Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Putney is a district in south-west London, England in the London Borough of Wandsworth. It is centred 6.1 miles south-west of Charing Cross. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Putney is an ancient parish which covered 9.11 square kilometres and was until 1889 in the Hundred of Brixton in the county of Surrey. Its area has been reduced by the loss of Roehampton to the south-west, an offshoot hamlet that conserved more of its own clustered historic core. In 1855 the parish was included in the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works and was grouped into the Wandsworth District. In 1889 the area became part of the County of London; the Wandsworth District became the Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth in 1900. Since 1965 Putney has formed part of the London Borough of Wandsworth in Greater London; the benefice of the parish remains a perpetual curacy whose patron is the Dean and Chapter of Worcester. The church, founded in the medieval period as a chapel of ease to Wimbledon, was rebuilt in the early Tudor period and in 1836 was again rebuilt, the old tower restored, at an expense of £7000 defrayed by subscription, a rate, a grant of £400 from the Incorporated Society.
It has a small chantry chapel removed from the east end of the south aisle, rebuilt at the east end of the north side, preserving the old style. In 1684, Thomas Martyn bequeathed lands for the foundation and support of a charity school for 20 boys, sons of watermen. A charitable almshouse for 12 men and women, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was erected by Sir Abraham Dawes, who provided it with an endowment. Putney was the birthplace of Thomas Cromwell, made Earl of Essex by Henry VIII and of Edward Gibbon, author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, born in 1737. John Toland, a noted free-thinker and was buried at Putney in 1722. Robert Wood, under-Secretary of State for the Southern Department, who published The Ruins of Palmyra about the Roman ruins he visited at Baalbek in Syria, other archæological works lies here. William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, died at a house on Putney Heath. In the 1840s Putney was still a part-wooded, part-agricultural village focussed closest to the Thames, opposite to Fulham, with which it was connected by a wooden bridge.
It was street-lit with gas paved, well supplied with water. At that time Putney took on London's premier role in civil engineering; the College for Civil Engineers relocated to Putney in 1840, for the purpose of affording sound instruction in the theory and practice of civil engineering and architecture, in all those branches of science and learning which are adapted to the advanced state of society, constitute an education that fits the student for any pursuit or profession. Putney had a second place of worship for Independents, Roehampton was in the process of achieving separate parish status; the proprietors of the bridge distributed £31 per annum to watermen, watermen's widows and children, the parish received benefit from Henry Smith's and other charities. Putney in 1887 covered 9 square kilometres. Putney appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Putelei, it was noted that it did not fall into the category of local jurisdictions known as a manor, but obtained 20 shillings from the ferry or market toll at Putney belonging to the manor of Mortlake.
The ferry was mentioned in the household accounts of Edward I: Robert the Ferryman of Putney and other sailors received 3/6d for carrying a great part of the royal family across the Thames and for taking the king and his family to Westminster. One famous crossing at Putney was that of Cardinal Wolsey in 1529 upon his'disgrace' in falling out of favour with Henry VIII and on ceasing to be the holder of the Great Seal of England; as he was riding up Putney Hill he was overtaken by one of the royal chamberlains who presented him with a ring as a token of the continuance of his majesty's favour. When the Cardinal had heard these words of the king, he lighted from his mule and knelt down in the dirt upon both knees, holding up his hands for joy, said "When I consider the joyful news that you have brought to me, I could do no less than rejoice; every word pierces so my heart, that the sudden joy surmounted my memory, having no regard or respect to the place. The first bridge of any kind between the two parishes of Fulham and Putney was built during the Civil War: after the Battle of Brentford in 1642, the Parliamentary forces built a bridge of boats between Fulham and Putney.
According to an account from the period:The Lord General hath caused a bridge to be built upon barges and lighters over the Thames between Fulham and Putney, to convey his army and artillery over into Surrey, to follow the king's forces. The first permanent bridge between Fulham and Putney was completed in 1729, was the second bridge to be built across the Thames in London. One story runs that "in 1720 Sir Robert Walpole was returning from seeing George I at Kingston and being in a hurry to get to the House of Commons rode together with his servant to P
Helvetia is the female national personification of Switzerland Confœderatio Helvetica, the Swiss Confederation. The allegory is pictured in a flowing gown, with a spear and a shield emblazoned with the Swiss flag, with braided hair with a wreath as a symbol of confederation; the name is a derivation of the ethnonym Helvetii, the name of the Gaulish tribe inhabiting the Swiss Plateau prior to the Roman conquest. The fashion of depicting the Swiss Confederacy in terms of female allegories arises in the 17th century; this replaces an earlier convention, popular in the 1580s, of representing Switzerland as a bull. In the first half of the 17th century, there was not a single allegory identified as Helvetia. Rather, a number of allegories were shown, representing both vices of the confederacy. On the title page of his 1642 Topographia, Matthäus Merian shows two allegorical figures seated below the title panel: one is the figure of an armed Eidgenosse, representing Swiss military prowess or victory, the other is a female Abundantia allegory crowned with a city's ramparts, representing the Swiss territory or its fertility.
Female allegories of individual cantons predate the single Helvetia figure. There are depictions of a Respublica Tigurina Virgo, a Lucerna shown in 1658 with the victor of Villmergen, Christoph Pfyffer, a Berna of 1682. Over the next half-century, Merian's Abundantia would develop into the figure of Helvetia proper. An oil painting of 1677/78 from Solothurn, known as Libertas Helvetiae, shows a female Libertas allegory standing on a pillar. In 1672, an oil painting by Albrecht Kauw shows a number of figures labelled Helvetia moderna; these represent vices such as Voluptas and Avaritia, contrasting with the virtues of Helvetia antiqua. On 14 September 1672, a monumental baroque play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach was performed in Zug, entitled Eydtgnossisch Contrafeth Auff- und Abnemmender Jungfrawen Helvetiae; the play is full of allegories illustrating the raise of Helvetia and her decadence after the Reformation. In the 4th act, the Abnemmende Helvetiae or "Waning Helvetia" is faced with Atheysmus and Politicus while the old virtues leave her.
In the final scene, Christ himself appears to punish the wayward damsel, but the Mother of God and Bruder Klaus intercede and the contrite sinner is pardoned. Identification of the Swiss as "Helvetians" becomes common in the 18th century in the French language, as in François-Joseph-Nicolas d'Alt de Tieffenthal's patriotic Histoire des Hélvetiens followed by Alexander Ludwig von Wattenwyl's Histoire de la Confédération hélvetique. Helvetia appears in patriotic and political artwork in the context of the construction of a national history and identity in the early 19th century, after the disintegration of the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, she appears on official federal coins and stamps from the foundation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848; the Swiss Confederation continues to use the name in its Latin form when it is inappropriate or inconvenient to use any or all of its four official languages. Thus, the name appears on postage stamps and other uses. Notably, translations of the term Helvetia still serve as the name for Switzerland in languages such as Irish, in which the country is known as An Eilbhéis, Greek, in which it is known as Ελβετία and Romanian, in which it is known as Elveția.
In Italian Elvezia is seen as archaic, but the demonym noun/adjective elvetico is used as synonym of svizzero. In French, Swiss people may be referred to as Helvètes; the German word Helvetien is used as well as has a higher poetic value. Helvetien is more common in Germany. Coins of the Swiss franc Historiography of Switzerland Name of Switzerland National personification Postage stamps and postal history of Switzerland Vreneli William Tell Gianni Haver, L'image de la Suisse, collection « Comprendre », Éditions loisirs et pédagogie, 2011, 128 pages. Gianni Haver, Dame à l'antique avec lance et bouclier: Helvetia et ses Déclinaisons, in M.-O. Gonseth, B. Knodel, Y. Laville and G. Mayor, Hors-champs. Eclats du patrimoine culturel immatériel, Musée d'ethnographie de Neuchâtel, 2013, pages 274-282. Thomas Maissen, Von wackeren alten Eidgenossen und souveränen Jungfrauen. Zu Datierung und Deutung der frühesten Helvetia-Darstellungen, Zeitschrift für schweizerische Archäologie und Kunstgeschichte 56, 265-302
Old Swiss Confederacy
The Old Swiss Confederacy was a loose confederation of independent small states within the Holy Roman Empire. It is the precursor of the modern state of Switzerland, it formed during the 14th century, from a nucleus in what is now Central Switzerland, expanding to include the cities of Zürich and Berne by the middle of the century. This formed a rare union of rural and urban communes, all of which enjoyed imperial immediacy in the Holy Roman Empire; this confederation of eight cantons was politically and militarily successful for more than a century, culminating in the Burgundy Wars of the 1470s which established it as a power in the complicated political landscape dominated by France and the Habsburgs. Its success resulted in the addition of more confederates, increasing the number of cantons to thirteen by 1513; the confederacy pledged neutrality in 1647, although many Swiss served as mercenaries in the Italian Wars and during the Early Modern period. After the Swabian War of 1499 the confederacy was a de facto independent state throughout the early modern period, although still nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire until 1648 when the Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years' War.
The Swiss Reformation divided the confederates into Reformed and Catholic parties, resulting in internal conflict from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The Swiss Confederacy fell to invasion by the French Revolutionary Army in 1798, after which it became the short-lived Helvetic Republic; the adjective "old" was introduced after the Napoleonic era with Ancien Régime, retronyms distinguishing the pre-Napoleonic from the restored confederation. During its existence the confederacy was known as Eidgenossenschaft or Eydtgnoschafft, in reference to treaties among cantons. Territories of the confederacy came to be known collectively as Schweiz or Schweizerland, with the English Switzerland beginning during the mid-16th century. From that time the Confederacy was seen as a single state known as the Swiss Republic after the fashion of calling individual urban cantons republics; the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy was an alliance among the valley communities of the central Alps to facilitate management of common interests and ensure peace along trade routes through the mountains.
The foundation of the Confederacy is marked by the 1315 Pact of Brunnen. Since 1889, the Federal Charter of 1291 among the rural communes of Uri and Unterwalden has been considered the founding document of the confederacy; the initial pact was augmented by pacts with the cities of Lucerne, Zürich, Berne. This union of rural and urban communes, which enjoyed the status of imperial immediacy within the Holy Roman Empire, was engendered by pressure from Habsburg dukes and kings who had ruled much of the land. In several battles with Habsburg armies, the Swiss were victorious. From 1353 to 1481, the federation of eight cantons—known in German as the Acht Orte —consolidated its position; the members enlarged their territory at the expense of local counts—primarily by buying judicial rights, but sometimes by force. The Eidgenossenschaft, as a whole, expanded through military conquest: the Aargau was conquered in 1415 and the Thurgau in 1460. In both cases, the Swiss profited from weakness in the Habsburg dukes.
In the south, Uri led a military territorial expansion that would by 1515 lead to the conquest of the Ticino. None of these territories became members of the confederacy. At this time, the eight cantons increased their influence on neighbouring cities and regions through additional alliances. Individual cantons concluded pacts with Fribourg, Schaffhausen, the abbot and the city of St. Gallen, Rottweil and others; these allies became associated with the confederacy, but were not accepted as full members. The Burgundy Wars prompted a further enlargement of the confederacy. In the Swabian War against Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, the Swiss were victorious and exempted from imperial legislation; the associated cities of Basel and Schaffhausen joined the confederacy as a result of that conflict, Appenzell followed suit in 1513 as the thirteenth member. The federation of thirteen cantons constituted the Old Swiss Confederacy until its demise in 1798; the expansion of the confederacy was stopped by the Swiss defeat in the 1515 Battle of Marignano.
Only Berne and Fribourg were still able to conquer the Vaud in 1536. The Reformation in Switzerland led to doctrinal division amongst the cantons. Zürich, Basel and associates Biel, Neuchâtel and the city of St. Gallen became Protestant. In Glarus, Appenzell, in the Grisons and in mo
The colossal pair of marble "Horse Tamers"—often identified as Castor and Pollux—have stood since antiquity near the site of the Baths of Constantine on the Quirinal Hill, Rome. Napoleon's agents wanted to include them among the classical booty removed from Rome after the 1797 Treaty of Tolentino, but they were too large to be buried or to be moved far, they are fourth-century Roman copies of Greek originals. They gave to the Quirinal its medieval name Monte Cavallo, which lingered into the nineteenth century, their coarseness has been noted. The Colossi of the Quirinal are the original exponents of this theme of dominating power, which has appealed to powerful patrons since the seventeenth century, from Marly-le-Roi to Saint Petersburg; the huge sculptures were noted in the medieval guidebook for Mirabilia Urbis Romae. Their ruinous bases still bore inscriptions OPUS FIDIÆ and OPUS PRAXITELIS, hopeful attributions that must have dated from Late Antiquity; the Mirabilia confidently reported that these were "the names of two seers who had arrived in Rome under Tiberius, naked, to tell the'bare truth' that the princes of the world were like horses which had not yet been mounted by a true king."Between 1589 and 1591, Sixtus V had them restored and set on new pedestals flanking a fountain, another engineering triumph for Domenico Fontana, who had moved and re-erected the obelisk in Piazza San Pietro.
In 1783-86 they were re-set at an angle, an obelisk, found at the Mausoleum of Augustus, was re-erected between them. An interpretation of their subject as Alexander and Bucephalus was proposed in 1558 by Onofrio Panvinio, who suggested that Constantine had removed them from Alexandria, where they would have referred to the familiar legend of the city's founder; this became a popular alternative to their identification as the Dioscuri. The popular guides still referred to their creation by Phidias and Praxiteles competing for fame, long after the modestly learned realized that the two sculptors preceded Alexander by a century. About 1560 a second pair of colossal marble figures accompanied by horses were unearthed and set up on either side of the entrance to the Campidoglio; the fame of the Horse Tamers recommended them for other situations where the ruling of base natures by higher nature was iconographically desirable. The Horses of Marly made by Guillaume Coustou the Elder for Louis XIV at Marly-le-Roi were re-set triumphantly in Paris at the time of the French Revolution, flanking the entrance to the Champs-Elysées In the 1640s, bronze replicas were to flank the entrance to the Louvre: moulds were taken for the purpose, but the project foundered.
Paolo Triscornia carved what seem to have been the first full-scale replicas of the groups for the entrance of the Manège in St. Petersburg"; the standing of the heroic nudes had risen with the new approach to Antiquity of Neoclassicism: Sir Richard Westmacott was commissioned to cast a full-scale bronze of the "Phidias" figure, supplied with a shield and sword, as a tribute to the Duke of Wellington. Christian Friedrich Tieck placed copies of the figures, in cast iron, atop Karl Friedrich Schinkel's Altes Museum, Berlin. In St Petersburg, the Anichkov Bridge has four colossal bronze Horse Tamer sculptures by Baron Peter Klodt von Urgensburg. In Brooklyn's Prospect Park, at the Ocean Parkway entrance, stands a pair of bronze Horse Tamers sculptures by Frederick MacMonnies, installed as the newly combined City of New York was spreading across the Long Island landscape. Haskell, Francis. 3, as "Alexander and Bucephalus"
Boydell Shakespeare Gallery
The Boydell Shakespeare Gallery in London, was the first stage of a three-part project initiated in November 1786 by engraver and publisher John Boydell in an effort to foster a school of British history painting. In addition to the establishment of the gallery, Boydell planned to produce an illustrated edition of William Shakespeare's plays and a folio of prints based upon a series of paintings by different contemporary painters. During the 1790s the London gallery that showed the original paintings emerged as the project's most popular element; the works of William Shakespeare enjoyed a renewed popularity in 18th-century Britain. Several new editions of his works were published, his plays were revived in the theatre and numerous works of art were created illustrating the plays and specific productions of them. Capitalising on this interest, Boydell decided to publish a grand illustrated edition of Shakespeare's plays that would showcase the talents of British painters and engravers, he chose the noted scholar and Shakespeare editor George Steevens to oversee the edition, released between 1791 and 1803.
The press reported weekly on the building of Boydell's gallery, designed by George Dance the Younger, on a site in Pall Mall. Boydell commissioned works from famous painters of the day, such as Joshua Reynolds, the folio of engravings proved the enterprise's most lasting legacy. However, the long delay in publishing the prints and the illustrated edition prompted criticism; because they were hurried, many illustrations had to be done by lesser artists, the final products of Boydell's venture were judged to be disappointing. The project caused the Boydell firm to become insolvent, they were forced to sell the gallery at a lottery. In the 18th century, Shakespeare became associated with rising British nationalism, Boydell tapped into the same mood that many other entrepreneurs were exploiting. Shakespeare appealed not only to a social elite who prided themselves on their artistic taste, but to the emerging middle class who saw in Shakespeare's works a vision of a diversified society; the mid-century Shakespearean theatrical revival was most responsible for reintroducing the British public to Shakespeare.
Shakespeare's plays were integral to the theatre's resurgence at this time. Despite the upsurge in theatre-going, writing tragedies was not profitable, thus few good tragedies were written. Shakespeare's works filled the gap in the repertoire, his reputation grew as a result. By the end of the 18th century, one out of every six plays performed in London was by Shakespeare; the actor and producer David Garrick was a key figure in Shakespeare's theatrical renaissance. His superb acting, unrivalled productions and important Shakespearean portraits, his spectacular 1769 Shakespeare Jubilee helped promote Shakespeare as a marketable product and the national playwright. Garrick's Drury Lane theatre was the centre of the Shakespeare mania; the visual arts played a significant role in expanding Shakespeare's popular appeal. In particular, the conversation pieces designed chiefly for homes generated a wide audience for literary art Shakespearean art; this tradition began with William Hogarth and attained its peak in the Royal Academy exhibitions, which displayed paintings and sculptures.
The exhibitions became important public events: thousands flocked to see them, newspapers reported in detail on the works displayed. They became a fashionable place to be seen. In the process, the public was refamiliarized with Shakespeare's works; the rise in Shakespeare's popularity coincided with Britain's accelerating change from an oral to a print culture. Towards the end of the century, the basis of Shakespeare's high reputation changed, he had been respected as a playwright, but once the theatre became associated with the masses, Shakespeare's status as a "great writer" shifted. Two strands of Shakespearean print culture emerged: bourgeois popular editions and scholarly critical editions. In order to turn a profit, booksellers chose well-known authors, such as Alexander Pope and Samuel Johnson, to edit Shakespeare editions. According to Shakespeare scholar Gary Taylor, Shakespearean criticism became so "associated with the dramatis personae of 18th-century English literature... he could not be extracted without uprooting a century and a half of the national canon".
The 18th century's first Shakespeare edition, the first illustrated edition of the plays, was published in 1709 by Jacob Tonson and edited by Nicholas Rowe. The plays appeared in "pleasant and readable books in small format" which "were supposed... to have been taken for common or garden use, domestic rather than library sets". Shakespeare became "domesticated" in the 18th century with the publication of family editions such as Bell's in 1773 and 1785–86, which advertised themselves as "more instructive and intelligible. Scholarly editions proliferated. At first, these were edited by author-scholars such as Pope and Johnson, but in the century this changed. Editors such as George Steevens and Edmund Malone produced meticulous editions with extensive footnotes; the early editions appealed to both the middle class and to those interested in Shakespeare scholarship, but the editions appealed exclusively to the latter. Boydell's edition, at the end of the century, tried to reunite these two strands.
It included illustrations but was edited by George Steevens, one of the foremost Shakespeare scholars of the day