Henry Hobson Richardson

Henry Hobson Richardson was a prominent American architect, best known for his work in a style that became known as Richardsonian Romanesque. Along with Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright, Richardson is one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture". Richardson was born at the Priestley Plantation in St. James Parish and spent part of his childhood in New Orleans, where his family lived on Julia Row in a red brick house designed by the architect Alexander T. Wood, he was the great-grandson of inventor and philosopher Joseph Priestley, credited with the discovery of oxygen. Richardson went on to study at Tulane University, he was interested in civil engineering, but shifted to architecture, which led him to go to Paris in 1860 to attend the famed École des Beaux Arts in the atelier of Louis-Jules André. He was only the second U. S. citizen to attend the École's architectural division—Richard Morris Hunt was the first—and the school was to play an important role in training Americans in the following decades.

He didn't finish his training there, as family backing failed due to the U. S. Civil War. Richardson returned to the U. S. in 1865. He settled in New York in October 1865, he found work with a builder, whom he had met in Paris. The two worked well together but Richardson was not being challenged, he yearned for more. With no work Richardson fell into a state of poverty looking for more work. One of his first commissions was the William Dorsheimer House on Delaware Ave in Buffalo, NY, in the style of the Second Empire with a Mansard roof; this important commission led to many other commissions. The style that Richardson developed over time, was not the more classical style of the École, but a more medieval-inspired style, influenced by William Morris, John Ruskin and others. Richardson developed a unique and personal idiom, adapting in particular the Romanesque of southern France, his early works, were not remarkable. "There are few hints in the mediocre work of Richardson's early years of what was to come in his maturity, beginning with his competition-winning design... for the Brattle Square Church in Boston, he adopted the Romanesque."In 1869, he designed the Buffalo State Asylum for the Insane in Buffalo, the largest commission of his career and the first appearance of Richardsonian Romanesque style.

A massive Medina sandstone complex, it is a National Historic Landmark and, as of 2009, was being restored. The 1872 Trinity Church in Boston solidified Richardson's national reputation and led to major commissions for the rest of his life. Although incorporating historical elements from a variety of sources, including early Syrian Christian and both French and Spanish Romanesque, it was more "Richardsonian" than Romanesque. Trinity was a collaboration with the construction and engineering firm of the Norcross Brothers, with whom the architect would work on some 30 projects, he was well-recognized by his peers. Despite the success of Trinity, Richardson built only two more churches, focusing instead on the monumental buildings he preferred, plus libraries, railroad stations, commercial buildings, houses. Of his buildings, the two he liked best, the Allegheny County Courthouse and the Marshall Field Wholesale Store, were completed posthumously by his assistants. Richardson spent much of his years in his house in Brookline, which had a studio attached to ease the strain on his health.

The house was listed in 2007 as an endangered historic site. However, the house was purchased in March 2008 for $2 million with an amended deed requiring that the building be restored; the house is on a hill, where Richardson could watch construction of the Trinity Church in Copley Square, from his second story window. Richardson died in 1886 at age 47 of Bright's disease, a historical term for the kidney disorder chronic nephritis. On his last day, he signed an informal will directing the three assistants still remaining to carry on the business, soon formalized as Shepley and Coolidge. One example includes Richardson's design for the Greater Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce Building. Richardson had won the selection process in 1885 and nearly finalized the work, but after his death his successors completed the project, he was buried in Walnut Hills Cemetery, Massachusetts. Despite an enormous income for an architect of his day, his "reckless disregard for financial order" meant that he died in debt, leaving little to his widow and six children.

Richardson's most acclaimed early work is Trinity Church. The interior of the church is one of the leading examples of the arts and crafts aesthetic in the United States, it was at Trinity that Richardson first worked with Augustus Saint Gaudens, with whom he would work many times in the ensuing years. Across the square is the Boston Public Library, built by Richardson's former draftsman, Charles Follen McKim. Together these and the surrounding buildings comprise one of the outstanding American urban complexes, built as the centerpiece of the newly developed Back Bay; the largest building complex of HH Richardson's career, Richardson Olmsted Campus in Buffalo, New York, United States was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986

Foreign policy of the Mahmoud Ahmadinejad administration

The foreign policy of the Mahmoud Ahmadinejad administration was the policy initiatives towards other states by the former President of Iran, as different from past and future of the Iranian foreign policy. Ahmadinejad's tenure as President came at a time of greater conflict, rhetorical or physical, than his predecessors. In following this there were various measures, that led to his policy changes; this was a division between relations with states of the western world and the rest of the world. In a break with the old regime, the face of the Islamic Republic in the west was changed early in Ahmadinejad's administration via the return to Iran of "virtually the entire corps of ambassadors based in the West" — diplomats who were experienced but quite reform-minded. During Ahmadinejad's presidency and the U. S. have had the most high-profile contact in 30 years. Iran and the US froze diplomatic relations in 1980 and had no direct diplomatic contact until May 2007. While the U. S. has linked its support for a Palestinian state to acceptance of Israel's "right to exist," Iran's President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has retorted that Israel should be moved to Europe instead, reiterating Muammar al-Gaddafi's 1990 statement.

The U. S. has sent signals to Iran that its posturing against Israel's right to exist is unacceptable in their opinion, leading to increased speculation of a U. S. led attack on Iran's nuclear facilities. Though Iran has denied involvement in Iraq, then-President Bush warned of "consequences," sending a clear message to Iran that the U. S. may take military action against it. The Bush administration considered Iran to be the world's leading state supporter of terrorism. Iran has been on the U. S. list of state sponsors of international terrorism since 1984, a claim that Iran and Ahmadinejad have denied. On 8 May 2006, Ahmadinejad sent a personal letter to then-President George W. Bush to propose "new ways" to end Iran's nuclear dispute. U. S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and National Security Adviser Stephen Hadley both reviewed the letter and dismissed it as a negotiating ploy and publicity stunt that did not address U. S. concerns about Iran's nuclear program. A few days at a meeting in Jakarta, Ahmadinejad said, "the letter was an invitation to monotheism and justice, which are common to all divine prophets."In 2006, Ahmadinejad challenged George W. Bush to a live TV-debate about world affairs and ways to solve those issues.

George W. Bush turned down this offer. Ahmadinejad invited Bush to a debate at the United Nations General Assembly, to take place on 19 September 2006; the debate was to be about Iran's right to enrich uranium. The invitation was rejected by White House spokesman Tony Snow, who said "There's not going to be a steel-cage grudge match between the President and Ahmadinejad."On November 2006, Ahmadinejad wrote an open letter to the American people, representing some of his anxieties and concerns. He stated that there is an urgency to have a dialog because of the activities of the US administration in the Middle East, that the US is concealing the truth about current realities; the United States Senate passed a resolution warning Iran about attacks in Iraq. On 26 September 2007, the United States Senate passed a resolution 76–22 and labeled an arm of the Iranian military as a terrorist organization. In September 2007 Ahmadinejad visited New York to address the General Assembly of the United Nations.

On the same trip, Columbia University invited Ahmadinejad to participate in a debate. The invitation was a controversial one for the university, as was university president Lee Bollinger's introduction in which he described the Iranian leader as a "cruel and petty dictator" and his views as "astonishingly uneducated. We don't have that in our country. We don't have this phenomenon. In a speech given in April 2008, Ahmadinejad described the 11 September 2001 attacks as a "suspect event." He minimized the attacks by saying all that had happened was, "a building collapsed." He claimed that the death toll was never published, that the victims' names were never published, that the attacks were used subsequently as pretext for the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. In October 2008, President Ahmadinejad expressed his happiness of 2008 global economic crisis and what he called "collapse of liberalism", he said the West has been driven to deadend and that Iran was proud "to put an end to liberal economy".

Ahmadinejad used a September 2008 speech to the General Assembly of the United Nations to assert the American empire is soon going to end without specifying how. "The American empire in the world is reaching the end of its road, its next rulers must limit their interference to their own borders," Ahmadinejad said. On 6 November 2008, Ahmadinejad congratulated Barack Obama upon election to President of the United States, said that he "welcomes basic and fair changes in U. S. policies and conducts, I hope you will prefer real public interests and justice to the never-ending demands of a selfish minority and seize the opportunity to serve people so that you will be remembered with high esteem". It is the first congratulatory message to a new elected President of the United States by an Iranian President since the 1979 Iranian Hostage Crisis. Since Ahmadinejad came to power Iran has stopped selling its oil in dollars, instead selling it in euros and other currencies in the Iranian oil bourse. After the Islamic Revoluti

Christian Family Movement

The Christian Family Movement is a national movement of parish small groups of Catholics and their families who meet in one another's homes or in parish centers to reinforce Christian values and encourage other fellow Christian parents through active involvement with others. Its mission is "to promote Christ-centered family life. CFM action groups contain five to seven families and the adults meet one or two nights each month in each other's houses. At meetings, the members of CFM practice the Observe - Judge - Act method guided by the various programs provided by the CFM USA National Office; the members discuss what they have observed in their family or neighborhood and judge what they have observed by the standards of the life and teachings of Jesus. After these discussions, they commit to actions that will positively affect their communities, in either big or small ways; this method has led to action in such areas as "foster-parenting, prison ministry, refugee sponsorship, religious education and couple counseling".

Joseph Cardijn, the founder of the Young Christian Workers Movement in Belgium, was the originator of the Observe Judge Act method. The first CFM groups began in the early 1940s in South Bend and Chicago, Illinois. Burnie Bauer and his wife Helene formed a Young Christian Students group in 1940, they began to include couples into their group where they used the Jocist Method to help young married couples with their problems trying to focus on having a Christ-centered marriage. Pat Crowley and six other men began to meet in a law office in Chicago in February 1942 to discuss the laymen's role in the church community. Using the Jocist Method they began to focus their discussions on the relationship of husband and wife in relation to the church; the group hosted a day of husband and wife recollection in 1943 that marks the start of the Cana Conference. The wives of these men began to form a group; the Christian Family Movement was born when Burnie and Helene Bauer and Pat and Patty Crowley met each other at the Cana Conference in August 1948.

The Christian Family Movement had its first national seminar in June 1949 where it was represented by 59 delegates from 11 different cities. Pat and Patty Crowley were first elected to be the Executive Secretary Couple where they led the movement for the next 20 years. CFM had become a nationwide movement; this was shown through its first publication, its official recognition by the church, the way that CFM groups from other cities were able to communicate with each other. The first CFM program was called For Happier Families and was dispersed to over 2,500 groups within the span of a year; the CFM moved through the country at a fast pace in the 1950s. In the 1960s CFM caused the formation of such new organizations as the Foundation for International Cooperation and the Christian Family Mission Vacation; the next big move of CFM was the formation of the International Confederation of Christian Family Movements in 1966 which placed CFM in over 50 nations. CFM members in 1975 wrote and tested a family centered drug awareness campaign, published by the Department of Health and Welfare.

They worked together on the U. S. Bishop's Call the Action manuscript about the "Family". Members became joined in with the White House Conference on Families and were able to present eight position papers in 1979 and 1980. CFM and ICCFM contributed to Pope John Paul II's council on issues dealing with the family; the Christian Family Movement in the US, while still existent and active, has fewer English speaking members than in decades past, but the growth in the CFM in the Spanish Catholic community is robust. The Christian Family Movement in North America consists of three movements: CFM-USA, MFCC-USA and MFC-Los Angeles All three are members of the International Confederation of Christian Family Movements, which has members in 48 countries and 4 continents, with over 90,000 families and religious; the three US organizations reflect the multi-cultural and multi-lingual American Church. Although they are in North America, the MFCs of Mexico and Central America are associated with Latin America MFC.

Over the years, the decline in membership in CFM-USA reflects the larger changes happening in the U. S. Catholic Church during the 1960s and 1970s. According to Tim Unsworth from the National Catholic Reporter, the factors contributing to the decline in CFM include the reconfirmation of the Church's prohibition on artificial birth control in Humanae Vitae, the integration of upper-class neighborhoods, the increased number of women in the working world, the increase in car travel changing parish boundaries, the increased use of Catholic schools causing parents to be unable to see the need for having parental conversations with other adults outside of their spouse; the decline of the CFM can be measured throughout the years by the declining number of families involved. Robert McClory explained in his book review of Disturbing the Peace: A History of the Christian Family Movement that "after 1964 the movement shrank: from a high of 50,000 couples in the United States and Canada to 32,000 in 1967, to 16,000 in 1968, to 4,313 in 1974, to an all time low of 1,100 couples in 1980".

The MFC-Los Angeles was established in 1964 at the Parrish level. Mission San Conrado Catholic Church, Our Lady of Los Angeles, San Alf