Henry Hudson

Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States. In 1607 and 1608, Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a rumored Northeast Passage to Cathay via a route above the Arctic Circle. In 1609, he landed in North America and explored the region around the modern New York metropolitan area, looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. On his ship the Half Moon he sailed up the Hudson River, named after him, thereby laid the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region. Hudson discovered the Hudson Strait and the immense Hudson Bay on his final expedition, while still searching for the Northwest Passage. In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied; the mutineers cast Hudson, his son, seven others adrift. Besides numerous geographical features, Hudson is the namesake of Hudson's Bay Company, known for its exploration of the vast Hudson Bay watershed and its decisive role in the North American fur trade in the following centuries.

Details of Hudson's birth and early life are unknown. Some sources have identified Henry Hudson as having been born in about 1565, but others date his birth to around 1570. Other historians assert less certainty. Mancall, for instance, states that " was born in the 1560s," while Piers Pennington gives no date at all. Hudson is thought to have spent many years at sea, beginning as a cabin boy and working his way up to ship's captain. In 1607, the Muscovy Company of England hired Hudson to find a northerly route to the Pacific coast of Asia. At the time, the English were engaged in an economic battle with the Dutch for control of northwest routes, it was thought that, because the sun shone for three months in the northern latitudes in the summer, the ice would melt and a ship could make it across the "top of the world". On 1 May 1607, Hudson sailed with a crew of a boy on the 80-ton Hopewell, they reached the east coast of Greenland on 14 June. Here the party named a headland "Young's Cape", a "very high mount, like a round castle" near it "Mount of God's Mercy" and land at 73° north latitude "Hold-with-Hope".

After turning east, they sighted "Newland"—i.e Spitsbergen—on the 27th, near the mouth of the great bay Hudson simply named the "Great Indraught". On 13 July and his crew estimated that they had sailed as far north as 80° 23' N, but more only reached 79° 23' N; the following day they entered what Hudson in the voyage named "Whales Bay", naming its northwestern point "Collins Cape" after his boatswain, William Collins. They sailed north the following two days. On the 16th, they reached as far north as Hakluyt's Headland at 79° 49' N, thinking they saw the land continue to 82° N when it trended to the east. Encountering ice packed along the north coast, they were forced to turn back south. Hudson wanted to make his return "by the north of Greenland to Davis his Streights, so for Kingdom of England," but ice conditions would have made this impossible; the expedition returned to Tilbury Hope on the Thames on 15 September. Hudson reported large numbers of whales in Spitsbergen waters during this voyage.

Many authors credit his reports as the catalyst for several nations sending whaling expeditions to the islands. This claim is contentious- others have pointed to strong evidence that it was Jonas Poole's reports in 1610, that led to the establishment of English whaling, voyages of Nicholas Woodcock and Willem Cornelisz. Van Muyden in 1612, which led to the establishment of Dutch and Spanish whaling; the industry itself was built by neither Hudson nor Poole – both were dead by 1612. In 1608, English merchants of the East India and Muscovy Companies again sent Hudson in the Hopewell to attempt to locate a passage to the Indies, this time to the east around northern Russia. Leaving London on 22 April, the ship traveled 2,500 miles, making it to Novaya Zemlya well above the Arctic Circle in July, but in the summer they found the ice impenetrable and turned back, arriving at Gravesend on 26 August. According to Thomas Edge, "William Hudson" in 1608 discovered an island he named "Hudson's Tutches" at 71° N, the latitude of Jan Mayen.

However, records of Hudson's voyages suggest that he could only have come across Jan Mayen in 1607 by making an illogical detour, historians have pointed out that Hudson himself made no mention of it in his journal. There is no cartographical proof of this supposed discovery. Jonas Poole in 1611 and Robert Fotherby in 1615 both had possession of Hudson's journal while searching for his elusive Hold-with-Hope—which is now believed to have been on the east coast of Greenland—but neither had any knowledge of any discovery of Jan Mayen, an achievement, only attributed to Hudson. Fotherby stumbled across Jan Mayen, thinking it a new discovery and naming it "Sir Thomas Smith's Island", though the first verifiable records of the discovery of the island had been made a year earlier, in 1614. In 1609, Hudson was chosen by merchants of the Dutch East India Company in the Netherlands to find an easterly passage to Asia. While awaiting orders and supplies in Amsterdam, he heard rumors of a northwest route to the Pacific through North America.

Hudson had been told to sail through t

Religious clothing

Religious clothing is clothing, worn in accordance with religious practice, tradition or significance to a faith group. It includes clerical clothing such as cassocks, religious habit and other vestments. Accessories include hats, wedding rings, etc. Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated with the Christian religions the Latin Rite and other Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans and Lutheran Churches. Other groups make use of vestments, but this was a point of controversy in the Protestant Reformation and sometimes since - notably during the Ritualist controversies in England in the 19th century. Clerical clothing is non-liturgical clothing worn by clergy, it is distinct from vestments in that it is not reserved for services. Some women belonging to various Christian denominations practice Christian headcovering, a traditional practice since the days of the early Church. Additionally, some Christians practice the wearing of plain dress, notably traditional Anabaptists, Conservative Friends, Methodists of the conservative holiness movement.

Moreover, we require our men to conform to the scriptural standards of modest attire. We require. Women's hemlines are to be modestly below the knees. Our people are forbidden to appear in public with transparent or immodest apparel, including shorts or bathing suits. Parents are required to dress their children modestly in conformity with our general principles of Christian attire. We further prohibit our people from participating in the practices of body-piercing, tattooing or body art. Adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and some fundamentalist groups receive temple garments at the time of receiving their endowment, after taking part in the endowment ritual; these garments, which are to be worn at all times under typical clothing, date back to the early days of the Church, originating with the Church's first latter-day prophet, Joseph Smith, Jr. and have been updated periodically. Members believe that wearing these garments can are meant to serve as a symbolic reminder of eternal covenants they have made with God the Father and Jesus Christ.

Special outer temple clothing is additionally worn for worship, but in temples only, except that the deceased are dressed in temple clothing for burial. Both the choice to bury their deceased, as opposed to cremation, what they should be buried in, are family decisions. Outside of temples, including at weekly sacrament meetings and at general conferences, respectful clothing is traditionally worn with a white, button-down shirt, a tie for the male members, females wear a dress or skirt, emphasizing "modesty" in appearance. White clothes are worn by those performing baptism. Dress in Islam varies from country to country; the Quranic sura An-Nur prescribes modesty in dress. The veil is stated and recommended in the Quran and Muslim women have been wearing it to preserve their dignity not showing their beauty to other men than their husband and family. In the Quran, Allah says: « O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves of their outer garments.

That is more suitable. And is Allah Forgiving and Merciful. » Prophet Mohamed explained it to Muslims and 1439 years ago, Muslims are committed to Allah’s orders. The Veil is worn of the Islamic world. Many Muslim countries adapted the veil to their culture and traditions. For example, there are Muslim countries like Turkey; however this does not mean that Burqa or Khimar are not worn. In Saudi Arabia the Veil, the Niqab, the Khimar and the Burqa are typical. In Afghanistan and parts of Pakistan, the burqa and the Niqab is common. In India in Kashmir, Muslim women wear the Khimar. In Soudan and Malaysia, the Veil, the Khimar and the Jilbab are more common. Tzitzit are specially knotted ritual fringes, or tassels worn by most Jewish men and boys during prayer. Tzitzit are attached to the four corners of the tallit and in more traditional communities are tied to all four-cornered garments. Tefillin are black leather boxes made by hand which contain written passages from the Bible the V'ahavta and secured to the arm and head with leather straps.

These have been originated in pre-diaspora Judaism. These are exclusively worn by religious Jews during weekday prayers, not worn outside of religious functions in order to prevent one from'defiling' them. Curiously, while Ashkenazi and some Sephardi men have the custom to wear these during prayer, many outlying communities such as the Beta Israel did not, until they were introduced to the custom by Israelis or Ashkenazi missionaries. A kippah or yarmulke is a cloth head covering worn by Jewish males during prayer or other ritual services; some wear it every day. In the United States, most synagogues and Jewish funeral services keep a ready supply of kipot for the temporary use of visitors who have not brought one; the mitpachat, or tichel in

Dominique Hourani

Dominique Hourani is a Lebanese recording artist, beauty queen, former top model. Dima Youssef Hourani was born 7 August in Yaroun in South Lebanon, grew up in Beirut. Hourani is the daughter of archaeologist Youssef Hourani, who wrote more than twenty books and has many approved discoveries in his name in archeology and history of the Middle East, she holds an MBA degree from the Lebanese American University in addition to two other degrees in business administration and accounting. She holds a master's degree of Business Administration and bachelor's degree in Psychology and Business Marketing from the Lebanese American University. In addition she has a bachelor's degree of Accounting from Lebanese University. Hourani's second album in 2008, Kermalik Ya Dominique, was ranked at the top of sales in the Arab world. Hourani and Ali ElDik had their first duet song "El Natour", another hit song that stayed at the top of the charts for more than 6 months on radios and websites in various Arab countries.

Hourani was listed in the summer of 2008 the second in number of concerts. In 2010, Hourani starred her first movie, El Beah Romancy, along with Mohamed Adel Emam, Hasan Housni and Saad ElSoghaier; the romantic-comedy movie produced by El Sobky Film Productions, gave Hourani a wide success in Egypt and the Arab world. In 2013, Hourani has been featured in The Greatest, the Most Important and the Most Powerful Women of the Middle East and the Arab World book published by Times Square Press, New York City, written by the international best-selling author Maximillien de Lafayette. Hourani has been ranked on top of several lists: The 20 Most Famous Singers, The Best 100 Singers, The Most Elegant Women Of The Middle East And The Arab World, The 100 Most Influential And Powerful Women, Most Beautiful Women, Top 100 Sexiest Arab Women. Nowadays, Hourani is an ambassador of Dabur International's Dermoviva range of beauty products, a brand image of a beauty specialist in Kuwait. Hourani, who sings in Arabic, English and Italian, is interviewed by major media outlets and holds concerts continually around the globe from musical tours in America and Australia to concerts along with her dancers in major events and festivals in the Middle Eastern and European countries Jordan, Iraq, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Turkey, England and others.

In 2007, Hourani married her second husband an Iranian-Dutch businessman Alireza Almass Nokiani. Together they have Delara Sue Almassi; the couple have been separated since 2012. She lives in the UAE, she won in a competition with contestants from over 80 countries and was awarded the Miss Intercontinental 2003 title. Dominique is 1.77 meters high. Title for Lebanon. Hourani first appeared on the television series, Oyoun Kha'ena, alongside famous TV presenter, Tony Khalife; the series was broadcast in Lebanon and the Arab world on LBC. In 2009, Hourani decided to go with her first movie El Beeh Romancy, along with Mohamed Adel Emam, Hasan Housni, Mena Arafa and Saad El Soghaier. In August 2005, Hourani filmed her first clip for the song "Farfoura"; the clip was considered controversial in the Arabic world, but that did not stop it from reaching number one on the charts. "Farfoura" gave Hourani her nickname, "Farfoura" which means butterfly in the Lebanese dialect. After "Farfoura" Hourani released her first album Etriss with the top hits "Ganeni", "Wawa Ah", "Etriss", "Aiwa Di Ana", "Garrab".

With her extreme and fast success that her singles were able to achieve, her debut album. Etriss stayed there for weeks, selling millions all over the Middle East, and with her hit song "Khachouka", Hourani traveled to America and sang at an Arab American festival concert with more than 300,000 people attending. Hourani's second album in 2008 Kermalik Ya Dominique was ranked at the top of sales in the Arab world; the album had 11 songs "Batal Harakatak", "Zah Dah Ambou", "Shaltako", "Jarrab", "Arrab Men Albi", "El Hob Mou Bel Ghasb", "Bouria", "Khachouka", "Ya Dalaadi", "Kermalik Ya Dominique" and part two of the hit song "Etriss". In 2010 Hourani and Ali El Deek had their first duet song "El Natoor" another hit song that stayed for more than six months at the top of the charts in various countries. Being a most wanted song in Syria and Iraq, Hourani and Ali made had a big summer tour achieving a huge success, Hourani was listed the second by the number of summer concerts in the Arab world. Dominique 2011, her third album was released in 2011.

It has 11 songs including Hourani's second duet "Jayi Aabali" with Ali El Deek, "Khali Balak", "Warini Wari", "Badet Ashta'lak", "Hessak Einak", "Zaalan Leh", "Maa'oul Mesh Maa'oul", "El Natoor" featuring Ali El Deek, more. Etriss Kermalik Ya Dominique Dominique 2011 Official website Dominique Hourani on Facebook Dominique Hourani on Twitter Dominique Hourani's channel on YouTube Dominique Hourani on Instagram Ethnocloud profile