service launched an additional 65 road ambulances to augment the fleet. Free state has many private hospitals; some of them are: Bloemfontein Medi-clinic Bethlehem Medi-clinic Welkom Medi-clinic Mofumahadi Mmanapo Regional Hospital in Phuthaditjhaba. The province is the granary of South Africa, with agriculture central to its economy, while mining on the rich goldfields reef is its largest employer.
Agriculture dominates the Free State landscape, with cultivated land covering 32,000 square kilometres, natural veld and grazing a further 87,000 square kilometres of the province. It is South A
Dordogne is a department in Southwestern France, with its prefecture in Périgueux. The department is located in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine between the Loire Valley and the Pyrenees and is named after the river Dordogne that runs through it, it corresponds with the ancient county of Périgord. It had a population of 416,909 in 2013; the county of Périgord dates back to. It was home to four tribes; the name for "four tribes" in the Gaulish language was "Petrocore". The area became known as the county of Le Périgord and its inhabitants became known as the Périgordins. There are four Périgords in the Dordogne; the "Périgord Vert", with its main town of Nontron, consists of verdant valleys in a region crossed by many rivers and streams. The "Périgord Blanc", situated around the department's capital of Périgueux, is a region of limestone plateaux, wide valleys, meadows; the "Périgord Pourpre" with its capital of Bergerac, is a wine region. The "Périgord Noir" surrounding the administrative center of Sarlat, overlooks the valleys of the Vézère and the Dordogne, where the woods of oak and pine give it its name.
The Petrocores took part in the resistance against Rome. Concentrated in a few major sites are the vestiges of the Gallo-Roman period-–the gigantic ruined tower and arenas in Périgueux, the Périgord museum's archaeological collections, villa remains in Montcaret, the Roman tower of La Rigale Castle in Villetoureix; the earliest cluzeaux can be found throughout the Dordogne. These subterranean refuges and lookout huts were large enough to shelter entire local populations. According to Julius Caesar, the Gauls took refuge in these caves during the resistance. After Guienne province was transferred to the English Crown under the Plantagenets following the remarriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152, Périgord passed by right to English suzerainty. Being situated at the boundaries of influence of the monarchies of France and England, it oscillated between the two dynasties for more than three hundred years of struggle until the end of the Hundred Years' War in 1453; the county had been torn apart and, as a consequence, that modeled its physiognomy.
During the calmer periods of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the Castillon plain on the banks of the Dordogne saw a development in urban architecture. The finest Gothic and Renaissance residences were built in Périgueux and Sarlat. In the countryside, the nobility erected the majority of the more than 1200 chateaux and country houses. In the second half of the 16th century, the terrors of war again visited the area, as the attacks and fires of the Wars of Religion reached a rare degree of violence in Périgord. At the time, Bergerac was one of the most powerful Huguenot strongholds, along with La Rochelle. Following these wars, Périgord, fief of Henry of Navarre, was to return to the Crown for good and would continue to suffer from the sudden political changes of the French nation, from the Revolution to the tragic hours of the Resistance. We encounter the memory of the region's most important literary figures: Arnaut Daniel, Bertran de Born, Michel de Montaigne, Étienne de La Boétie, Brantôme, Maine de Biran, Eugene Le Roy, André Maurois.
A number of ruins have retained the memory of the tragedies. Several of the castles and châteaux are open to visitors. In addition to its castles, churches and cave fortresses, the Périgord region has preserved since centuries past a number of villages that still have their market halls, bories, churches and castles. Saint-Léon-sur-Vézère, Saint-Jean-de-Côle, La Roque-Gageac, many others contain important and visually interesting architectural examples; the old quarters of Périgueux or Bergerac have been developed into pedestrian areas. A number of small towns, such as Brantôme, Issigeac and Mareuil, have withstood the changes of modern times. A special mention should be made in this respect to its Black Périgord area. Dordogne is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790 during the French Revolution, it was created from the former province of the county of Périgord. Its borders continued to change over subsequent decades. In 1793 the communes of Boisseuilh, Coubjours, Génis, Saint-Cyr-les-Champagnes, Saint-Mesmin, Savignac, Saint-Trié and Teillots were transferred from Corrèze to Dordogne.
In 1794 Dordogne ceded Cavarc to Lot-et-Garonne. In 1794, Dordogne gained Parcoul from Charente-Inférieure. Following the restoration, in 1819, the commune of Bonrepos was suppressed and merged with the adjacent commune of Souillac in Lot. In 1870, shortly after France fought against Prussia in a war that the enemy was winning, a young aristocrat called Alain de Monéys was savagely tortured and burned by a crowd of between 300 and 800 people for two hours on 16 August in a public square in the village of Hautefaye in the north-west of the department. Details of the incident remain unclear: the leading participants appear to have been drunk, before the introduction of mass education most of the witnesses would have been unable to write down
The Brandberg is Namibia's highest mountain. Brandberg Mountain is located in former Damaraland, now Erongo, in the northwestern Namib Desert, near the coast, covers an area of 650 km². With its highest point, the Königstein, standing at 2,573 m above sea level and located on the flat Namib gravel plains, on a clear day'The Brandberg' can be seen from a great distance. There are various routes to the summit, the easiest being up the Ga'aseb river valley, but other routes include the Hungurob and Tsisab river valleys; the nearest settlement is Uis 30 km from the mountain. The core area of 450 square kilometres was declared a National Monument in 1951; the name Brandberg is Afrikaans and German for Burning Mountain, which comes from its glowing color, sometimes seen in the setting sun. The Damara name for the mountain is Dâures, which means'burning mountain', while the Herero name, Omukuruvaro means'mountain of the Gods'; the Brandberg Massif or Brandberg Intrusion is a granitic intrusion, which forms a dome-shaped massif.
It originated during Early Cretaceous rifting. Argon–argon dating yielded intrusive ages of 132 to 130 Ma; the dominant plutonic rock is a homogeneous medium grained biotite-hornblende granite. In the western interior of the massif, a 2 km in diameter body of pyroxene-bearing monzonite is exposed; the youngest intrusive rocks based on cross-cutting relations are arfvedsonite granite dikes and sills in the southwestern periphery of the Brandberg massif which crop out in the Amis valley. The arfvedsonite granites contain minerals rich in rare-earth element minerals such as pyrochlore and bastnaesite. Remnants of Cretaceous volcanic rocks are preserved in a collar along the western and southern margins of the massif, their angle of dip increases towards the contact where clasts of country rock occur within the granite forming a magmatic breccia. The origins of the magmas that formed the Brandberg intrusion are related to emplacement of mantle-derived basaltic magma during continental break-up which led to partial melting of crustal rocks resulting in a hybrid granitic magma.
Erosion subsequently removed the overburden rock. Apatite fission track dating indicates 5 km denudation between 80 and 60 Ma. An associated feature is the Doros Complex; the Brandberg is a spiritual site of great significance to the San tribes. The main tourist attraction is The White Lady rock painting, located on a rock face with other art work, under a small rock overhang, in the Tsisab Ravine at the foot of the mountain; the ravine contains more than 1 000 rock shelters, as well as more than 45 000 rock paintings. To reach The White Lady it is necessary to hike for about 40 minutes over rough terrain, along the ancient watercourses threading through the mountain; the higher elevations of the mountain contain hundreds of further rock paintings, most of which have been painstakingly documented by Harald Pager, who made tens of thousands of hand copies. Pager's work was posthumously published by the Heinrich Bart Institute, in the six volume series "Rock Paintings of the Upper Brandberg" edited by Tilman Lenssen-Erz.
The Brandberg is home to some interesting desert flora. Damaraland is well known for its grotesque aloes and euphorbias and the region around the mountain is no exception; the area has many plants and trees that have an alien appearance, due in part to the extreme climatic conditions. The area is wild, it is arid and finding water can be difficult or impossible. In summer temperatures over 40 °C are routine. Nonetheless, the Brandberg area is home to a large diversity of wildlife; the numbers of animals are small because the environment cannot support large populations, however most of the desert species that are found in Namibia are present and visitors to the area might glimpse a desert dwelling elephant or a rare black rhino. The new insect taxon Mantophasmatodea was first discovered on this mountain in 2002; the scorpion fauna of the Brandberg massif is the richest in southern Africa. The Brandberg lies within the Karroo-Namib floristic region and few members of the Cape flora are represented.
A checklist of 357 species was published in 1974 by Bertil Nordenstam stating that 11 taxa are endemic to the Brandberg, with a further 28 species endemic to the Kaoko element. A large and significant group of species has a disjunction between the Karroo-Namib region in the south, the arid parts of north-east Africa; these appear to be remnants of a hypothesised arid-track joining the two areas. Aloidendron dichotomum is the largest and arguably the most conspicuous succulent on the mountain exceeding 5m height, it is infrequently encountered on the upper southern slopes. Cyphostemma currorii is another large succulent of the grape family, scattered across the mountain. Myrothamnus flabellifolius is the resurrection plant, it is common on some of the upper slopes, can be made into a tea. Olea europaea subsp. Africana. Not associated with such arid regions, this is only known from the peak of Konigstein. Euphorbia monteiroi subsp. Brandbergensis is a toxic upright succulent found in the upper altitudes.
It is browsed by dassies. Plumbago wissii has pink flowers. Hermannia merxmuelleri was only known from Tsisab valley, is unusual within the genus in having a crested capsule much like the Americ
The Swimming Reindeer is the name given to a 13,000-year-old Magdalenian sculpture of two swimming reindeer conserved in the British Museum. The sculpture was made in what is now modern-day France by an unknown artist who carved the artwork from the tip of a mammoth tusk; the sculpture was found in two pieces in 1866, but it was not until the early 20th century that Abbé Henri Breuil realised that the two pieces fit together to form a single sculpture of two reindeer swimming nose-to-tail. The pieces of the sculpture were discovered by a French engineer, Peccadeau de l’Isle, in 1866 while he was trying to find evidence of early man on the banks of the River Aveyron, although contemporary accounts attributed the find to Victor Brun, a local antiquarian. At the time, de l'Isle was employed in the construction of a railway line from Montauban to Rodez, while digging for artefacts in his spare time he found some prehistoric flint tools and several examples of late Ice Age prehistoric art in a rock shelter of Bruniquel.
The finds took the name of the rock shelter: "abri Montastruc". The hill was estimated to be 98 feet high, the artefacts were found beneath an overhang that extended for about 46 feet along the river and enclosed an area of 298 square yards. De l'Isle had to dig through 7 metres of material to get to the level where the artefacts were found. At this time it was thought that there were two separate carvings of reindeer as it was not obvious that the two pieces fitted together. De l'Isle wrote a paper on his discovery, his finds were exhibited in 1867 at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. People were intrigued to see this sculpture in particular; the carvings were remarkable in. Dating was possible; this dated the find as ancient and required a re-evaluation of the life of humans in the late Ice Age. This find was astounding, as at that time no cave paintings had been discovered, it was to be some years before those that were found were accepted as genuine. In fact it was only the work of Henry Christy and Edouard Lartet that had persuaded informed opinion that mankind had lived during the ice age and coexisted with mammoths.
The evidence for coexistence came not only from the reindeer but from a carved spear thrower, found in the same location. This device was used to gain extra leverage. In this case it was made from a piece of reindeer antler, carved into the shape of a mammoth; the reindeer sculptures were again exhibited in 1884 in Toulouse, when it is speculated that a French buyer might have been found, but they were procured by the British Museum in 1887. De l'Isle offered his finds to the British Museum for the large sum of 150,000 francs, which would have a value in excess of half a million pounds in 2010; the offer was considered much too high and was not accepted by Augustus Franks, an enthusiastic antiquarian, in charge of the north European collection at that time. Franks had been known to fund the museum's acquisitions himself, he sent Charles Hercules Read to negotiate with de l'Isle. Read managed to bring the price down to £500; the purchase was funded by the Christy Fund, a £5,000 bequest by Henry Christy who had left his own collections to the museum.
It was not until 1904 when Abbé Breuil saw the sculptures whilst visiting the British Museum that he realised that the two pieces fitted together, were in fact two parts of a single sculpture. The sculpture is kept in a controlled atmosphere and is moved; the ivory is now fragile and it is feared that it could "turn to dust" if it were treated roughly. Unlike the mammoth spear thrower, the reindeer sculpture has no practical purpose, is considered to be the oldest piece of art in any British museum; the finds came from the late Ice Age, which Henry Christy and Edouard Lartet called the "age of the reindeer". That is notable as the carving of mammoth ivory depicted reindeer and the mammoth spear thrower was carved from a reindeer antler; that fixes the co-existence of reindeer and man at a time that the area had a climate similar to that of Siberia today. This period became known as Magdalenian, named after a French cave, Abri de la Madeleine, where similar art to the Swimming Reindeer were found.
The sculpture shows a female reindeer followed by a larger male reindeer. The larger male is indicated by his size and genitals, whilst the female has her teats modelled; the reindeer are thought to be swimming in illustration of the migration of deer that would have taken place each autumn. It is known that it would be autumn as both reindeer are shown with antlers, only during autumn do both male and female reindeer have antlers. At this time of year reindeer would be much easier to hunt, the meat and antlers would be at their best; each of the reindeer has been marked with a burin to show different colouring and texture in the deer's coat. Oddly there are ten deeper cuts on each side of the back of the leading female reindeer; these may have been intended to indicate coloured markings. Former Director of the British Museum Neil MacGregor says of the manufacturing process: If you look you can see that this little sculpture is the result, in fact, of four separate stone technologies. First, the tip of the tusk was severed with a chopping tool.
The whole thing was polished using a powdered iron oxide mixed with water buffed up with a c
Society of the Priests of Saint Sulpice
The Society of the Priests of Saint-Sulpice is a society of apostolic life of the Catholic Church named for the Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, in turn named for Sulpitius the Pious, where they were founded. Priests become members of the Society of the Priests of St. Sulpice only after ordination and some years of pastoral work; the purpose of the society is the education of priests and to some extent parish work. As their main role is the education of those preparing to become members of the presbyterate, Sulpicians place great emphasis on the academic and spiritual formation of their own members, who commit themselves to undergoing lifelong development in these areas; the Society is divided into three provinces, operating in various countries: the Province of France and the United States. The Society of the Priests of Saint Sulpice was founded in France in 1641 by Father Jean-Jacques Olier, an exemplar of the French School of Spirituality. A disciple of Vincent de Paul and Charles de Condren, Olier took part in "missions" organized by them.
The French priesthood at that time suffered from academic deficits and other problems. Envisioning a new approach to priestly preparation, Olier gathered a few priests and seminarians around him in Vaugirard, a suburb of Paris, in the final months of 1641. Shortly thereafter, he moved his operation to the parish of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, hence the name of the new Society. After several adjustments, he built a seminary next to the current church of Saint-Sulpice; the Séminaire de Saint-Sulpice thereby became the first Sulpician seminary. There the first seminarians got their spiritual formation, while taking most theology courses at the Sorbonne; the spirit of this new seminary and its founder caught the attention of many leaders in the French Church. Sulpician priests contributed to the parish community during the day, but at night they would return to their institutions. Jean-Jacques Olier attempted to control diverse social groups by having laymen of the community give reports on family life and disorder.
The Sulpicians were strict in regards to woman and sexuality to the extent that they were banned from the seminary unless it was for short visits in the external area with appropriate attire. The Sulpicians accepted aspirants to the company as long as they were priests and had permission from their bishop; the Sulpicians would thus recruit wealthy individuals. They were free to dispose their wealth; the Sulpicians soon came to be known for the revival of the parish life, reform of seminary life, the revitalization of spirituality. In the 18th century they attracted the sons of the nobility, as well as candidates from the common class, produced a large number of the French hierarchy; the Séminaire de Saint-Sulpice was closed during the French Revolution, its teachers and students scattered to avoid persecution. That Revolution led to the secularization of the University of Paris; when France stabilized, theology courses were offered in seminaries, the Sulpicians resumed their educational mission.
Sulpician seminaries earned and maintained reputations for solid academic teaching and high moral tone. The Society spread from France to Canada, the United States and to several other foreign countries, including to Vietnam and French Africa, where French Sulpician seminaries are found today; the Sulpicians played a major role in the founding of the Canadian city of Montreal, where they engaged in missionary activities, trained priests and constructed the Saint-Sulpice Seminary. The Société Notre-Dame de Montréal, of which Jean-Jacques Olier was an active founder, was granted the land of Montreal from the Company of One Hundred Associates, which owned New France, in the goals of converting Indians and to provide schools and hospitals for both colonists and the indigenous population; the Jesuits served as missionaries for the small colony until 1657 when Jean-Jacques Olier sent four priests from the Saint-Sulpice seminary in Paris to form the first parish. In 1663, France decided to take royal administration over New France, taking it away from the Company of One Hundred Associates, in the same year the Société Notre-Dame de Montréal ceded its possessions to the Seminaire de Saint-Sulpice.
Just as in Paris, the Montreal Sulpicians had important civil responsibilities. Most notably, they acted as seigneurs for Montreal as part of the Seigneurial system of New France. In 1668, several Sulpicians went away to evangelize the Native People: the Iroquois in the Bay of Quinte, north of Lake Ontario, the Mi'kmaq in Acadia, the Iroquois on the present site of Ogdensburg in the State of New York and the Algonquins in Abitibi and Témiscamingue. Dollier de Casson and Brehan de Gallinée explored the region of the Great Lakes, of which they made a map. In 1676 the mission of the Mountain was opened on the site of the present seminary, where M. Belmont built a fort; the brandy traffic necessitated the removal of this fixed mission and in 1720 it was transferred to Lac-des-Deux-Montagnes. The Sulpicians served as missionaries, explorers, social workers, supervisors of convents, canal builders, urban planners, colonization agents, entrepreneurs. Despite their large role in society and their influencing in shaping early Montreal, each night they would all return to the Saint-Sulpice Seminary.
The administration of the seminary in Montreal was modeled on that of Paris