People Places
History Art
Science
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset

Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, was the son of King Henry VIII of England and his mistress, Elizabeth Blount, the only illegitimate offspring whom Henry VIII acknowledged. He was the younger half-brother of Queen Mary I, as well as the older half-brother of Queen Elizabeth I and King Edward VI. Through his mother he was the elder half-brother of the 4th Baroness Tailboys of Kyme and of the 2nd and 3rd Barons Tailboys of Kyme, he was named FitzRoy, which means "son of the king". Henry FitzRoy was born in June 1519, his mother was Elizabeth Blount, Catherine of Aragon's lady-in-waiting, his father was Henry VIII. FitzRoy was conceived when Queen Catherine was approaching her last confinement with another of Henry's children, a stillborn daughter born in November 1518. To avoid scandal, Blount was taken from the royal court to the Augustinian priory of St Lawrence at Blackmore near Ingatestone, in Essex. FitzRoy's birthdate is given as 15 June 1519, but the exact date is not known, his birth may have been earlier than predicted.

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was out of London from 9 to 18 June when he reappeared back at court in Windsor. The following day he was expected at Hampton Court, but he did not reappear at a council meeting at Westminster until 29 June; the policy of discretion worked, as the baby boy's arrival caused no great stir, diplomatic dispatches record nothing of Henry VIII's illegitimate son. The christening of the newborn Henry FitzRoy was not recorded though Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was his godfather and known to have been present at the event; this puts the date of the christening before 29 June when he reappeared at court. The identity of the other godfather is unknown, although Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk would take a great interest in Henry FitzRoy when he was older, in 1519 he was still the heir to the Duchy of Norfolk, styled the Earl of Surrey. If Henry had chosen the House of Howard, he would have chosen the elder Thomas Howard, who at the time was the 2nd Duke of Norfolk; this Thomas Howard had fought and defeated the Scots at the Battle of Flodden in 1513.

Another suggestion for the second godfather could be Henry VIII himself: Henry had taken the role of godfather at the christening of his own nephew, Lord Henry Brandon in March 1516, his daughter Princess Mary stood godmother to her half-brother Prince Edward in 1537. The infant boy was given the surname FitzRoy. Henry VIII felt that his lack of a male heir was a slur upon his manhood. At one point he proudly exhibited his newborn son to the court; this could have taken place when the Queen threw a sumptuous banquet at her manor of Havering-atte-Bower in honour of French hostages in August 1519. Alternatively, Henry might have showed his son off at a banquet in the refurbished manor of Newhall, Essex; the boy's upbringing until the moment when he entered Bridewell Palace in June 1525 remains shrouded in confusion. Although the boy was illegitimate, this did not mean that young Henry lived remotely from and had no contact with his father. On the contrary, it has been suggested by his biographer, Beverly Murphy, that a letter from a royal nurse implies that FitzRoy had been part of the royal nursery, he was at court after 1530.

The boy was born in the sixteenth century, at that time households were in a state of constant movement and transition, so it is unlikely that FitzRoy grew up in any one house. He was most transferred from household to household around London like his royal siblings: Mary and Edward. In 1519 the only surviving legitimate child of the King was the three-year-old Princess Mary. In that year her household was reorganised, suggesting that Henry made some provisions for his only son. Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury replaced Lady Margaret Bryan as lady Mistress of Mary's household. At the same time at least two of Mary's carers appear to have left her service. In addition, the correspondence of the child's first known tutor makes it clear that FitzRoy received some rudimentary education prior to his elevation to the peerage in 1525. John Palsgrave grumbled loudly that Henry had been taught to recite his prayers in a "barbarous" Latin accent and dismissed the man who had instructed him as "no clerk".

It is not impossible that Princess Mary's household could have been reorganised some time before her former servants found posts with Henry FitzRoy. Although he was more well known from 1525 and onwards, there is some evidence that he was in receipt of royal favour before his ennoblement; the "Lord Henry" in question is not identified but given that the subject was not considered to require a title and that the list has survived with further documents relating to the household established for Henry FitzRoy after his ennoblement, it would seem reasonable to assume that it is Henry FitzRoy. The familiar way in which he is described as "My Lord Henry" is interesting and suggests that, amongst the officers close to the King, at least, his existence was hardly a secret. Alternatively, he may have been raised in the north with his mother and her husband Gilbert Tailboys, 1st Baron Tailboys of Kyme, their children. By 1525, the Tudor dynasty had been on the throne for 40 years, it had strong government, an end to the Wars of the Roses, a beloved king on the throne.

However, cracks were beginning to appear. By the sixteenth year of Henry's reign, he was a 34-year-old man still in his prime.

Veiled Rebecca

The Veiled Rebecca or The Veiled Rebekah is a marble sculpture created by the Italian neoclassical sculptor Giovanni Maria Benzoni. Benzoni first executed the work in 1863 for Robert Winthe of London, it depicts the scene from the Hebrew Bible when a modest Rebecca covers herself with a veil upon meeting her future husband, Isaac. Veiled women were a popular sculptural motif among Benzoni and his peers in 19th-century Italy for a number of reasons; the first was that these works highlighted the artistry of the sculptor since achieving the illusion that stone is fabric clinging to a body requires a high level of skill. Secondly, a veiled woman had become an allegory for Italian unification. Benzoni's workshop made a number of copies of The Veiled Rebecca. A 19th-century English art journal noted that: Benzoni, the fashionable Roman sculptor, whose studio has been visited by a number of crowned heads, exhibits in his suite of showrooms, several replicas in different sizes of his Diana, his veiled Rebecca before her meeting with Isaac, the'Four Seasons,' &c.

Copies of The Veiled Rebecca can be found at these museums: High Museum of Art in Georgia. Listed in the catalog as The Veiled Rebekah and dated 1864. Berkshire Museum, Massachusetts. Dated c. 1866. Detroit Institute of Arts, Michigan; this smaller version is listed in the catalog as The Veiled Lady and dated 1872. Salar Jung Museum, India. Dated 1876. Cedarhurst Center for the Arts, Mount Vernon, Illinois. Vestal Virgin Tuccia, 1743 sculpture Modesty, 1752 sculpture Veiled Christ, 1753 sculpture The Veiled Virgin, mid-19th century sculpture The Veiled Nun, c. 1863 sculpture MH. "Art in Rome, 1872". The Art-Journal. London: George Virtue. 34: 131–132. Retrieved 2019-10-01. Petrucci, Francesco, ed.. Papi In Posa: 500 Years of Papal Portraiture. Gangemi Editore. ISBN 8849208766

Massimo Tamburini

Massimo Tamburini was an Italian motorcycle designer for Cagiva, MV Agusta, one of the founders of Bimota. Tamburini's designs are iconic in their field, with one critic calling him the "Michelangelo of motorbike design", his Ducati 916 and MV Agusta F4 were included in the Guggenheim Museum's The Art of the Motorcycle exhibit of 1998–1999. He lived and worked in San Marino at the Cagiva Research Center, a subsidiary of Cagiva now MV Agusta, from which he retired on December 31, 2008. Tamburini was born on November 1943 in Rimini, where his family were farmers. Although he aspired to attend university, for financial reasons he instead attended the Istituto Tecnico Industriale di Rimini, a technical school in Rimini. According to his biography published by the City of Rimini, he did not finish his technical education for health reasons, began working at age 18 on heating ductwork. Tamburini said, "I have always had a huge passion for motorcycles—my mother used to complain about it when I was a little boy, calling it my obsession!

I have never had any desire to design anything else." His exposure to the motorcycle industry began when he attended the world championship race at Monza in 1961. Captivated by the sound of the MV Agusta's four stroke engine ridden by Provini, self-taught in design, Tamburini devoted his life to the making of motorcycles. While Tamburini owned a heating business in his home town of Rimini, he was becoming known for his race tuning, improving motorcycles' power and handling, as well as making them lighter. Rimini was a motorcycling enthusiast's town, being near a Benelli motorcycle factory, the site of many road races following World War II; the MV Agusta 600 four was Tamburini's particular specialty, for which he was known "throughout Italy", according to Mick Walker, who said, "the transformation of what had been an ugly and slow touring bike into a sleek and fast sportster was sensational."Tamburini created his first motorcycle design in 1971, customizing an MV Agusta 750 Sport by welding the frame himself.

In 1973, Valerio Bianchi, Giuseppe Morri founded Bimota. The three had been designing and fabricating air conditioning ducts; the company name was a portmanteau of the first letters of Bi, Mo, Ta. Speaking of motorcycles of the future, Tamburini summed up his design philosophy by saying, "The ideal one would be a 750 with the power of a 1000 and the weight of a 500. You don't need a huge amount of power on a road bike, but it's important to have light weight as well." Tamburini criticized the Ducati ST2, saying, "I think the ST2 is an attempt to follow a Japanese concept, this shouldn't be done by Italians."After 11 years at Bimota, Tamburini left and for a short time joined Roberto Gallina's 500 cc Grand Prix world championship team. In February 1985, he joined Claudio Castiglioni's Cagiva Group. Cagiva had acquired Ducati that year, Tamburini worked designing both Ducati and Cagiva brand motorcycles. In 1985, Bimota was under "controlled administration", or fallimento, similar to US Chapter 11 reorganization and Tamburini had left the company, Giuseppe Morri having purchased Tamburini's Bimota stock.

Tamburini's successor as chief designer at Bimota was Federico Martini. Though Tamburini was in his new position as head of Cagiva's design studio, he continued work back at Bimota, in spite of the falling out with his partners that led to his departure, working on the Bimota DB1 prototype, a bike that used the engine of the Ducati Pantah 750, to be presented at EICMA, the Milan motorcycle show. Martini was responsible for the engineering of the DB1, Tamburini, as a consultant to Cagiva, handled the styling; the first Ducati he designed was the Paso 750, a bike that helped move enclosing bodywork into the mainstream. Tamburini designed the now classic Ducati 916. South African motorcycle designer Pierre Terblanche and Tamburini were working side by side at the Cagiva Research Center on new designs, Tamburini on the 916 and Terblanche on the Ducati Supermono. Terblanche's Supermono, which shared several visual cues with the Tamburini's 916, was shown to the public before the 916, leaving the impression that Tamburini was influenced by Terblanche.

In fact, the influence was the other way around, with Terblanche incorporating ideas that Tamburini shared with him in the design studio from his 916 design. Journalist Kevin Ash said that the roots of the 916's styling were found elsewhere, outside Ducati and CRC. Ash said that the timing of the public debut of Honda's advanced oval-piston, 32-valve V4 engine Grand Prix racing bike, the NR750, in August 1991, indicates that NR750 influenced the final shape of the 916, though Tamburini and others at Ducati would not confirm this, Tamburini only saying that he was influenced by "existing designs." Ash said that Tamburini showed a better understanding of visual weight than the NR750's designers, the 916 design, "moved it forward and Ducati-fied it, in particular the blend of sharp edges and sweeping curves, like most innovation, broke existing rules." When the Castiglioni brothers sold Ducati in 1996, Tamburini stayed with Cagiva, where he designed the MV Agusta F4 to great acclaim. While designing the F4 c.

1996, he was diagnosed with prostate cancer. Tamburini retired from Cagiva in December, 2008. Tamburini was diagnosed with lung cancer in November 2013 and underwent chemotherapy near his residence in San Marino, his health con