County Tipperary is a county in Ireland. It is located in the province of Munster; the county is named after the town of Tipperary, was established in the early thirteenth century, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland. The population of the county was 159,553 at the 2016 census; the largest towns are Clonmel and Thurles. Tipperary County Council is the local government authority for the county. Between 1838 and 2014 county Tipperary was divided into two ridings/counties, North Tipperary and South Tipperary, which were unified under the Local Government Reform Act 2014, which came into effect following the 2014 local elections on 3 June 2014. Tipperary is the sixth largest of the 12th largest by population, it is the third largest of the third largest by population. It is the largest landlocked county in Ireland; the region is part of the central plain of Ireland, but the diverse terrain contains several mountain ranges: the Knockmealdown, the Galtee, the Arra Hills and the Silvermine Mountains.
Most of the county is drained by the River Suir. No part of the county touches the coast; the centre is known as'the Golden Vale', a rich pastoral stretch of land in the Suir basin which extends into counties Limerick and Cork. There are 12 historic baronies in County Tipperary: Clanwilliam, Eliogarty and Offa East and Offa West, Kilnamanagh Lower, Kilnamanagh Upper, Middle Third, Ormond Lower, Ormond Upper and Arra and Slievardagh. Parishes were delineated after the Down Survey as an intermediate subdivision, with multiple townlands per parish and multiple parishes per barony; the civil parishes had some use in local taxation and were included on the nineteenth century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. For poor law purposes, District Electoral Divisions replaced the civil parishes in the mid-nineteenth century. There are 199 civil parishes in the county. Townlands are the smallest defined geographical divisions in Ireland. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was claimed as a lordship.
By 1210, the sheriffdom of Munster shired into the shires of Limerick. In 1328, Tipperary was granted to the Earls of Ormond as liberty; the grant excluded church lands such as the archiepiscopal see of Cashel, which formed the separate county of Cross Tipperary. Though the Earls gained jurisdiction over the church lands in 1662, "Tipperary and Cross Tipperary" were not definitively united until the County Palatine of Tipperary Act 1715, when the 2nd Duke of Ormond was attainted for supporting the Jacobite rising of 1715; the county was divided once again in 1838. The county town of Clonmel, where the grand jury held its twice-yearly assizes, is at the southern limit of the county, roads leading north were poor, making the journey inconvenient for jurors resident there. A petition to move the county town to a more central location was opposed by the MP for Clonmel, so instead the county was split into two "ridings"; when the Local Government Act 1898 established county councils to replace the grand jury for civil functions, the ridings became separate "administrative counties" with separate county councils.
Their names were changed from "Tipperary North/South Riding" to "North/South Tipperary" by the Local Government Act 2001, which redesignated all "administrative counties" as "counties". The Local Government Reform Act 2014 has amalgamated the two counties and restored a single county of Tipperary. Following the Local Government Reform Act 2014, Tipperary County Council is the local government authority for the county; the authority is a merger of two separate authorities North Tipperary County Council and South Tipperary County Council which operated up until June 2014. The local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing; the county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the constituency used is: Tipperary, it returns five deputies to the Dáil. Tipperary is referred to as the "Premier County", a description attributed to Thomas Davis, Editor of The Nation newspaper in the 1840s as a tribute to the nationalistic feeling in Tipperary and said that "where Tipperary leads, Ireland follows".
Tipperary was the subject of the famous song "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" written by Jack Judge, whose grandparents came from the county. It was popular with regiments of the British army during World War I; the song "Slievenamon", traditionally associated with the county, was written by Charles Kickham from Mullinahone, is sung at sporting fixtures involving the county. There are 979 Irish speakers in County Tipperary attending the five Gaelscoileanna and two Gaelcholáistí; the area around Clonmel is the economic hub of the county: to the east of the town the manufacturers Bulmers and Merck & Co.. There is much fertile land in the region known as the Golden Vale, one of the richest agricultural areas in Ireland. Dairy farming and cattle raising are the principal occupations. Other industries are the manufacture of meal and flour. Tipperary is famous for its horse breeding industry and is the home of Coolmore Stud, the largest thoroughbred
Myrtle Grove, Youghal
Myrtle Grove is an Elizabethan gabled house in Youghal, County Cork, Ireland. The house is notable as a rare example in Ireland of a 16th-century unfortified house, it is situated close to the Collegiate Church of St Mary Youghal. It was home for Sir Walter Raleigh from 1588 to 1589. Myrtle Grove's South Gable is where Edmund Spenser is reputed to have written part of his poem The Faerie Queene, although some historians question this story; the house was acquired by Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork in 1602 from Sir Walter Raleigh's Irish estate. Though remodeled twice it remains one of the best-known examples of a Tudor house in Ireland; the house was acquired by Hayman family in the 18th century. In the 20th century, it was the home of Sir Henry Arthur Lady Blake. At this time, the building housed "the best collection of West Indian paintings and sketches"; the Blakes lived here until their deaths. They were buried in the garden; the house is open to the public on certain days of the year. The house is reputed to be where potatoes were first planted in Europe.
The latter is unlikely however, as potatoes were present only in Spain in 1536. There is a similar legend stating that Myrtle Grove was where tobacco was first smoked by Walter Raleigh. A servant was said to have seen smoke rising from him. Thinking that Raleigh was on fire he threw a bucket of water on him to douse the fire; this legend is however associated with several of Raleigh's other houses. "Myrtle Grove", a poem written in Spenserian stanzas by James Reiss, published in Fugue magazine in 2007, develops the legend that Edmund Spenser wrote portions of his great epic, The Faerie Queene, under an aureole window in the South Gable of Raleigh's house
County Galway is a county in Ireland. It is located in the West of part of the province of Connacht. There are several Irish-speaking areas in the west of the county; the traditional county includes, is named for, the city of Galway, but the city and county now have separate local authorities: Galway City Council administers the urban area, while the rest of the county is administered by Galway County Council. The population of the county was 258,058 at the 2016 census; the first inhabitants in the Galway area arrived over 7000 years ago. Shell middens indicate the existence of people as early as 5000 BC; the county comprised several kingdoms and territories which predate the formation of the county. These kingdoms included Uí Maine, Maigh Seóla, Conmhaícne Mara, Soghain and Máenmaige. County Galway became an official entity around 1569 AD; the region known as Connemara retains a distinct identity within the county, though its boundaries are unclear, so it may account for as much as one third, or as little as 20%, of the county.
The county includes a number such as the Oileáin Árann and Inis Bó Fine. With the arrival of Christianity many monasteries were built in the county. Monasteries kept written records of events of its people; these were followed by a number of law-tracts, genealogies and miscellaneous accounts. Extant manuscripts containing references to Galway include: Nearly 20% of the population of County Galway live in the Gaeltacht. County Galway is home to the largest Gaeltacht Irish-speaking region in Ireland. There are over 48,000 people living within this region, which extends from Galway city westwards through Connemara; the region consists of the following Irish-speaking areas. All schools within the Gaeltacht use the Irish language for classroom instruction. There is a third-level constituent college of NUIG called Acadamh na hOllscolaíochta Gaeilge in Carraroe and Carna. Clifden is the largest town in the region. Galway City is home to Ireland's only Irish-language theatre, Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe. There is a strong Irish-language media presence in this area too, which boasts the radio station Raidió na Gaeltachta and Foinse newspaper in Carraroe and national TV station TG4 in Baile na hAbhann.
The Aran Islands are part of the Galway Gaeltacht. According to Census 2016, there were 84,249 people in County Galway. According to Census 2011, the Galway city and county Gaeltacht has a population of 48,907, of which 30,978 say they can speak Irish, 23,788 can be classed as native Irish speakers while 7,190 speak Irish daily only within the classroom. There are 3,006 attending three Gaelcholáiste outside the Galway Gaeltacht. According to the Irish Census 2016 there are 9,445 people in the county who identify themselves as being daily Irish speakers outside the education system. Prior to the enactment of the Local Government Act 2001, the county was a unified whole for administrative purposes, despite the presence of two local authorities. Since that time, the administrative re-organisation has reduced the geographical extent of the county by the extent of the area under the jurisdiction of Galway City Council. Today, the geographic extent of the county is limited to the area under the jurisdiction of Galway County Council.
Each local authority ranks as first level local administrative units of the NUTS 3 West Region for Eurostat purposes. There are 34 LAU 1 entities in the Republic of Ireland; the remit of Galway County Council includes some suburbs of the city not within the remit of Galway City Council. Both local authorities are responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing; the county is part of the Midlands–North-West constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of three constituencies: Galway East, Galway West and Roscommon–Galway. Together they return 11 deputies to the Dáil. County Galway is home to Na Beanna Beola mountain range, Na Sléibhte Mhám Toirc, the low mountains of Sliabh Echtghe; the highest point in the county is one of Benbaun, at 729m. County Galway is home to a number of Ireland's largest lakes including Lough Corrib, Lough Derg and Lough Mask.
The county is home to a large number of smaller lakes, many of which are in the Connemara region. These include Lough Anaserd, Ardderry Lough, Aughrusbeg Lough, Ballycuirke Lough, Ballynahinch Lake, Lough Bofin, Lough Cutra, Derryclare Lough, Lough Fee, Glendollagh Lough, Lough Glenicmurrin, Lough Inagh, Kylemore Lough, Lettercraffroe Lough, Maumeen Lough, Lough Nafooey, Lough Rea, Ross Lake and Lough Shindilla; the location of County Galway, situated on the west coast of Ireland, allows it to be directly influenced by the Gulf Stream. Temperature extremes are rare and short lived, though inland areas east of the Corrib, can boast some of the highest recorded temperatures of the summer in the island of Ireland. Overall, Galway is influenced by Atlantic airstreams which bring ample rainfall in between the fleeting sunshine. Rainf
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Matthew Nathan, was a British soldier and colonial administrator, who variously served as the Governor of Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, Hong Kong and Queensland. He was Under-Secretary for Ireland from 1914 to 1916, was responsible, with the Chief Secretary, Augustine Birrell, for the administration of Ireland in the years preceding the Easter Rising. Nathan was born in England, he was of the second son of businessman Jonah Nathan and Miriam Jacob Nathan. His brothers were Colonel Sir Frederick Nathan, an officer of the Royal Artillery and sometime Superintendent of Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills, Sir Nathaniel Nathan, a colonial judge in Trinidad and Tobago. Nathan was educated at Royal Military Academy, where he was the winner of the Pollock Medal before being gazetted to Royal Engineers in 1880, he continued his training at the School of Military Engineering, Chatham from 1880 to 1884. Nathan was sent to military expeditions to Lushai, India, he was promoted to the position of captain in 1889 and became the secretary to the Colonial Defence Committee between 1896 and 1898.
Nathan was promoted to major in 1898. Nathan was appointed acting governor of Sierra Leone from 1899 to 1900. Late that year, he was appointed as Governor of Gold Coast, a position he occupied until 1903. In 1902, Nathan imported into the Gold Coast a £543 French Gardner-Serpollet, paraffin-fired, steam-driven car for his use on the roads around Accra, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902, invested by King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 24 October 1902. In 1903, Nathan was appointed as Governor of Hong Kong, a position he would serve until 1907. During his tenure, Nathan was credited with the establishment of a central urban planning and reconstruction policy, which regulated the growth of Hong Kong and built major thoroughfares in the Kowloon Peninsula; the construction of Kowloon-Canton Railway started under this period. In 1907, Nathan was made Governor of Natal. In that same year, he was raised to a higher rank of lieutenant colonel.
In 1909 he returned to England and took up an appointment as secretary to the General Post Office, a position he served until 1911. He was chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue between 1911 and 1914. Nathan was appointed Under-Secretary for Ireland in August 1914, just after the outbreak of World War I and the signing into law of the Home Rule Act 1914, his immediate superior was Augustine Birrell. At this time the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was a ceremonial position, the Chief Secretary spent much of his time in London where he was a member of the cabinet, so the Under-Secretary was the head of the administration in Ireland. Nathan's job involved liaising with the Irish Parliamentary Party to prepare them for self-government, he was concerned with recruiting in Ireland, received regular reports from the police and military about anti-recruiting and pro-independence activity, including the threat of a German invasion or arms landing in support of an Irish rising. Alarmed at the growing numbers of separatists in the Civil Service, Nathan wrote to the authorities to have them transferred to England, got cabinet approval for a letter warning civil servants that they would be dismissed if they continued as members of the Irish Volunteers.
He used the Defence of the Realm Act 1914 to suppress newspapers he considered seditious, against the advice of the IPP In general, however, he avoided any action that might provoke violence. On Good Friday, 21 April 1916, Nathan was informed that a German boat had been stopped off the coast of County Kerry carrying arms and ammunition, that a man had been arrested after coming ashore from another vessel; the man arrested was subsequently identified as Sir Roger Casement A mobilization of the Irish Volunteers fixed for Easter Sunday was cancelled the day before. Nathan, believing that a rising had been averted, discussed with the Lord Lieutenant, Lord Wimborne, the necessity of raiding premises associated with the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army and arresting their leaders. Nathan cabled the Chief Secretary, in London to obtain authorisation for these actions. On Easter Monday, 24 April 1916, while he was in his office in Dublin Castle awaiting Birrell's response, the Easter Rising broke out and Dublin Castle itself was attacked.
The Castle gates were closed and the rebels did not press the attack, but Nathan was a virtual prisoner until troops arrived from the Curragh Camp on Monday evening. Nathan remained in the Castle for the rest of the week where he kept in contact with London, keeping the government up to date with the situation and helping to answer questions in Parliament; the Rising came to an end on 30 April. The same day Birrell offered his resignation, on 3 May, at Birrell's request, Nathan resigned; the Royal Commission on the 1916 Rebellion was critical of Birrell and Nathan, in particular their failure to take action against the rebels in the weeks and months before the Rising. After his resignation Nathan was appointed secretary to the Ministry of Pensions, a position he held until 1919. In 1920, he was appointed Governor of Queensland and served in that position until 1925, it was to be his last post in the Colonial Service. During his tenure, Nathan promoted British migration to Queensland. In 1922 he founded, along with the Great Barrier Reef Committee.
He was chancellor of the University of Queensland in 1922
Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, was a British colonial administrator. Clifford was born in Roehampton, London in 5 March 1866, the sixth of the eight children of Major-General Sir Henry Hugh Clifford and his wife Josephine Elizabeth, née Anstice. Clifford married Minna à Beckett, daughter of Gilbert Arthur à Beckett, on 15 April 1896, they had one son and two daughters: Hugh Gilbert Francis Clifford, Mary Agnes Philippa and Monica Elizabeth Mary. Minna Clifford died on 14 January 1907. On 24 September 1910 Hugh Clifford remarried, to Elizabeth Lydia Rosabelle Bonham, CBE, daughter of Edward Bonham of Bramling, Kent, a British consul. A Catholic, she was the widow of Henry Philip Ducarel de la Pasture of Llandogo Priory, Monmouthshire. Clifford thus became stepfather to author of the Provincial Lady series. Hugh Clifford intended to follow his father Henry Hugh Clifford, a distinguished British Army general, into the military but decided to join the civil service in the Straits Settlements, with the assistance of his relative Sir Frederick Weld, the Governor of the Straits Settlements and the British High Commissioner in Malaya.
He was transferred to the British Protectorate of the Federated Malay States. Clifford arrived in Malaya in 1883, aged 17, he first became a cadet in the State of Perak. During his twenty years there and on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula in Pahang, Clifford socialised with the local Malays and studied their language and culture deeply, he came to sympathise with and admire certain aspects of the traditional indigenous cultures, while recognising that their transformation as a consequence of the colonial project which he served was inevitable. He was a Government agent of Pahang, Superintendent of Ulu Pahang, served as British Resident at Pahang, 1896–1900 and 1901–1903, Governor of North Borneo, 1900–1901. In 1903, he left Malaya to take the post of Colonial Secretary of Trinidad, he was appointed Governor of British Ceylon, Governor of the Gold Coast, 1912–1919, Nigeria, 1919–1925, Ceylon, 1925–1927. During his service in Malaya and afterwards he wrote numerous stories and novels about Malayan life, many of them imbued with an ambivalent nostalgia.
His last posting was, for him, a welcome return to the Malaya he loved, as Governor of the Straits Settlements and British High Commissioner in Malaya, where he served from 1927 until 1930, after which Lady Clifford's ill-health forced his retirement. Alongside his other books he wrote Farther India, which chronicles European explorations and discoveries in Southeast Asia. Several schools in Malaysia are named Clifford School in his honour, such as. Though he was Colonial Secretary of Trinidad, in the book he is named as a former Governor of Isabella, a fictitious Caribbean island based on Trinidad. Clifford Pier in Singapore was built between 1927 and 1933, was named after Sir Hugh Clifford when he was the former Governor of the Straits Settlements between 1927 and 1930, it was opened on 3 June 1933. Clifford was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1909, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1921 Birthday Honours, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1925.
Clifford died peacefully on 18 December 1941 in his native Roehampton. His widow, died on 30 October 1945. Clifford, Hugh In Kampung. Singapore: Graham Brash Ltd. ISBN 9971-4-9199-0First published as: East coast etchings. Singapore: Straits Times Press, 1896. Clifford, Hugh At the court of other Malayan stories. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1993. First published as: Stories by Sir Hugh Clifford. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1966. Clifford, Hugh Report of an expedition into Trengganu and Kelantan in 1895. Kuala Lumpur: MBRAS."First published in the Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, v. 34 pt. 1 in 1961" --T.p. verso. "An expedition to Kelantan and Trengganu: 1895"--cover title. Clifford, Hugh Saleh: a prince of Malaya. Singapore: Oxford University Press. Published: A prince of Malaya. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1926. Clifford, Hugh Journal of a mission to Pahang: January 15 to April 11, 1887. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Southeast Asian Studies Program. Clifford, Hugh In a corner of Asia.
Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press. Biografi Clifford Cowan, C. D. Nineteenth-century Malaya: the origins of British political control. London: Oxford University Press. Swettenham, Frank Athelstane, British Malaya: an account of the origin and progress of British influence in Malaya. London: John Lane the Bodley Head. Gailey, Harry A. Clifford, imperial proconsul. London: Rex Collings. Holden, Philip Modern subjects/colonial texts: Hugh Clifford & the discipline of English literature in the Straits Settlements & Malaya, 1895-1907. Greensboro, North Carolina: ELT Press. Works written by or about Hugh Clifford at Wikisource Works by Hugh Clifford at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Hugh Clifford at Internet Archive Works by Hugh Clifford at LibriVox Newspaper clippings about Hugh Clifford in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Royal Irish Constabulary
The Royal Irish Constabulary was the police force in Ireland from the early nineteenth century until 1922. A separate civic police force, the unarmed Dublin Metropolitan Police, patrolled the capital, the cities of Derry and Belfast with their own police forces had special divisions within the RIC. About 75 % of the RIC were about 25 % were of various Protestant denominations; the RIC's successful system of policing influenced the armed Canadian North-West Mounted Police, the armed Victoria Police force in Australia, the armed Royal Newfoundland Constabulary in Newfoundland. In consequence of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the RIC was disbanded in 1922 and was replaced by the Garda Síochána in the Irish Free State and the Royal Ulster Constabulary in Northern Ireland; the first organised police forces in Ireland came about through the Peace Preservation Act in 1814 for which Sir Robert Peel was responsible, the Irish Constabulary Act in 1822 formed the provincial constabularies. The 1822 Act established a force in each province with chief constables and inspectors general under the UK civil administration for Ireland controlled by the Dublin Castle administration.
By 1841 this force numbered over 8,600 men. The original force had been reorganised under The Act of 1836, the first constabulary code of regulations was published in 1837; the discipline was the pay low. The police faced civil unrest among the Irish rural poor, was involved in bloody confrontations during the period of the Tithe War. Other deployments were against organisations like the Ribbonmen, which attacked landlords, their property and stock; the new constabulary first demonstrated its efficiency against civil agitation and Irish separatism during Daniel O'Connell's 1843 "monster meetings" to urge repeal of the Act of Parliamentary Union, the Young Ireland campaign led by William Smith O'Brien in 1848, although it failed to contain violence at the so-called "Battle of Dolly's Brae" in 1849. This was followed by a period of relative calm; the advent of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, founded in 1858, brought a plan for an armed uprising. Direct action began with the Fenian Rising of 1867.
Fenians attacked on smaller stations. This rebellion was put down with ruthless efficiency; the police had infiltrated the Fenians with informers. The success of the Irish Constabulary during the outbreak was rewarded by Queen Victoria who granted the force the prefix'Royal' in 1867 and the right to use the insignia of the Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick in their motif; the RIC presided over a marked decline in general crime around the country. The unstable rural unrest of the early nineteenth century characterised by secret organisations and unlawful armed assembly was controlled. Policing became a routine of controlling misdemeanours such as moonshine distilling, public drunkenness, minor theft, wilful property crimes. A Land War broke out in the 1879 -- 82 Depression period. In Belfast, with its industrial boom, the working population mushroomed, growing fivefold in fifty years. Much of the increase arose from Catholic migration and there were serious sectarian riots in 1857, 1864, 1872 and 1886.
As a result, the small Belfast Town Police civic force was disbanded and responsibility for policing passed to the RIC. In 1870, the RIC took over the duties of the Londonderry Borough Police. During the 1907 Belfast Dock strike, called by trade union leader Jim Larkin, a portion of the RIC went on strike after Constable William Barrett was suspended for his refusal to escort a traction engine driven by a blackleg carter. About 70% of the police force in Belfast declared their support of the strikers and were encouraged by Larkin to carry out their own strike for higher wages and a better pension, it never came to fruition, however, as dissident policemen were transferred out of Belfast four days before the strike was to begin. Barrett and six other constables were dismissed and extra British Army troops were deployed to Belfast; the dock strike ended on 28 August 1907. The RIC's existence was troubled by the rise of the Home Rule campaign in the early twentieth century period prior to World War I.
Sir Neville Chamberlain was appointed Inspector-General in 1900. His years in the RIC coincided with the rise of a number of political and sporting organisations with the common aim of asserting Ireland's separateness from England; the potential success of the third Home Rule Bill in 1912 introduced serious tensions: opponents of the Bill organised the Ulster Volunteer Force in January 1913 while supporters formed the Irish Volunteers in response. These two groups had over 250,000 members, organised as effective private armies. In reports to the Chief Secretary for Ireland, Augustine Birrell, the Under-Secretary, Sir Matthew Nathan, Chamberlain warned that the Irish Volunteers were preparing to stage an insurrection and proclaim Irish independence. However, in April 1916 when Nathan showed him a letter from the army commander in the south of Ireland telling of an expected landing of arms on the southwest coast and a rising planned for Easter, they were both'doubtful whether there was any foundation for the rumour'.
The Easter Rising began on Easter Monday, 24 April 1916 and lasted for six days, ending only when much of O'Connell Street had been destroyed by artillery fire. Although the Royal Commission on the 1916 Rebellion clea
Governor of Hong Kong
The Governor of Hong Kong was the representative in Hong Kong of the British Crown from 1843 to 1997. In this capacity, the governor was president of the Executive Council and Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces Overseas Hong Kong; the governor's roles were defined in the Hong Kong Letters Royal Instructions. Upon the end of British rule and the transfer of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China in 1997, most of the civil functions of this office went to the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, military functions went to the Commander of the People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison. Authorities and duties of the governor were defined in the Hong Kong Letters Patent and Royal Instructions in 1843; the governor, appointed by the British monarch, exercised the executive branch of the Government of Hong Kong throughout British sovereignty and, with the exception of a brief experiment after World War II, no serious attempt was made to introduce representative government, until the final years of British rule.
The Governor of Hong Kong chaired the colonial cabinet, the Executive Council, until 1993, was the President of the Legislative Council. The governor appointed most, if not all, of the members of the colony's legislature, an advisory body until the first indirect election to LegCo was held in 1985. Both Councils were dominated by British expatriates; this was not given way to local Hong Kong Chinese appointees until only 15 years before Hong Kong was going to be returned to China. The Governors of Hong Kong were either professional diplomats or senior colonial officials, except for the last governor, Chris Patten, a career politician. In December 1996, the governor's salary was HK$3,036,000 per annum, tax-free, it was fixed at 125% of the Chief Secretary's salary. In the absence of the governor, the chief secretary became the acting governor of the colony; the chief secretaries were drawn from the Colonial Office or British military. One Royal Navy Vice Admiral served as administrator after World War II.
Four Japanese military officers served as administrators during the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong in World War II. The Governor of Hong Kong used a Daimler DS420 for day to day transport and a Rolls-Royce Phantom V landaulette for ceremonial occasions. Both vehicles were removed by the Royal Navy following the handover to China on 1 July 1997; the first governor, Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Bt. resided in the Former French Mission Building from 1843 to 1846. It was used as the home of the Provisional Government after Japanese surrender from 1945 to 1946; the building now houses the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal. His successor, Sir John Davis, 1st Bt. lived there before moving to Caine Road. Since the 4th governor, Sir John Bowring, the governors resided at Government House, excluding the period from 1941 to 1946. From 1941 to 1945 the Commandant of Japanese Forces as Military Governor of Hong Kong occupied Flagstaff House as their residence; the residence was returned to the Commander of British Forces following the end of World War II.
Charles Elliot, first administrator Sir Henry Pottinger, first governor and first Irishman to serve in the role Sir John Francis Davis, first Sinologist to serve as governor Sir John Bowring, first Puritan to serve as governor Sir John Pope Hennessy, first Irish Catholic to serve as governor Sir Matthew Nathan, first Jew to serve as governor Sir Francis H. May, first police chief to serve as governor and first governor being to suffer an assassination attempt Sir Cecil Clementi, first Indian-born and Cantonese-speaking governor Sir Mark Young, first prisoner of war to serve as governor Takashi Sakai, first Japanese administrator to serve as governor Cecil Harcourt, first British military administrator to serve as governor Sir Murray MacLehose, first non-colonial officer to serve as governor.