Her work extends to painting, textile design and stage set design. She was the first living female artist to have an exhibition at the Louvre in 1964. Her work in modern design included the concepts of abstraction, the integration of furniture, wall coverings. Sarah Ilinitchna Stern was probably born on 14 November 1885 in Hradyzk, Ukraine was part of the Russian Empire and her father was foreman of a nail factory. At a young age she moved to St. Petersburg, where she was cared for by her mothers brother, Henri, a successful and affluent Jewish lawyer, and his wife Anna wanted to adopt her but her mother would not allow it. Finally in 1890 she was adopted by the Terks and she assumed the name Sonia Terk and received a privileged upbringing with the Terks. They spent their summers in Finland and traveled widely in Europe introducing Sonia to art museums, when she was 16 she attended a well-regarded secondary school in St. Petersburg, where her skill at drawing was noted by her teacher. When she was 18, at her teachers suggestion, she was sent to art school in Germany where she attended the Academy of Fine Arts in Karlsruhe and she studied in Germany until 1905 when she decided to move on to Paris.
When she arrived in Paris she enrolled at the Académie de La Palette in Montparnasse, unhappy with the mode of teaching, which she thought was too critical, she spent less time at the Académie and more time in galleries around Paris. During her first year in Paris she met, and in 1908 married, German art gallery owner Wilhelm Uhde. Little is known about their union, but it is assumed to have been a marriage of convenience to escape the demands of her parents, who disliked her artistic career, for her to return to Russia. Sonia gained entrance into the art world via exhibitions at Uhdes gallery and benefitted from his connections, comtesse de Rose, mother of Robert Delaunay, was a regular visitor to Uhdes gallery, sometimes accompanied by her son. Sonia met Robert Delaunay in early 1909 and they became lovers in April of that year and it was decided that she and Uhde should divorce. The divorce was finalised in August 1910, Sonia was pregnant and she and Robert married on November 15,1910. Their son Charles was born on January 18,1911 and they were supported by an allowance sent from Sonias aunt in St.
Petersburg. Sonia said about Robert, In Robert Delaunay I found a poet, a poet who wrote not with words but with colours. In 1911, Sonia Delaunay made a quilt for Charless crib. This quilt was created spontaneously and uses geometry and colour, about 1911 I had the idea of making for my son, who had just been born, a blanket composed of bits of fabric like those I had seen in the houses of Ukrainian peasants
José Victoriano González-Pérez, better known as Juan Gris, was a Spanish painter and sculptor born in Madrid who lived and worked in France most of his life. Closely connected to the artistic genre Cubism, his works are among the movements most distinctive. He studied engineering at Madrids School of Arts and Sciences, from 1902 to 1904, he contributed drawings to local periodicals. From 1904 to 1905, he studied painting with the academic artist José Moreno Carbonero and it was in 1905 that José Victoriano González adopted the more distinctive name Juan Gris. In 1906 he moved to Paris and became friends with Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, in Paris, Gris followed the lead of another friend and fellow countryman, Pablo Picasso. He submitted darkly humorous illustrations to journals such as the anarchist satirical magazine LAssiette au Beurre, and Le Rire, Le Charivari, Gris began to paint seriously in 1910, developing at this time a personal Cubist style. In A Life of Picasso, John Richardson writes that Jean Metzingers 1911 work, Le goûter, Gris exhibited for the first time at the 1912 Salon des Indépendants.
He appears with two styles, writes art historian Peter Brooke, In one of them a grid structure appears that is reminiscent of the Goûter. In the other, Brooke continues, the grid is still present but the lines are not stated and their presence is suggested by the heavy, often triangular, shading of the angles between them. Both styles are distinguished from the work of Picasso and Braque by their clear, although Gris regarded Picasso as a teacher, Gertrude Stein wrote in The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas that Juan Gris was the person whom Picasso wished away. Gris, in same year, signed a contract that gave D. -H. Kahnweiler exclusive rights to his work, unlike Picasso and Braque, whose Cubist works were practically monochromatic, Gris painted with bright harmonious colors in daring, novel combinations in the manner of his friend Matisse. Gris exhibited with the painters of the Puteaux Group in the Salon de la Section dOr in 1912 and his preference for clarity and order influenced the Purist style of Amédée Ozenfant and Charles Edouard Jeanneret, and made Gris an important exemplar of the post-war return to order movement.
In 1915 he was painted by his friend, Amedeo Modigliani, in November 1917 he made one of his few sculptures, the polychrome plaster Harlequin. Griss works from late 1916 through 1917 exhibit a greater simplification of geometric structure, the oblique overlapping planar constructions, tending away from equilibrium, can best be seen in Woman with Mandolin, after Corot and in its epilogue, Portrait of Josette Gris. Though Gris certainly had planned the representation of his subject matter. The geometric structure of Juan Griss Crystal period is already palpable in Still Life before an Open Window, the overlapping elemental planar structure of the composition serves as a foundation to flatten the individual elements onto a unifying surface, foretelling the shape of things to come
Paul Victor Jules Signac was a French Neo-Impressionist painter who, working with Georges Seurat, helped develop the Pointillist style. Paul Signac was born in Paris on 11 November 1863 and he followed a course of training in architecture before deciding at the age of 18 to pursue a career as a painter after attending an exhibit of Monets work. He sailed around the coasts of Europe, painting the landscapes he encountered and he painted a series of watercolors of French harbor cities in years. In 1884 he met Claude Monet and Georges Seurat, many of Signacs paintings are of the French coast. He loved to paint the water and he left the capital each summer, to stay in the south of France in the village of Collioure or at St. Tropez, where he bought a house and invited his friends. Paul Signac, Albert Dubois-Pillet, Odilon Redon and Georges Seurat were among the founders of the Société des Artistes Indépendants, the association began in Paris 29 July 1884 with the organization of massive exhibitions, with the device No jury nor awards.
The purpose of Société des Artistes Indépendants—based on the principle of abolishing admission jury—is to allow the artists to present their works to public judgement with complete freedom, for the following three decades their annual exhibitions set the trends in art of the early 20th century. At the 1905 Salon des Indépendants, Henri Matisse exhibited the proto-Fauve painting Luxe, Signac purchased the work after the 1905 Salon des Indépendants. In 1908 Signac was elected president of the 24th Salon des Indépendants, in 1886 Signac met Vincent van Gogh in Paris. In 1887 the two regularly went to Asnières-sur-Seine together, where they painted such subjects as river landscapes. Initially, Van Gogh chiefly admired Signac’s loose painting technique, in March 1889, Signac visited Van Gogh at Arles. The next year he made a trip to Italy, seeing Genoa, Florence. In 1888, Signac discovered anarchist ideas by reading Elisee Reclus and Jean Grave, with his friends Angrand Cross, Maximilien Luce and Camille Pissarro he contributed to Jean Grave’s paper Les Temps Nouveaux.
His financial support was considerable, he sent regular cheques and made a gift of his works for five lotteries between 1895 and 1912, from his various ports of call, Signac brought back vibrant, colorful watercolors, sketched rapidly from nature. From these sketches, he painted large canvases that are carefully worked out in small, mosaic-like squares of color, quite different from the tiny. Signac himself experimented with various media, as well as oil paintings and watercolors he made etchings and many pen-and-ink sketches composed of small, laborious dots. The Neo-Impressionists influenced the next generation, Signac inspired Henri Matisse and André Derain in particular, as president of the Société des Artistes Indépendants from 1908 until his death, Signac encouraged younger artists by exhibiting the controversial works of the Fauves and the Cubists. Signac served as a juror with Florence Meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal, in September 1913, Signac rented a house at Antibes, where he settled with Jeanne Selmersheim-Desgrange, who gave birth to their daughter Ginette on 2 October 1913
Max Jacob was a French poet, painter and critic. After spending his childhood in Quimper, France, he enrolled in the Paris Colonial School and he was one of the first friends Pablo Picasso made in Paris. They met in the summer of 1901, and it was Jacob who helped the young artist learn French, later, on the Boulevard Voltaire, he shared a room with Picasso, who remained a lifelong friend. Jacob introduced him to Guillaume Apollinaire, who in turn introduced Picasso to Georges Braque and he would become close friends with Jean Cocteau, Jean Hugo, Christopher Wood and Amedeo Modigliani, who painted his portrait in 1916. He befriended and encouraged the artist Romanin, otherwise known as French politician, moulins famous nom de guerre Max is presumed to be selected in honor of Jacob. Jacob, who had Jewish origins, claimed to have had a vision of Christ in 1909 and his writings include the novel Saint Matorel, the verses Le laboratoire central, and Le défense de Tartuffe, which expounds his philosophical and religious attitudes.
The famous psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan attributed the quote The truth is always new to Jacob, having moved outside of Paris in May,1936, to settle in Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, Max Jacob was arrested on 24 February 1944 by the Gestapo, and interned at Orléans prison. Following his incarceration at Orléans, Max was transferred to Drancy internment camp from where he was to be transported in the convoy to Auschwitz in Poland. However, said to be suffering from pneumonia, Max Jacob died in the infirmary of Le Cité de la Muette. First interred in Ivry, after the war ended in 1949 his remains were transferred by his artist friends Jean Cassou, as well as his nom détat civil, or regular name, Jacob worked under at least two pseudonyms, Léon David and Morven le Gaëlique. Lionel Floch Furniture music, Erik Saties second set of music was composed and performed in 1920 as Entracte music for one of Jacobs comedies The Selected Poems of Max Jacob. Bottom left to right, Marika, Moise Kisling, association les Amis de Max Jacob English translations from Max Jacobs major collection of prose poetry The Dice Cup Max Jacob at Find a Grave
Primitivism is a Western art movement that borrows visual forms from non-Western or prehistoric peoples, such as Paul Gauguins inclusion of Tahitian motifs in paintings and ceramics. Borrowings from primitive art has been important to the development of modern art, the term primitivism is often applied to other professional painters working in the style of naïve or folk art like Henri Rousseau, Mikhail Larionov, Paul Klee and others. Whether and to what extent we should simplify our lives and get back to basics is a debate that has been going on since the invention of writing. In antiquity the superiority of the life was expressed in the Myth of the Golden Age, depicted in the genre of European poetry. During the Enlightenment, arguments about the superiority of indigenous peoples were chiefly used as a rhetorical device to criticize aspects of European society. In the 18th century, the German scholar Friedrich August Wolf identified the character of oral literature and located Homer. Vico and Wolfs ideas were developed further in the beginning of the 19th century by Herder, although influential in literature, such arguments were known to a relatively small number of educated people and their impact was limited or non-existent in the sphere of visual arts.
The 19th century saw for the first time the emergence of historicism, or the ability to judge different eras by their own context, a result of this new historicism, new schools of visual art arose that aspired to hitherto unprecedented levels of historical fidelity in setting and costumes. Neoclassicism in visual art and architecture was one result, another such historicist movement in art was the Nazarene movement in Germany, which took inspiration from the so-called Italian primitive school of devotional paintings. Two phenomena shook the world of art in the mid-19th century. The first was the invention of the camera, which arguably spurred the development of Realism in art. The discovery of new dimensions had the opposite effect of photography. Beaux Arts academies held than non-Western and tribal peoples had had no art or only inferior art and they looked to Japanese and Chinese art, which was learned and sophisticated and did not employ Renaissance one-point perspective. Non-euclidean perspective and tribal art fascinated Western European artists who saw them as portraying the reality of the spirit world and other non-European art appealed to those who were unhappy with the repressive aspects of European culture, as pastoral art had done for millennia.
Imitations of tribal or archaic art fall into the category of nineteenth-century historicism, actual examples of tribal and folk art were prized by both creative artists and collectors. Paul Gauguins paintings, Pablo Picassos paintings and Igor Stravinskys music are sometimes cited as examples of primitivism in art, Stravinskys The Rite of Spring, is primitivist in that its programmatic subject is a pagan rite, a human sacrifice in pre-Christian Russia. It uses dissonance and loud, repetitive rhythms to depict Dionysian modernism, Stravinsky was a master of learned classical tradition and worked within its bounds. In his work he adopted a more Apollonian neoclassicism, to use Nietzsches terminology and they began questioning the nature of humanity and its origins through a discussion of the natural man, which had intrigued theologians since the European encounter with the New World
Marie Laurencin was a French painter and printmaker. She became an important figure in the Parisian avant-garde as a member of the Cubists associated with the Section dOr, Laurencin was born in Paris, where she was raised by her mother and lived much of her life. At 18, she studied painting in Sèvres. She returned to Paris and continued her art education at the Académie Humbert, during the early years of the 20th century, Laurencin was an important figure in the Parisian avant-garde. She became romantically involved with the poet Guillaume Apollinaire, and has often been identified as his muse, in addition, Laurencin had important connections to the salon of the American expatriate and famed lesbian writer Natalie Clifford Barney. She had heterosexual and lesbian affairs, the couple subsequently lived together briefly in Düsseldorf. After they divorced in 1920, she returned to Paris, where she achieved success as an artist until the economic depression of the 1930s. During the 1930s she worked as an art instructor at a private school and she lived in Paris until her death.
Laurencins works include paintings, watercolors and prints and she is known as one of the few female Cubist painters, with Sonia Delaunay, Marie Vorobieff, and Franciska Clausen. Her work lies outside the bounds of Cubist norms in her pursuit of a specifically feminine aesthetic by her use of pastel colors, Laurencin continued to explore themes of femininity and what she considered to be feminine modes of representation until her death. Her works include paintings, watercolors and prints, in 1983, on the one hundredth anniversary of Laurencins birth, the Musée Marie Laurencin opened in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The museum is home to more than 500 of her works, women Artists in Interwar France, Framing Femininities, Ashgate,2011. Marie Laurencin, London - Paris, Flammarion,1977 Groult, Marie Laurencin, Mercure de France,1987 Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. Marie Laurencin, Une Femme Inadaptée in Feminist Histories of Art Ashgate Publishing,2003, kyuryudo & Paris, Hazan,1981 Marchesseau, Daniel. Marie Laurencin, Catalogue raisonné de lœuvre gravé, Tokyo, éd, Marie Laurencin, Catalogue raisonné de lœuvre peint,2 vol.
Musée Marie Laurencin,1985 &1999 Marchesseau, Marie Laurencin, Cent Œuvres du musée Marie Laurencin, Fondation Pierre Gianadda,1993 Marchesseau, Marie Laurencin, Musée Marmottan Monet / Hazan,2013 Otto, Elizabeth. Memories of Bilitis, Marie Laurencin beyond the Cublist Context, José. com Musée Marie Laurencin, Japan
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman and sculptor, but is primarily as a painter. Although he was labelled a Fauve, by the 1920s he was increasingly hailed as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting. His mastery of the language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century. Matisse was born in Le Cateau-Cambrésis, in the Nord department in northern France and he grew up in Bohain-en-Vermandois, France. In 1887 he went to Paris to study law, working as an administrator in Le Cateau-Cambrésis after gaining his qualification. He first started to paint in 1889, after his mother brought him art supplies during a period of following an attack of appendicitis. He discovered a kind of paradise as he described it. In 1891 he returned to Paris to study art at the Académie Julian and became a student of William-Adolphe Bouguereau, initially he painted still lifes and landscapes in a traditional style, at which he achieved reasonable proficiency.
Chardin was one of the painters Matisse most admired, as an art student he made copies of four of Chardins paintings in the Louvre, in 1896 and 1897, Matisse visited the Australian painter John Peter Russell on the island Belle Île off the coast of Brittany. Russell introduced him to Impressionism and to the work of van Gogh and he said Russell was my teacher, and Russell explained colour theory to me. In 1896 Matisse exhibited five paintings in the salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, with the model Caroline Joblau, he had a daughter, born in 1894. In 1898 he married Amélie Noellie Parayre, the two raised Marguerite together and had two sons and Pierre, Marguerite and Amélie often served as models for Matisse. In 1898, on the advice of Camille Pissarro, he went to London to study the paintings of J. M. W. Turner and went on a trip to Corsica. Upon his return to Paris in February 1899, he worked beside Albert Marquet and met André Derain, Jean Puy, Matisse immersed himself in the work of others and went into debt from buying work from painters he admired.
The work he hung and displayed in his home included a plaster bust by Rodin, a painting by Gauguin, a drawing by van Gogh, in Cézannes sense of pictorial structure and colour, Matisse found his main inspiration. Many of Matisses paintings from 1898 to 1901 make use of a Divisionist technique he adopted after reading Paul Signacs essay and his paintings of 1902–03, a period of material hardship for the artist, are comparatively somber and reveal a preoccupation with form. Having made his first attempt at sculpture, a copy after Antoine-Louis Barye, in 1899, he devoted much of his energy to working in clay, fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports. In other languages and very occasionally in English, tariff or its equivalent may be used to any list of prices. A customs duty or due is the tax levied on the import or export of goods in international trade. In economic sense, a duty is a kind of consumption tax, a duty levied on goods being imported is referred to as an import duty. Similarly, a duty levied on exports is called an export duty, a tariff, which is actually a list of commodities along with the leviable rate of customs duty, is popularly referred to as a customs duty. This is no longer the case, Customs duty is calculated on the determination of the assessable value in case of those items for which the duty is levied ad valorem. This is often the transaction value unless a customs officer determines assessable value in accordance with the Harmonized System, for certain items like petroleum and alcohol, customs duty is realized at a specific rate applied to the volume of the import or export consignments.
For the purpose of assessment of duty, products are given an identification code that has come to be known as the Harmonized System code. This code was developed by the World Customs Organization based in Brussels, a Harmonized System code may be from four to ten digits. For example,17.03 is the HS code for molasses from the extraction or refining of sugar, within 17.03, the number 17.03.90 stands for Molasses. Introduction of Harmonized System code in 1990s has largely replaced the Standard International Trade Classification, in drawing up the national tariff, the revenue departments often specifies the rate of customs duty with reference to the HS code of the product. A Customs authority in each country is responsible for collecting taxes on the import into or export of goods out of the country, Evasion of customs duties takes place mainly in two ways. In one, the trader under-declares the value so that the value is lower than actual. In a similar vein, a trader can evade customs duty by understatement of quantity or volume of the product of trade, a trader may evade duty by misrepresenting traded goods, categorizing goods as items which attract lower customs duties.
The Evasion of customs duty may take place with or without the collaboration of customs officials, Evasion of customs duty does not necessarily constitute smuggling. Many countries allow a traveler to bring goods into the country duty-free and these goods may be bought at ports and airports or sometimes within one country without attracting the usual government taxes and brought into another country duty-free. Some countries impose allowances which limit the number or value of items that one person can bring into the country. These restrictions often apply to tobacco, spirits, gifts, often foreign diplomats and UN officials are entitled to duty-free goods
Academic art, or Academicism, is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies of art. In this context it is often called academism, Lart pompier, and eclecticism, in this medicean institution students learned the arti del disegno and heard lectures on anatomy and geometry. Another academy, the Accademia di San Luca, was founded about a in Rome. The Accademia di San Luca served a function and was more concerned with art theory than the Florentine one. Accademia di San Luca served as the model for the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture founded in France in 1648, and which became the Académie des beaux-arts. The Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture was founded in an effort to distinguish artists who were practicing a liberal art from craftsmen. This emphasis on the component of artmaking had a considerable impact on the subjects. This battle of styles was a conflict over whether Peter Paul Rubens or Nicolas Poussin was a model to follow. Debates occurred over whether it was better to learn art by looking at nature, academies using the French model formed throughout Europe, and imitated the teachings and styles of the French Académie.
In England, this was the Royal Academy, one effect of the move to academies was to make training more difficult for women artists, who were excluded from most academies until the last half of the 19th century. This was partly because of concerns over the propriety of life classes with nude models, special arrangements were often made for female students until the 20th century. Since the onset of the debate, many artists worked between the two styles. In the 19th century, in the form of the debate, the attention. One artist after another was claimed by critics to have achieved the synthesis, among them Théodore Chassériau, Ary Scheffer, Francesco Hayez, Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, and Thomas Couture. William-Adolphe Bouguereau, an academic artist, commented that the trick to being a good painter is seeing color. Another development during this period included adopting historical styles in order to show the era in history that the painting depicted, called historicism and this is best seen in the work of Baron Jan August Hendrik Leys, a influence on James Tissot.
Its seen in the development of the Neo-Grec style, historicism is meant to refer to the belief and practice associated with academic art that one should incorporate and conciliate the innovations of different traditions of art from the past. The art world grew to give increasing focus on allegory in art, as artists attempted to synthesize these theories in practice, the attention on the artwork as an allegorical or figurative vehicle was emphasized