Robert I Estienne, known as Robertus Stephanus in Latin and referred to as Robert Stephens by 18th and 19th-century English writers, was a 16th-century printer and classical scholar in Paris. He was a former Catholic who became a Protestant late in his life and the first to print the Bible divided into standard numbered verses. Robert was born in the second son of the famous humanist printer Henri Estienne, he became acquainted early on with ancient languages. After Henri's death in 1520, the printing establishment was maintained by his former partner Simon de Colines who married Robert's mother, the widow Estienne. In 1526 Robert assumed control of his father's printing shop while de Colines established his own firm nearby. In 1539 Robert adopted as his device an olive branch around which a serpent was twined, a man standing under an olive-tree, with grafts from which wild branches were falling to the ground, with the words of Romans 11:20, Noli altum sapere, sed time.... The latter was called the olive of the Stephens family.
In 1539 he received the distinguishing title of "Printer in Greek to the king". But the official recognition and the crown's approval to his undertaking could not save him from the censure and ceaseless opposition of the divines. In 1550, to escape the violence of his persecutors, he emigrated to Geneva, where he set up his printing house. With his title of "royal typographer" Estienne made the Paris establishment famous by his numerous editions of grammatical works and other schoolbooks and of classical and Patristic authors, such as Dio Cassius, Sallust, Julius Caesar, Socrates Scholasticus, Sozomen. Many of these the Greek editions, were famous for their typographical elegance; the editiones principes which issued from Robert's press were eight in number, viz. Eusebius of Caesarea, Manuel Moschopulus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Alexander of Tralles, Dio Cassius, Justin Martyr, Appian; the last was completed, after Robert's departure from Paris, by his brother Charles and appeared under his name.
These editions, all in folio, except the Moschopulus, in quarto, are unrivalled for beauty. Robert printed numerous editions of Latin classics, of which the folio Virgil of 1532 is the most noteworthy, he printed a large quantity of Latin grammars and other educational works, many of which were written by Maturin Cordier, his friend and co-worker in the cause of humanism. In 1532 he published the remarkable Thesaurus linguae latinae and twice he published the entire Hebrew Bible—"one with the Commentary of Kimchi on the minor prophets, in 13 vols. 4to, another in 10 vols. 16mo." Both of these editions are rare. Of more importance are his four editions of the Greek New Testament, 1546, 1549, 1550, 1551, the last in Geneva; the first two are among the neatest Greek texts known, called O mirificam. The third, a splendid masterpiece of typographical skill, is known as the Editio Regia; the 1551 edition contains the Latin translation of Erasmus and the Vulgate, is not nearly as fine as the other three, is exceedingly rare.
It was in this edition that the division of the New Testament into verses was for the first time introduced. A number of editions of the Vulgate appeared from his presses, of which the principal are those of 1528, 1532, 1540, 1546, his editions that of 1546, containing a new translation at the side of the Vulgate, was the subject of sharp and acrimonious criticism from the clergy. On his arrival at Geneva, he published a defense against the attacks of the Sorbonne, he issued the French Bible in 1553 and many of John Calvin's writings, including the finest edition of the Institutio in 1553. His fine edition of the Latin Bible with glosses contained the translation of the Old Testament by Santes Pagninus and the first edition of Theodore Beza's Latin edition of the New Testament. In 1556 he became citizen of the Republic of Geneva, where he died in 1559. Three of Robert's sons, Henri and François, became celebrated as printers. François printed on his own account in Geneva from 1562–1582, issuing a number of editions of the Bible in Latin and French, some of Calvin's works.
French writers identify him with a printer by the name of Estienne in Normandy, to which he is supposed to have emigrated in 1582. Robert Estienne Jr. began to print in Paris on his own account in 1556, receiving the title of Typographus regius in 1563. His presses were busily employed in issuing civil documents, he held to the Catholic faith and thus won the support of Charles IX. By 1563 he appears to have reconstituted his father's establishment in Paris, his edition of the New Testament of 1568–1569, a reprint of his father's first edition and equal to it in elegance of execution, is now exceedingly rare. Estienne Henri Estienne Chapters and verses of the Bible Textus Receptus Martin, Henri-Jean « Le temps de Robert Estienne », Histoire de l'édition française, vol. 1, Paris, pp. 230–235 ISBN 2-903181-06-3 Schreiber, Fred The Estiennes: an annotated catalogue of 300 highlights of their various presses. New York: E. K. Schreiber This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed..
"article name needed". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. London a
Plato was an Athenian philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought, the Academy, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is considered the pivotal figure in the history of Ancient Greek and Western philosophy, along with his teacher and his most famous student, Aristotle. Plato has often been cited as one of the founders of Western religion and spirituality; the so-called Neoplatonism of philosophers like Plotinus and Porphyry influenced Saint Augustine and thus Christianity. Alfred North Whitehead once noted: "the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato."Plato was the innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy. Plato appears to have been the founder of Western political philosophy, his most famous contribution bears his name, the doctrine of the Forms known by pure reason to provide a realist solution to the problem of universals.
He is the namesake of Platonic love and the Platonic solids. His own most decisive philosophical influences are thought to have been along with Socrates, the pre-Socratics Pythagoras and Parmenides, although few of his predecessors' works remain extant and much of what we know about these figures today derives from Plato himself. Unlike the work of nearly all of his contemporaries, Plato's entire oeuvre is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years. Although their popularity has fluctuated over the years, the works of Plato have never been without readers since the time they were written. Due to a lack of surviving accounts, little is known about education. Plato belonged to an influential family. According to a disputed tradition, reported by doxographer Diogenes Laërtius, Plato's father Ariston traced his descent from the king of Athens and the king of Messenia, Melanthus. Plato's mother was Perictione, whose family boasted of a relationship with the famous Athenian lawmaker and lyric poet Solon, one of the seven sages, who repealed the laws of Draco.
Perictione was sister of Charmides and niece of Critias, both prominent figures of the Thirty Tyrants, known as the Thirty, the brief oligarchic regime, which followed on the collapse of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War. According to some accounts, Ariston tried to force his attentions on Perictione, but failed in his purpose; the exact time and place of Plato's birth are unknown. Based on ancient sources, most modern scholars believe that he was born in Athens or Aegina between 429 and 423 BC, not long after the start of the Peloponnesian War; the traditional date of Plato's birth during the 87th or 88th Olympiad, 428 or 427 BC, is based on a dubious interpretation of Diogenes Laërtius, who says, "When was gone, joined Cratylus the Heracleitean and Hermogenes, who philosophized in the manner of Parmenides. At twenty-eight, Hermodorus says, went to Euclides in Megara." However, as Debra Nails argues, the text does not state that Plato left for Megara after joining Cratylus and Hermogenes.
In his Seventh Letter, Plato notes that his coming of age coincided with the taking of power by the Thirty, remarking, "But a youth under the age of twenty made himself a laughingstock if he attempted to enter the political arena." Thus, Nails dates Plato's birth to 424/423. According to Neanthes, Plato was six years younger than Isocrates, therefore was born the same year the prominent Athenian statesman Pericles died. Jonathan Barnes regards 428 BC as the year of Plato's birth; the grammarian Apollodorus of Athens in his Chronicles argues that Plato was born in the 88th Olympiad. Both the Suda and Sir Thomas Browne claimed he was born during the 88th Olympiad. Another legend related that, when Plato was an infant, bees settled on his lips while he was sleeping: an augury of the sweetness of style in which he would discourse about philosophy. Besides Plato himself and Perictione had three other children; the brothers Adeimantus and Glaucon are mentioned in the Republic as sons of Ariston, brothers of Plato, though some have argued they were uncles.
In a scenario in the Memorabilia, Xenophon confused the issue by presenting a Glaucon much younger than Plato. Ariston appears to have died in Plato's childhood, although the precise dating of his death is difficult. Perictione married Pyrilampes, her mother's brother, who had served many times as an ambassador to the Persian court and was a friend of Pericles, the leader of the democratic faction in Athens. Pyrilampes had a son from a previous marriage, famous for his beauty. Perictione gave birth to Pyrilampes' second son, the half-brother of Plato, who appears in Parmenides. In contrast to his reticence about himself, Plato introduced his distinguished relatives into his dialogues, or referred to them with some precision. In addition to Adeimantus and Glaucon in the Republic, Charmides has a dialogue named after him; these and other references suggest a considerable amount of family pride and enable us to reconstruct Plato's family tree. According to Burnet, "the opening scene of the Ch
Empedocles was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for originating the cosmogonic theory of the four classical elements, he proposed forces he called Love and Strife which would mix and separate the elements, respectively. These physical speculations were part of a history of the universe which dealt with the origin and development of life. Influenced by Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, Empedocles challenged the practice of animal sacrifice and killing animals for food, he developed a distinctive doctrine of reincarnation. He is considered the last Greek philosopher to have recorded his ideas in verse; some of his work survives, more than is the case for any other pre-Socratic philosopher. Empedocles' death was mythologized by ancient writers, has been the subject of a number of literary treatments. Empedocles was born, at Akragas in Sicily to a distinguished family. Little is known about his life, his father Meton seems to have been instrumental in overthrowing the tyrant of Akragas Thrasydaeus in 470 BC.
Empedocles continued this tradition by helping to overthrow the succeeding oligarchic government. He is said to have been magnanimous in his support of the poor, his brilliant oratory, his penetrating knowledge of nature, the reputation of his marvellous powers, including the curing of diseases, averting epidemics, produced many myths and stories surrounding his name. In his poem Purifications he claimed miraculous powers, including the destruction of evil, the curing of old age, the controlling of wind and rain. Empedocles was acquainted or connected by friendship with the physicians Acron; the only pupil of Empedocles, mentioned is the sophist and rhetorician Gorgias. Timaeus and Dicaearchus spoke of the journey of Empedocles to the Peloponnese, of the admiration, paid to him there. According to Aristotle, he died at the age of sixty though other writers have him living up to the age of one hundred and nine. There are myths concerning his death: a tradition, traced to Heraclides Ponticus, represented him as having been removed from the Earth.
The contemporary Life of Empedocles by Xanthus has been lost. Empedocles is considered the last Greek philosopher to write in verse. There is a debate about whether the surviving fragments of his teaching should be attributed to two separate poems, Purifications and On Nature, with different subject matter, or whether they may all derive from one poem with two titles, or whether one title refers to part of the whole poem; some scholars argue that the title Purifications refers to the first part of a larger work called On Nature. There is a debate about which fragments should be attributed to each of the poems, if there are two poems, or if part of it is called "Purifications". Empedocles was undoubtedly acquainted with the didactic poems of Xenophanes and Parmenides—allusions to the latter can be found in the fragments—but he seems to have surpassed them in the animation and richness of his style, in the clearness of his descriptions and diction. Aristotle called him the father of rhetoric, although he acknowledged only the meter as a point of comparison between the poems of Empedocles and the epics of Homer, he described Empedocles as Homeric and powerful in his diction.
Lucretius speaks of him with enthusiasm, evidently viewed him as his model. The two poems together comprised 5000 lines. About 550 lines of his poetry survive. In the old editions of Empedocles, only about 100 lines were ascribed to his Purifications, taken to be a poem about ritual purification, or the poem that contained all his religious and ethical thought. Early editors supposed that it was a poem that offered a mythical account of the world which may have been part of Empedocles' philosophical system. According to Diogenes Laërtius it began with the following verses: In the older editions, it is to this work that editors attributed the story about souls, where we are told that there were once spirits who lived in a state of bliss, but having committed a crime they were punished by being forced to become mortal beings, reincarnated from body to body. Humans and plants are such spirits; the moral conduct recommended in the poem may allow us to become like gods again. If, as is now held, this title "Purifications" refers to the poem On Nature, or to a part of that poem, this story will have been at the beginning of the main work on nature and the cosmic cycle.
The relevant verses are sometimes attributed to the proem of On Nature by those who think that there was a separate poem called "Purifications". There are about 450 lines of his poem On Nature extant, including 70 lines which have been reconstructed from some papyrus scraps known as the Strasbourg Papyrus; the poem consisted of 2000 lines of hexameter verse, was addressed to Pausanias. It was this poem. In it, Empedocles explains not on
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
Stephanus pagination is a system of reference and organization used in modern editions and translations of Plato based on the three volume 1578 edition of Plato's complete works translated by Joannes Serranus and published by Henricus Stephanus in Geneva. In the case of Plato's works, Stephanus pagination first divides the works into numbers that are the page numbers of each of the Stephanus edition's three volumes, each such page and page number is further subdivided into lettered sections which correspond to parallel Greek/Latin translated passages on a given page commonly a, b, c, d, e; this system is used in modern scholarship to cite Plato. For Plato's works, unique coordinates for a passage can therefore be given with three pieces of information: the work's name, the page number, the letter denoting the passage. For example, "Symposium 172a" cites Symposium, Stephanus page 172, passage a. To avoid ambiguity in this scheme, either the Platonic work or the volume must be cited. Reference to Stephanus manifestly presupposes the existing ordering of the work in its given volumes, but given historical disagreement as to the chronology and proper ordering of Plato's works, care should therefore be taken when referring to Stephanus pagination as opposed to another scheme.
More specific citations may add line numbers, e.g. Symposium 209a5–9, but these refer to the lines in John Burnet's Oxford Classical Text, not to Estienne's line divisions. There are some peculiarities in the Stephanus page numbers; the length of each page and each paragraph can vary if extra commentary appears on the page of the 1578 edition. Thus Stephanus pages are not all of the same length; some pages do not have all the paragraphs a through e. There are gaps in the sequence of Stephanus page numbers for Plato's Republic and Laws; the reason is that the editors added separate introductions to each'book' of these longer works, thus the page numbers of these introductions are not used to refer to pages in Plato's dialogues. The spurious dialogue Halcyon was included in the corpus of Lucian's works and does not have Stephanus numbers. Bekker numbering is the comparable system for the works of Aristotle, Diels–Kranz numbering is the comparable system for Pre-Socratic philosophy. Unlike Stephanus pagination, Bekker numbering starts with page 1 and proceeds through all of Aristotle's works without starting over, regardless of the number of volumes needed for a given edition.
Bekker numbering therefore has the advantage, not shared by Stephanus pagination, of giving compact, unambiguous numerical citation of a given passage, etc, without the absolute necessity in order to avoid ambiguity to specify the dialogue, work or volume which exists in the case of Stephanus. Euthyphro Apologia Socratis Crito Phaedo Theages Amatores Theaetetus Sophista Euthydemus Protagoras Hippias Minor Cratylus Gorgias Ion Philebus Meno Alcibiades I Alcibiades II Charmides Laches Lysis Hipparchus Menexenus Politicus Minos Respublica Respublica I Respublica II Respublica III Respublica IV Respublica V Respublica VI Respublica VII Respublica VIII Respublica IX Respublica XLeges Leges I Leges II Leges III Leges IV Leges V Leges VI Leges VII Leges VIII Leges IX Leges X Leges XI Leges XII Epinomis Timaeus Critias Parmenides Symposium Phaedrus Hippias Major Epistolae Epistola I Epistola II Epistola III Epistola IV Epistola V Epistola VI Epistola VII Epistola VIII Epistola IX Epistola X Epistola XI Epistola XII Epistola XIII Axiochus De Justitia De Virtute Demodocus Sisyphus Eryxias Clitopho Definitiones Bekker numbering Diels–Kranz numbering Explanation for Quoting Plato: Stephanus references Vol. 1, Vol. 2 and Vol. 3 – scan of Stephanus' Plato edition from 1578
John Calvin was a French theologian and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism, aspects of which include the doctrines of predestination and of the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation, in which doctrines Calvin was influenced by and elaborated upon the Augustinian and other Christian traditions. Various Congregational and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. Calvin was a tireless apologetic writer who generated much controversy, he exchanged cordial and supportive letters with many reformers, including Philipp Melanchthon and Heinrich Bullinger. In addition to his seminal Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin wrote commentaries on most books of the Bible, confessional documents, various other theological treatises. Trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530.
After religious tensions erupted in widespread deadly violence against Protestant Christians in France, Calvin fled to Basel, where in 1536 he published the first edition of the Institutes. In that same year, Calvin was recruited by Frenchman William Farel to join the Reformation in Geneva, where he preached sermons throughout the week. At the invitation of Martin Bucer, Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees, he continued to support the reform movement in Geneva, in 1541 he was invited back to lead the church of the city. Following his return, Calvin introduced new forms of church government and liturgy, despite opposition from several powerful families in the city who tried to curb his authority. During this period, Michael Servetus, a Spaniard regarded by both Roman Catholics and Protestants as having a heretical view of the Trinity, arrived in Geneva, he was burned at the stake for heresy by the city council. Following an influx of supportive refugees and new elections to the city council, Calvin's opponents were forced out.
Calvin spent his final years promoting the Reformation both throughout Europe. John Calvin was born as Jehan Cauvin on 10 July 1509, at Noyon, a town in Picardy, a province of the Kingdom of France, he was the first of four sons. His mother, Jeanne le Franc, was the daughter of an innkeeper from Cambrai, she died of an unknown cause after having borne four more children. Calvin's father, Gérard Cauvin, had a prosperous career as the cathedral notary and registrar to the ecclesiastical court. Gérard intended his three sons — Charles and Antoine — for the priesthood. Young Calvin was precocious. By age 12, he was employed by the bishop as a clerk and received the tonsure, cutting his hair to symbolise his dedication to the Church, he won the patronage of an influential family, the Montmors. Through their assistance, Calvin was able to attend the Collège de la Marche, where he learned Latin from one of its greatest teachers, Mathurin Cordier. Once he completed the course, he entered the Collège de Montaigu as a philosophy student.
In 1525 or 1526, Gérard withdrew his son from the Collège de Montaigu and enrolled him in the University of Orléans to study law. According to contemporary biographers Theodore Beza and Nicolas Colladon, Gérard believed that Calvin would earn more money as a lawyer than as a priest. After a few years of quiet study, Calvin entered the University of Bourges in 1529, he was intrigued by a humanist lawyer. Humanism was a European intellectual movement. During his 18-month stay in Bourges, Calvin learned Koine Greek, a necessity for studying the New Testament. Alternate theories have been suggested regarding the date of Calvin's religious conversion; some have placed the date of his conversion around 1533. In this view, his resignation is the direct evidence for his conversion to the evangelical faith. However, T. H. L. Parker argues that while this date is a terminus for his conversion, the more date is in late 1529 or early 1530; the main evidence for his conversion is contained in two different accounts of his conversion.
In the first, found in his Commentary on the Book of Psalms, Calvin portrayed his conversion as a sudden change of mind, brought about by God: God by a sudden conversion subdued and brought my mind to a teachable frame, more hardened in such matters than might have been expected from one at my early period of life. Having thus received some taste and knowledge of true godliness, I was inflamed with so intense a desire to make progress therein, that although I did not altogether leave off other studies, yet I pursued them with less ardour. In the second account, Calvin wrote of a long process of inner turmoil, followed by spiritual and psychological anguish: Being exceedingly alarmed at the misery into which I had fallen, much more at that which threatened me in view of eternal death, I, duty bound, made it my first business to betake myself to your way, condemning my past life, not without groans and tears, and now, O Lord, what remains to a wretch like me, but instead of defence, earnestly to supplicate you not to judge that fearful abandonment of your Word according to its deserts, from which in your wondrous goodnes
Fugger is a German family, a prominent group of European bankers, members of the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century mercantile patriciate of Augsburg, international mercantile bankers, venture capitalists. Alongside the Welser family, the Fugger family controlled much of the European economy in the sixteenth century and accumulated enormous wealth; the Fuggers held a near monopoly on the European copper market. This banking family replaced the de' Medici family, who influenced all of Europe during the Renaissance; the Fuggers took over their political power and influence. They were affiliated with the House of Habsburg whose rise to world power they financed. Unlike the citizenry of their hometown, they never converted to Lutheranism as presented in the Augsburg Confession but rather remained with the Roman Catholic Church. Jakob Fugger "the Rich" was elevated to the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire in May 1511 and assumed the title Imperial Count of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn in 1514. Today he is considered to be one of the wealthiest people to have lived.
The company was dissolved in 1657, however the Fuggers remained wealthy landowners and ruled the County of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn. The Babenhausen branch became Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1803, the Glött branch princes in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1914; the founder of the family was Johann Fugger, a weaver at Graben, near the Swabian Free City of Augsburg. His son called Johann, settled in Augsburg, the first reference to the Fugger family there is his arrival, recorded in the tax register of 1367, he became an Augsburg citizen. After Klara's death, he married Elizabeth Gattermann, he joined the weaver's guild, by 1396 he was ranked high in the list of taxpayers. He added the business of a merchant to that of a weaver, his eldest son, Andreas Fugger, was a merchant in the weaving trade, was nicknamed "Fugger the Rich" after buying land and other properties. The Fugger family itemized and inventoried a large number of Asian rugs, an unusual undertaking at the time. Andreas's son, Lukas Fugger, was granted arms by the Emperor Frederick III, a golden deer on a blue background, he was soon nicknamed "the Fugger of the Deer".
He was too ambitious and went bankrupt. His descendants served their cousins of the famous younger branch and went to Silesia. Contemporary members of the Fugger of the Deer are descendants of Matthäus Fugger; the current patriarch is Markus Fugger von dem Rech. Hans Fugger's younger son, Jakob the Elder, founded another branch of the family; this branch progressed more and they became known as the "Fuggers of the Lily" after their chosen arms of a flowering lily on a gold and blue background. Jakob was a master weaver, a merchant, an alderman, he married the daughter of a goldsmith. His fortune progressed, by 1461, he was the twelfth richest man in Augsburg, he died in 1469. Jakob's eldest son, took over the business on his father's death, in 1473 he provided new suits of clothes to Frederick, his son Maximilian I, his suite on their journey to Trier to meet Charles the Bold of Burgundy and the betrothal of the young prince to Charles's daughter Maria, thus began a profitable relationship between the Fugger family and the Habsburgs.
With the help of their brother in Rome, Markus and his brother George handled remittances to the papal court of monies for the sale of indulgences and the procuring of church benefices. From 1508 to 1515 they leased the Roman mint. Ulrich died in 1510; when the Fuggers made their first loan to the Archduke Sigismund in 1487, they took as security an interest in silver and copper mines in the Tirol. This was the beginning of an extensive family involvement in mining and precious metals; the Fuggers participated in mining operations in Silesia, owned copper mines in Hungary. Their trade in spices and silk extended to all parts of Europe. Ulrich's youngest brother Jakob Fugger, born in 1459, was to become the most famous member of the dynasty. In 1498 he married Sibylla Artzt, Grand Burgheress to Augsburg, the daughter of an eminent Grand Burgher of Augsburg, they had no children, but this marriage gave Jakob the opportunity to elevate to Grand Burgher of Augsburg and allowed him to pursue a seat on the city council of Augsburg.
He was elevated to the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire in May 1511, made Imperial Count in 1514, in 1519 led a consortium of German and Italian businessmen that loaned Charles V 850,000 florins to procure his election as Holy Roman Emperor over Francis I of France. The Fuggers' contribution was 543,000 florins. In 1494, the Fuggers established their first public company. Jakob's aim was to establish a copper monopoly by opening foundries in Hohenkirchen and Fuggerau and by expanding the sales organization in Europe the Antwerp agency. Jakob leased the copper mines in Neusohl in 1495 making them the greatest mining centre of the time. At the height of his power Jakob Fugger was criticized by his contemporaries by Ulrich von Hutten and Martin Luther, for selling indulgences and benefices and urging the Pope to rescind or amend the prohibition on the levying of interest; the imperial fiscal and governmental authorities in Nuremberg brought action against him and other merchants in an attempt to halt their monopolistic practices.
In 1511, Jakob deposited 15,000 florins as an endowment for some almshouses. In 1514, he bought up par