Percival Serle was an Australian biographer and bibliographer. Serle was born to English parents in Elsternwick and for many years worked in a life assurance office before in November 1910 becoming chief clerk and accountant at the University of Melbourne, he married artist Dora Beatrice Hake on 29 March 1910. They were to have three children. One son, Alan Geoffrey Serle, was selected as 1947 Victorian Rhodes scholar. Serle ran a second-hand bookshop during the depression, he was president of the Australian Literature Society. Serle's publications included an edition, with notes, of A Song to David and Other Poems by the 18th-century English poet, Christopher Smart; the Dictionary took more than twenty years to complete and contains more than one thousand biographies of prominent Australians or persons connected with Australia. Serle comments in the Preface, it would have been better could I have spent another five years on it, but at seventy-five years of age one realizes there is a time to make an end."
He was awarded the Australian Literature Society Gold Medal for 1949 for this work. Serle died in Hawthorn, aged 80 on 16 December 1951; the Oxford Companion to Australian Literature. Geoffrey Serle,'Serle, Percival', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 11, MUP, 1988, pp 567–569. Dictionary of Australian Biography courtesy of Project Gutenberg Australia
Francis Stacker Dutton CMG was the seventh Premier of South Australia, serving twice, firstly in 1863 and again in 1865. Dutton was born at Cuxhaven, where his father was British vice-consul, in 1818, he was educated at Hofwyl College, near Bern in Switzerland, afterwards at the high school at Bremen in Germany. At 17, he went to Brazil as a junior clerk and was there for about five years, in Bahia and Rio de Janeiro. In 1839, he joined his older brothers Hampden and Frederick in Sydney, went overland to Melbourne, followed mercantile pursuits for about 18 months, He joined his brother Frederick at Adelaide and in 1842 or early in 1843, discovered copper at Kapunda, 45 miles north of Adelaide, he showed the specimen he had found to Captain Charles Bagot, who produced a similar specimen that his son had found in the same locality. The land was purchased and samples were sent to England, which showed a high percentage of copper. Dutton sold his interest in the mine for a large sum. While in London, he prepared for publication his South Australia and its Mines, a work of 360 pages, a valuable contemporary account of the new colony published in 1846.
Dutton returned to South Australia in 1847 and in 1849, became a member of the Adelaide board of city commissioners. He was elected a member of the Legislative Council for East Adelaide in 1851 and sat until 1857, when he was elected to the House of Assembly as member for City of Adelaide and for Light, he was Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration in the Hanson government from 30 September 1857 to 2 June 1859, was premier from 4 to 15 July 1863. He formed his second cabinet on 22 March 1865 and was premier and commissioner of public works until 20 September of the same year, when he became agent-general in London for South Australia, he was a good linguist, able to speak French and Portuguese, had an excellent knowledge of business which enabled him to carry out his duties with success until his death on 25 January 1877. Dutton was made a Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1872. Dutton's Bluff Dutton Bluff, a hill some 66 km north-west of Quorn, was named for him and the Victorian government botanist named Eremophila duttonii in his honour.
Dutton married Caroline MacDermott, a daughter of Marshall MacDermott on 7 November 1849. Her portrait was painted by Carlile Henry Hayes Macartney Sir Frederick Dutton, solicitor of Wilkins, Blyth and Hartley, married Beatrice Aimee Bridger MBE in 1883. William Hampden Dutton, pastoralist of Anlaby Station and miner at Kapunda, was a brother, as was pastoralist and parliamentarian Frederick Hansborough Dutton. Note: William Dutton, sometimes referred to as "William Pelham Dutton", ship's captain and pioneer of Portland, was not related. Author Geoffrey Dutton, great-grandson of W. H. Dutton, warned against this confusion in his article on F. S. Dutton in the Australian Dictionary of Biography. For his relationship to other people prominent in the history of South Australia see separate article. Parliament of South Australia - Dutton South Australian Register and South Australian Advertiser, 29 January 1877. F. Dutton, South Australia and its Mines, London: T. and W. Boone. Mennell, Philip. "Dutton, Francis Stacker".
The Dictionary of Australasian Biography. London: Hutchinson & Co – via Wikisource. "Our Agents-General.—No. 1.: Mr. Francis S. Dutton". South Australian Register. Adelaide. 21 April 1873. P. 6. Retrieved 16 March 2012 – via National Library of Australia
Henry Roach was a miner from Cornwall, Captain of the Burra copper mine in Burra, South Australia for many years. In this position he always employed Cornishmen as his assistants, most of the miners were immigrants from Cornwall. Henry Roach was born in 1808 in Cornwall. Roach worked at the Tresavean mine at Cornwall, he worked in Colombia. He reached South Australia in 1846. A shepherd had come across copper ore near Burra Creek in 1845, another shepherd found copper ore to the north soon after; this triggered a scramble by miners from Adelaide to get control of the land. The northern half became one of the world's largest copper mines. Most of the miners and specialists at the Burra mine were from Cornwall, with 1,000 workers at one point. Roach was soon made captain at the Burra mine in charge of the underground workings, made chief captain of all mine operations, he was superintendent from 1847. He continued as captain, with a salary of £300. For most of the mine's period of operation Henry Ayers was the company's chief secretary, working in Adelaide.
The first of several beam engines from Cornwall was ordered by Ayers in August 1847. Roach oversaw the erection of all the Cornish engines. Roach's engine house was completed in 1849 and pumping began in October 1849. Roach always recommended Cornishmen for his assistants. Matthew Bryant was hired as second captain in June 1847; the "grass captain", Samuel Penglaze, was appointed in 1848. Roach employed Cornishmen such as Richard Goldsworthy of Bodmin, third captain, John Congdon from the Caradon mines, chief engineer, Philip Santo of Saltash, clerk of works; the Cornwall and Devon Society was founded in South Australia in December 1850 with John Bentham Neales of Plymouth, an investor in the Burra mine, as secretary. The aim was to encourage immigration from the English counties of Cornwall and Devon, to look after the interests of colonists from those counties. Henry Roach was a member of the committee. Roach named the township of Redruth at Burra after his home town in Cornwall. A number of miners made homes in caves in the bank of Burra creek rather than pay rent to the company.
In the autumn of 1851 there were a series of floods. Ayers was sympathetic at first, but soon posted a notice saying that any miner who chose to remain in the caves would be considered a trespasser. Knowing that Roach was to be soft on the men, Ayers gave Roach firm instructions not to help the washed-out families, he did allow Roach to help rebuild the bridge across the creek, but only if doing so did not delay completion of the new engine house. In 1852 gold was discovered in Victoria, many of the miners left Burra; the number of employees declined to 100 from an earlier peak of 1,000. Pumping was suspended in October 1852 and the mine was flooded. In 1853 mining had ceased, Roach's engine house was dismantled. Men returned in 1854, in 1855 pumping resumed. By 1861 there were six engines in operation to drain the mines, three smaller engines to raise and crush the copper ore. With a slump in the price of copper, Ayers told Roach on 19 February 1866 that all operations would be suspended and all officers were dismissed as of the end of March.
Some work continued dressing existing low-grade ore. Roach was given one month's notice in 1867. Roach retired in 1868. In 1874 Roach put up a flour mill in Graham, which stood until 1941. Captain Henry Roach died on 6 October 1889, he was aged 80
Savings Bank of South Australia
The Savings Bank of South Australia was founded in 1848, trading from a single room in Gawler Place, Adelaide. In 1984 it merged with the State Bank of South Australia, with the merged entity taking the latter name; the Bank of South Australia is now a division and a trading name of St. George Bank, now a subsidiary of Westpac; the Savings Bank of South Australia first opened on 11 March 1848 with a single employee, John Hector, trading from a room in Adelaide's Gawler Place. The room was provided rent-free by the Glen Osmond Mining Company. On that day it took its first deposit, of £29, from an illiterate Afghan shepherd whose name was recorded as Croppo Sing. Other deposits soon followed. A month the fledgling bank made its first loan, of £500, to John Colton. Colton became a successful businessman and politician, in 1875 was appointed to the bank's board of trustees; the bank was based on the savings bank movement first advocated by the Scotsman Rev. Henry Duncan. Prior to the advent of the savings bank movement, commercial banks were not interested in taking small deposits from working class men as the book work involved was more expensive than any potential benefit to the bank.
Duncan believed that great benefit to society would result from encouraging the working class to deposit their savings in a bank and teaching the working class the important virtues of thrift. In 1907 the Savings Bank of South Australia established the Penny Bank Department to take deposits as little as one penny from school children; these school savings account became popular and every public and private school in the state was permitted to take deposits from children on behalf of the bank. School banking was instrumental in instilling the savings mentality in children and helped to make the bank the largest in South Australia. During the 26 year era of Liberal Premier Sir Thomas Playford, the bank was a key tool of his vision for the SA's rapid economic and industrial development. Playford used both the State Bank to finance ETSA and the Housing Trust; the two state owned banks complemented each other. The Savings Bank was for the people to deposit their savings and for others to borrow money for mortgages on fair terms, while the State Bank was used for larger projects.
During this period the bank took on many new customers migrants brought out to South Australia under assisted migration schemes. SA Labor Premier Don Dunstan first floated the idea of merging the State Bank and the Savings Bank, but the conservative trustees of the bank were opposed to this idea and suspicious of the Labor Party. Early in his premiership, Dunstan had got the trustees offside by deceiving them by stating he intended to pass some minor annual leave changes through the Parliament, while changing the formation of the board and allowing the Labor Government to appoint the chairman of the Savings Bank and allowing trustees to sit on both boards, this had effect of giving control of the banks to Labor Party and not the trustees who had ably served both of the banks for many decades. Dunstan had raided both of the banks of their reserve funds to pay for his health and arts schemes. After Dunstan had changed the composition of the banks boards they requested the Labor government for a merger, however Labor lost the 1979 election and Liberal Premier David Tonkin would not allow the banks to merge.
Under the Labor Premier John Bannon, the two banks were merged. The combined bank'The State Bank of South Australia' had rapid growth in the boom of the 1980s; however at the end of any boom there is a bust and the State Bank of SA like the State Bank of Victoria was unable to withstand the Keating recession of the early 1990s. The State Bank of SA had failed because it had a'non-performing' loan portfolio, in other words repayments were not made on money lent. There are a number of building banks with intertwining histories; these include: St. George Bank St. George Co-operative Building Society Ltd. / St. George Building Society Cronulla & District Co-operative Building Society St. George and Cronulla Building Society Advance Bank NSW Permanent Building & Investment Society / NSW Permanent Building Society BankSA / Bank of South Australia Savings Bank of South Australia State Bank of South Australia Westpac Banking Corporation Too many to mention - those of major relevance to St. George / Advance Bank / BankSA: RESI Statewide Building Society Bank of Melbourne Bank of Melbourne BankSA history
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Burra, South Australia
Burra is a pastoral centre and historic tourist town in the mid-north of South Australia. It lies east of the Clare Valley in the Bald Hills range, part of the northern Mount Lofty Ranges, on Burra Creek; the town began as a single company mining township that, by 1851, was a set of townships collectively known as "The Burra". The Burra mines supplied 89% of South Australia's and 5% of the world's copper for 15 years, the settlement has been credited with saving the economy of the struggling new colony of South Australia; the Burra Burra Copper Mine was established in 1848 mining the copper deposit discovered in 1845. Miners and townspeople migrated to Burra from Cornwall, Wales and Germany; the mine first closed in 1877 opened again early in the 20th century and for a last time from 1970 to 1981. When the mine was exhausted and closed the population shrank and the townships, for the next 100 years, supported pastoral and agricultural activities. Today the town continues as a centre for its surrounding farming communities and, being one of the best-preserved towns of the Victorian era in Australia, as a historic tourist centre.
The Burra Charter, which outlines the best practice standard for cultural heritage management in Australia, is named for a conference held here in 1979 by Australia ICOMOS where the document was adopted. Burra is located within the Hundred of Kooringa a few kilometres inside Goyder's Line, near Burra and Gum creeks; the main body of copper ore formed between two geological faults in broken dolomite rocks. The ore body was up to 70 metres wide and consisted of green malachite and blue azurite veins and nodules amongst the host rock; the malachite and azurite were formed from copper sulphide minerals, by a process known as "secondary enrichment". This process took millions of years to convert the low grade copper sulphide ore, created 300 to 400 millions of years ago during the last period of vulcanism near Burra; the name applied to what is now the town of Burra has changed over time. The Burra Burra Copper Mine was named after the Burra Burra Creek. From at least 1851 the collection of townships near the mine became referred to as "The Burra".
The town of Burra was formed in 1940 by a notice in the South Australian Government Gazette with the consolidation of the culturally-based townships of Redruth, New Aberdeen, Copperhouse, Kooringa and Lostwithiel. The name Burra Burra has been asserted to have come from numerous sources; as early as July 1843, when the locality was a sheep outstation for pastoralist William Peter of Manoora, it was known as Burrow Creek. Despite that obvious connection to the indigenous Ngadjuri people, a theory persistently postulates that it comes from the Hindustani for ‘great great’, used by Indians shepherds working for another early pastoralist, James Stein, to refer to creek; the name could have come from Stein's home country of Scotland or a number of Aboriginal languages. A so-called'English Burra Burra' was discovered in 1851 in Devon in the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape. A Burra Burra mine is named after the Australian one; the original inhabitants of the Burra area were the Ngadjuri Aboriginal people whose first Western contact was in 1839.
The first European squatter in this region was William Peter, whose head station was Gum Creek near Manoora. Pastoralists grazed much of the Ngadjuri land from the 1840s and, although there was conflict, Ngadjuri people worked as shepherds and wool scourers once the area was emptied during the gold rushes of the 1850s, their population was depleted by introduced European diseases and they were reported to be extinct by 1878. Traces remain with rock art and burial sites in the area and some people able to claim Ngadjuri ancestry. On 9 June 1845 William Streair bore samples of a rich copper ore into the office of Henry Ayers,secretary of the South Australian Mining Association. Streair, a young shepherd in the employ of local pastoralist James Stein, had walked the 90 miles from Burra as did Thomas Pickett, a shepherd on a neighbouring property who made a further find. News of the copper this heralded was published on 21 June in Adelaide newspapers, the site was soon named The Monster Mine. Governor George Grey had amended land grant regulations forcing the hundred of Kooringa to be a 20,000-acre rectangle, placing the two copper finds at opposite ends.
Due to the £20,000 price of the land it was divided in two, with each half sold to a different group and the division decided by lot. The surveyed area was named the Burra Creek Special Survey, it is 8 by 4 miles, divided into 4 miles to a side. A group of wealthy capitalists purchased the southern half of the division and a group of shopkeepers, merchants and SAMA the northern half; the Burra Burra Mine was established by the snobs in their northern selection, the Princess Royal Mine by the nobs in their southern. In 1846, 347 acres just north of the division was sold to the Scottish Australian Investment Company for £5,550 where they established the Bon Accord Mine. Mining began on 29 September 1845 with the first gunpowder charge set off on the monster Burra Burra copper lode and by mid-1846, the Bon Accord Mining Company had commenced operations; until 1860 the mine was the largest
John Hart (South Australian colonist)
Captain John Hart was a South Australian politician and a Premier of South Australia. His son John Hart, Jr. was inaugural president of the Port Adelaide Football Club and had a brief political career. The son of journalist/newspaper publisher John Harriott Hart and Mary Hart née Glanville, John was born on 25 February 1809 at 23 Warwick Lane off Newgate Street, London. At Christ Church Greyfriars, John was baptised. At 12 years of age he first went to sea, visiting Hobart, Van Diemen's Land in September 1828 in the Magnet. In 1832 Hart was in command of the schooner Elizabeth, a sealer operating from Tasmania and visiting Kangaroo Island and Gulf St Vincent. In 1833 he took Edward Henty to and from Portland Bay. In 1836 he was sent to London to purchase another vessel, returning in the Isabella took the first livestock from Tasmania to South Australia in 1837. On the return voyage the Isabella was wrecked off Cape Nelson and Hart lost everything he had. Early January 1838 he was "on the River Murray near Mount Hope" and foresaw the great thoroughfare it would become in the second half of that century.
He went to Adelaide and John B. Hack sent him to Sydney to buy a vessel; some of this stock he brought overland to South Australia. Hack gave Hart two acres of land in Adelaide. In 1839 he managed a whaling station at Encounter Bay. In January 1843 Hart sailed to England in command of the South Australian Company's ageing barque Sarah and Elizabeth, delivering it to London for sale. Aboard as a passenger was the explorer John Hill, from whom Hart had just purchased Section 2112 at Port Adelaide, in partnership with Jacob Hagen. In December 1843 Hart returned to Adelaide in command of the barque Augustus of which he was part owner with Jacob Hagen and Hagen's brother. Among the passengers was the artist George French Angas. After another voyage to England he gave up the sea in 1846, settled near Port Adelaide, where he joined with H. Kent Hughes as merchants Hughes and Hart as Hart & Company, established large and successful flour mills, his flour mill at the Port was regarded as one of the best, "Hart's Flour" commanded the highest prices in Australia.
John Hart & Co. merged with the Adelaide Milling Company in 1882. He was a member of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society and its president from 1858 to 1859, he became interested in copper mining, some imputations having been made of underhand dealings in connection with leases, challenged inquiry. A select committee exonerated Hart stating that his conduct in every particular had been that of a honourable and upright man. Hart took an interest in public affairs, in 1851. Hart resigned in 1853 to visit England and was re-elected the next year, serving until the Council expired in 1857. In 1857 Hart became a member for Port Adelaide in the first House of Assembly, he was Treasurer of South Australia in the Baker ministry which lasted only a few days in August 1857, held the same position in the Hanson cabinet from 30 September 1857 to 12 June 1858 when he resigned. Hart was chief secretary in the short-lived first Dutton ministry in July 1863, was Treasurer in the first and second Ayers ministries, the first Blyth ministry from July 1863 to March 1865.
Hart became premier and chief secretary from 23 October 1865 to 28 March 1866 at which date he resigned from parliament. Hart was member for Light from May 1868 to April 1870. Including a second short stint as premier from 24 September 1868 to 13 October 1868. At the 1870 election, Hart changed seats to represent The Burra, the seat he retained until his death, he was premier and Treasurer again from 30 May 1870 to 10 November 1871. One newspaper obituary gave the opinion that Hart had been unfairly criticised in several of his decisions and should have been given credit for the Overland Telegraph Line rather than Sir Henry Ayers. Hart died on 28 January 1873 while presiding at a meeting of the Mercantile Marine Insurance Company, leaving a widow and a large family. Hart was created C. M. G. in 1870. John Hart married Mary Gillmor Kathrine Todd fourth daughter of Charles Hawkes Todd on 12 May 1845,. John Hart, Jr. married Emily Lavinia Finch on 8 August 1877. He died at Wooton Lea, Glen Osmond Mary Hart married Henry Huth Walters on 14 October 1868 Charles Hawkes Todd Hart was manager Port Adelaide flour mill 1873, may have returned to England.
Annie Hart married Rowland James Egerton-Warburton on 14 May 1872. Rowland was a son of Colonel Peter Egerton-Warburton. Katherine Hart married Algernon Arbuthnott Godwin on 9 January 1879 Other South Australian flour millers of the period were: Dr. Benjamin Archer Kent, for whom Kent Town, the site of his mill, was named. John Darling and Son John Dunn James Magarey and his son William James Magarey William Randell John Ridley Sally O'Neill,'Hart, John', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4, Melbourne University Press, 1972, pp 355–356. Retrieved 22 January 2009 Serle, Percival (1