Henry Flitcroft

Henry Flitcroft was a major English architect in the second generation of Palladianism. He came from a simple background: his father was a labourer in the gardens at Hampton Court and he began as a joiner by trade. Working as a carpenter at Burlington House, he broke his leg. While he was recuperating, the young Lord Burlington noticed his talent with the pencil, by 1720 Flitcroft was Burlington's draughtsman and general architectural assistant, surveying at Westminster School for Burlington's dormitory, superintending at the site at Tottenham House. Working life in the inner circle, driving the new Palladian architecture was an education for Flitcroft. Flitcroft redrew for publication the drawings for The Designs of Mr. Inigo Jones, published by William Kent in 1727, under Burlington's patronage and supervision. In May 1726 Burlington got his protégé an appointment at the Office of Works, where he worked his way up from Master Carpenter and Master Mason to Comptroller of the King's Works, a prestigious position at the top of the architectural field.

Royal commissions came his way in the form of some private projects for junior members of the British Royal Family. His work for the Duke at Windsor Great Park included creating the Virginia Water Lake. Flitcroft's hands were occupied with private commissions and, like most professional architects, he did some speculative construction in new-building London streets, supplied stone, contracted to erect the buildings he was designing. Panelling and a mantelpiece from an old panelled room designed by Flitcroft in the 1720s from Potternewton Hall near Leeds were installed in Sutton Park in Yorkshire after 1935. From 1746 to 1756, he was Surveyor of the Fabric of St Paul's Cathedral. Lilford Hall, Northamptonshire: 1740s. At Lilford he designed the interiors. Bower House, Essex, 1729 St Giles in the Fields, London: 1731–1734. Ditchley House, Oxfordshire: 1724 onwards. At Ditchley he designed interiors. Wentworth Woodhouse, W. Riding, Yorkshire: 1735 onwards, he enlarged the west front and added wings.

St Giles House, Wimborne St Giles, Dorset: 1740–1744. Interiors. Stowe House, Buckinghamshire: ca. 1742. The State gallery. Wimpole Hall, Cambridgeshire: 1742–1745. Stourhead, Wiltshire: 1744–1765. Garden temples Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire: 1748–1761. Milton Hall, Northamptonshire: 1750–1751. Flitcroft built extensively in the West End of London. H. M. Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840 ISBN 0-300-07207-4 Heward and Taylor, Robert "The Country Houses of Northamptonshire". ISBN 1-873592-21-3

Pushpagiri Vihara

Pushpagiri was an ancient Buddhist mahavihara located atop Langudi Hill in Jajpur district of Odisha, India. The complex contains ruins of rock-cut sculptures and other artifacts. Pushpagiri was mentioned in the writings of the Chinese traveller Xuanzang and some other ancient sources; until the 1990s, it was hypothesised to be the Lalitgiri-Ratnagiri-Udayagiri complex located in Jajpur district. However, archaeological excavations conducted at Langudi Hills during 1996-2006 resulted in the discovery of another site, with inscriptions describing the local monastery as puṣpa sabhar giriya, identified by the excavators as Pushpagiri; the visit of Xuanzang indicates. Along with Nalanda, Odantapuri and Vallabhi, it is believed to be a major ancient centre of learning, it flourished between 3rd and 11th centuries CE. Chinese traveler Xuanzang describes a sangharama named Pu-se-p'o-k'i-li in the south-west region of a country, whose name is variously transliterated as U-Cha or Wu-T-U. Scholars such as Stanislas Julien and Samuel Beal restored Pu-se-po-k'i-li as "Pushpagiri", name of the country as Ota or "Udra".

Scholars identify this country as Odra in present-day Odisha. Xuanzang describes the monastery as follows: In the south-west of the country was the Pu-sie-p'o-k'i-li monastery in a mountain. A 3rd century inscription of the Andhra Ikshvaku king Vira-purusha-datta, found at Nagarjunakonda, mentions that an upasika named Bodhisiri made numerous endownments to Buddhist establishments. One of these included sponsoring the erection of a stone mandapa at "Puphagiri". According to Thomas E. Donaldson, this is same as the Pushpagiri mentioned in Xuanzang's records, was located in the present-day Odisha. Pratapaditya Pal notes that if this identification is true, the site in Odisha must have been established by at least 3rd century. However, some other scholars, such as Dineshchandra Sircar and B. S. L. Hanumantha Rao, identify this "Puphagiri" with Pushpagiri Temple Complex in the present-day Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh; the 9th century Buddhist monk Prajna, after spending 18 years in various places including Nalanda, settled in an unnamed monastery of Wu-ch'a, before going to China.

A few scholars, such as Prabhat Mukherjee, identify this monastery with Pushpagiri. In the 20th century, a number of scholars identified the Pushpagiri mentioned in Xuanzang's records with various sites in present-day Odisha. Ramaprasad Chanda of Archaeological Survey of India believed that either Udayagiri or Lalitgiri could be the historical Pushpagiri. Based on archaeological finds, K. C. Panigrahi hypothesized that Udayagiri and Ratnagiri formed a common complex, called Pushpagiri. N. K. Sahu identified it somewhere in the Phulbani-Ghumsur region, based on geographical descriptions in Xuanzang's works. In 1985, the Archaeological Survey of India started excavation at Lalitgiri to locate Pushpagiri; the excavation led to several important archaeological discoveries, but none of these confirmed the identification of Lalitgiri with Pushpagiri. In the 1990s, college lecturer Harish Chandra Prusty discovered a Buddhist site on the Langudi Hill in Jajpur district. In 1993, he and Pradeep Mohanty described the site in an article published in the Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute.

In 1996, the Orissa Institute of Maritime and South East Asia Studies and the Odisha state's archaeology department started exploring the site. Between 1996 and 2006, the Institute carried out excavations of an area stretching over 143 acres. A fragmented Brahmi inscription discovered at the site names the site as puṣpa sabhar giriya, identified by the excavators as Pushpagiri. In 2000, an excavation conducted by the Institute, under the supervision of archaeologist Debraj Pradhan, resulted in the discovery of a large stupa as well as several other archaeological artifacts; the artifacts included pillars, a fragmentary Brahmi inscription, terracota seals and Northern Black Polished Ware. Debraj Pradhan believed the stupa to have been erected by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka: Although Xuanzang suggests that Odra had 10 stupas erected by Ashoka, this is the only one to have been discovered so far. According to B. N. Mukherjee of Calcutta University, who deciphered the Brahmi inscription, the stupa may have been erected by "a lay Buddhist worshipper called Ashoka".

By 2007, 34 rock-cut stupas of various sizes had been discovered on the northern part of the hill. A number of Buddhist rock-cut sculptures were discovered on the southern spur of the hill, including sculptures of Dhyani Buddhas in various postures. According to D. K. Dimri, the superintendent of the ASI's Orissa circle, the archaeological finds at the site cover a period between 1st century CE and 9th century CE, suggest the existence of a major Buddhist monastic establishment. In 2007, the ASI took over the excavated site. In 2005, the Odisha State Government began developing the Langudi Hills site as a tourist place by constructing roads and other facilities. There are other Buddhist attractions around Langudi hills. Kaima hill, in its immediate vicinity, contains a unique rock-cut elephant surrounded by four monolithic khondalite pillars. Deuli, a hill situated in the confluence of the Brahmani and Kimi

Clint Smith

Clinton James "Snuffy" Smith was a Canadian professional ice hockey centre and head coach best known for his time spent in the National Hockey League as a player with the New York Rangers and the Chicago Black Hawks. Following Smith's 10-year NHL career, he served as both a head coach and player in the United States Hockey League and American Hockey League. Prior to beginning his NHL career with the New York Rangers in 1936–37, Smith played in several minor professional leagues. After splitting his first professional season in 1932–33 with the Springfield Indians of the Canadian-American Hockey League and Saskatoon Crescents of the West Coast Hockey League, Smith moved further west to play for the Vancouver Lions of the North West Hockey League, where he led the league in scoring with 25 goals in his rookie year, he went on to lead the league in points the next two seasons with 44- and 53-point campaigns. In 1936–37, Smith joined the International-American Hockey League, precursor to the American Hockey League, finished second in league scoring to Jack Markle with 54 points as a member of the Philadelphia Ramblers.

He helped lead his team to the Finals of the inaugural Calder Cup championship, but lost to the Syracuse Stars in four games of what was a five-game series. Smith began his NHL career with the Rangers with a short 2-game stint in 1936–37, during which he notched his first NHL career goal, he became an integral player on the Rangers roster, leading the team in scoring in his second full NHL season in 1938–39 with 41 points. Going the length of the campaign with just one minor penalty, he was awarded the Lady Byng Trophy, his first of two in his career; the following season, he helped lead the Rangers to the Stanley Cup championship, defeating the Toronto Maple Leafs in six games. Despite winning the Stanley Cup that year, Smith's production began to tail off with the Rangers, scoring only 24 points that championship year. Despite improving to 33 points in 1942–43, Smith ended his 6-year tenure with the Rangers following that season. Joining the Chicago Black Hawks in 1943–44, Smith rejuvenated his career playing on a line with future fellow Hockey Hall of Famers, Bill Mosienko and Doug Bentley.

He recorded 23 goals and established an NHL record for single-season assists with 49 for an NHL career-high 72 points. The combined total of Mosienko and Smith's points that season set an NHL record for a line with 219. Smith's record-setting season was complemented by a second Lady Byng Trophy, having only accumulated 4 penalty minutes; the following season, in 1944–45, Smith succeeded Bentley Smith set another NHL record with a four-goal period against the Montreal Canadiens on March 4, 1945. The remainder of Smith's four-season stay in Chicago was not met with as much offensive success as his initial campaign with the team, but he did, record three straight 20-goal seasons, including a personal best 26-goal season in 1945–46. After his production dipped to 26 points in 1946–47, he retired from the NHL. Smith returned to the minor leagues in 1947–48, joining the short-lived United States Hockey League with the Tulsa Oilers, he led Tulsa in scoring with 71 points in his only season while serving as the team's head coach.

Finishing in the top ten in league scoring, he won the Herman W. Paterson Cup as league MVP; the following season, he did double duty playing and coaching in St. Paul Saints, where he played for three seasons. In 1951–52, Smith joined the Cincinnati Mohawks of the AHL, coaching them to the second round of the Calder Cup playoffs and playing in a limited role, appearing in just 2 games. Smith retired following his one-season stint with the Mohawks both as player. Following Smith's retirement, he returned to Vancouver, where he had competed in the NWHL to play oldtimers hockey, he made his residence there and became a founding member of the British Columbia Hockey Benevolent Association known as the Canucks Alumni, at one point held the position of president. Thirty-nine years following his professional retirement, Smith was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1991. At the time of his death on June 15, 2008, Ray Getliffe, a left winger who played for the Boston Bruins and Montreal Canadiens was said to be the oldest living person to have played in the NHL.

It was reported that Smith was the oldest living person to have played in the NHL. Both these reports, overlooked players who had only played a limited number of games, such as Louis Holmes and Al Suomi. Getliffe, who died at the age of 94, was just several months younger than Smith at the time of his death, while Holmes and Suomi were 97 and 95 at that time. On May 19, 2009, Smith died at the age of 95, leaving Suomi as the oldest living NHL player, at the current age of 99, he was the last surviving member of Rangers 1940 Stanley Cup team. In the 2009 book 100 Ranger Greats, the authors ranked Smith at No. 35 all-time of the 901 New York Rangers who had played during the team's first 82 seasons. Won the Lady Byng Trophy in 1939 and 1944. Won a Stanley Cup with the New York Rangers in 1940. Won the Herman W. Paterson Cup as USHL MVP in 1948. Captain Biographical information and career statistics from, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database "Hall of Famer Clint Smith dies at age 95," New York Rangers, May 21, 2009.

Goldstein, Richard. "Clint Smith, Who Won Title With Rangers, Dies at 95," The New York Times, May 22, 200